Profit Margin Analysis Of The Response Of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) To Phosphorus Fertilizer And Poultry Manure In Ovonum, Obubra, Cross River State, Nigeria
Investigations were carried out to determine the growth, yield and profitability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), growth with different levels of phosphorus fertilizer and poultry manure. A randomised complete block design (RCBD) was used and the total treatments were four namely: 0.0kgP2O5/ha, 0.20kgP2O5/ha, 0.40kg P2O5/ha and Poultry droppings from broilers (10 tons/ha). The results showed that yield performance was better in manured than in control plots. Responses varied with different levels of phosphorus application in terms of yields. Effects of the phosphorus fertilizer (Single Super phosphate with 16 to 20 percent of P2O5 containing in addition, twelve percent (12%) of sulphur and more than twenty percent (20% ) of calcium [Ca ] were superior to organic manure (poultry droppings). The fresh weight of cowpea under the different manurial regimes were 5.25kg and 1.80kg for phosphorus and poultry droppings respectively. Comparatively, the profit margin (N61.88) for phosphorus fertilizer at 0.40kgp2o5/ha for year 2003 while in year 2004 the profit margin (N62.08) for phosphorus fertilizer at 0.40kgp2o5/ha .The profit margin for year 2004 was better than that of year 2003.A strong case is however made for poultry manure in this era of organic agriculture, where production is expected to be as close to nature as possible. Fertilising cowpea plots with poultry manure, would definitely help assuage the problem of the projected heavy tonnage of poultry waste as a result of increased poultry production. Poultry manure is an affordable option for the resource-poor farmer. Studies are however, on going to elucidate current fertilizer rates as well as develop optimum fertilizer formulae for intensive cowpea cultivation in the area. Effective extension services as well as efficient policy formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation by government are recommended.
Keywords: Cowpea, profitability, phosphorus, organic fertilizer,
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences Vol. 4 (2) 2006: pp. 40-49