Journal of Phytomedicine and Therapeutics <p>JOPAT is a peer reviewed journal published by National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development. It covers all areas of subject as: Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology, Immunology, Virology, Bacteriology, Pharmacology, Botany, Chemistry of medicinal plants and Pharmacognosy.</p> <p>Authors can submit their manuscripts as an e-mail attachment to:;</p> en-US Copyright is owned by the journal. (Kunle Olobayo) (Peters Oladosu - Secretary) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 14:00:53 +0000 OJS 60 Ethnobotanical survey of anti-malarial plants used in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria <p>An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria was carried out between March and June, 2019. Ethno-botanical data were collected by oral interview with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire administered to forty-seven (47) herb sellers. The respondents were aware of the signs and symptoms of malaria and could readily distinguish the ailments from other feverish symptoms and conditions. Symptoms reported include body weakness, high body temperature (hot skin), loss of appetite, coldness, mouth bitterness, headache, coloured eyes (yellow), sleepless night and urine colouration (yellowish). From the study, a total of thirteen (13) plant species belonging to nine (9) families including Aannonaceae, Aapocynaceae, Rrubiaceae, Oochnaaceae were described as being used for the treatment of malaria. The plant parts used were leaves, root, stem bark and seed with roots being the most used plant part. It was also observed that recipes were made from combination of different parts from more than one plant species including bark, root and leaves while some were made from single plant part. The most preferred mode of administration was oral, while decoction and infusion were the most preferred method of preparation. However, the study observed that Picralima nitida, Enanchia chloranta and Morinda nucida were the frequently mentioned plants. Hence, these plant species could be considered as promising candidates for further scientific validation in the search for new, effective and affordable antimalarial drugs.</p> A.O. Ibrahim, K.M. Adelakun, A.S. Adedeji, S.A. Alaye, O.B. Oyediran Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Complementary Therapeutic Effect of Polyherbal Supplement (Gasca D™) on Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Lifestyle Modification: A Randomised Cohort Clinical Trial <p>Our previous studies have shown that Gasca D™; a polyherbal formulation made from three well known antidiabetic plants in Nigeria, possess anti-hyperglycemic, body weight and blood lipid lowering potentials in rats. In view of this, the present study was therefore designed to evaluate the complementary therapeutic efficacy of Gasca D™ supplementation with lifestyle modification in a clinical setting. The randomized cohort trial was conducted in sixty (60) newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients on life style modification as first-line therapy who willingly volunteered to participate. The subjects that satisfy our inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into Gasca D™ (GG) and lifestyle (LG) groups. The GG group received 2000 mg Gasca D™ capsules daily over a twelve weeks period whereas the LG group received none. Biochemical estimates were conducted on subjects to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the polyherbal supplement at the end of the intervention period. Mean fasting blood sugar (FBS) showed a decrease of 23.4% (p &lt; 0.05) in the GG group contrary to a 9.6% mean FBS observed in the LG (p &lt; 0.05) group. Variation in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was in line with that of FBS. Safety of Gasca D™ was demonstrated by a normal renal and liver function profile in both groups. Our finding suggests that, Gasca D™ can successfully be used as an effective and safe complementary nutraceutical for the control of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients on life style modification.</p> Salihu Ismail Ibrahim , Nafisatu Kabir , D. Gezawa Ibrahim, Amina Umar Abdullahi, Chedi Bashir , Yahya Muhammad Fakhraddeen Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of <i>Parkia biglobosa</i> Stem Bark in the Treatment of Burn Wounds <p>Burns are a major health challenge all over the world. Among the Hausa and Fulani people of Nigeria the bark of <em>Pakia biglobosa</em> is used as folk medicine for treating wounds by the application of the finely powdered bark to the open wounds. The aim of this study is to corroborate the folk claims of the wound healing ability of <em>P. biglobosa</em> and the benefits of formulating it into an emulgel. The powder and the extract of the stem bark of <em>P. biglobosa</em> formulated as an emulgel were investigated for burn wound healing activities and compared with I% silver sulfadiazine cream (Dermazin®) on Wister Albino rats. Also, the skin irritation and physicochemical properties of the emulgel were determined. Herbal emulgel showed good quality in relation to compendia and non-compendia tests. The emulgels were smooth, none gritty to touch and odourless as well as having varying colour shades of reddish brown consistent with the concentration of the extract. The formulations also showed no skin irritation and a concentration dependent wound healing activity. The emulgel containing 2.5% w/w of the herbal extract showed superior burn wound healing relative to the finely powdered stem bark, while the emulgel containing 5% w/w of the extract showed wound healing activity comparable to Dermazin®. The finely powdered stem bark of<em> P. biglobosa</em> showed effective wound healing activities and the emulgel formulation enhanced the wound healing activity. The results thus, corroborates the folk use of <em>P. biglobosa</em> stem bark for treating burn wounds.</p> F. Philip Builders , H. Shedrack Akissaa, B. Mohammed Boma, I. Modupe Builders Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 <I>In silico</I> screening and molecular dynamic simulation studies of potential small molecule immuno-modulators of the KIR2DS2 receptor <p>Cancer is reported to be one of the most common causes of global deaths and it accounted for an estimated 9.6 million fatalities in 2018. Immunotherapy destroys cancer cells with mechanisms of action considered to be safer and with greater precision than chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DS2 (KIR2DS2) expressed on Natural Killer (NK) cells are involved in signal transduction processes that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and directly destroy cancer and virally infected cells. The aim of this study is to identify small molecules from natural products that have strong binding affinity to KIR2DS2 and to predict possible nuclear receptor ligand bioactivity. A library of small molecule natural compounds obtained from edible African plants was used for in silico molecular docking simulations of the human natural killer cell activator receptor KIR2DS2 (PDBID: 1m4k) using PyRx. Only compounds with binding affinity stronger than that elicited by the target and the standard, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine were selected. Screening for drug-likeness and ligand efficiency was based on the molecular descriptors of the compounds as provided by PubChem. Further screening for saturation, molar refractivity, promiscuity, pharmacokinetic properties, and bioactivity was done using SWISSADME, PKCSM, and Molinspiration webservers respectively. The molecular dynamic simulation and analyses was done using the Galaxy webserver which uses the GROMACS software. Analyses of molecular dynamic simulation were done using Galaxy and MDWEB webservers. Gibberellin A20 and A29 were obtained as the lead compounds, and they show better promise as drug candidates for KIR2DS2 than the standard. It is recommended that the immuno-stimulatory effect of the lead compounds on KIR2DS2 be further investigated.</p> Adekunle Babajide Rowaiye, Jide Olubiyi, Doofan Bur, Ikemefuna Chijioke Uzochukwu, Alex Akpa, Charles Okechukwu Esimone Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Identification and characterization of microbial community of anaerobic digested poultry litter <p>Livestock farming have resulted in the release of excessive wastes which, contains abundant organic matter and microbial population. The need to develop an alternative and sustainable methods to minimize the waste generated and it effects on the environment led to the application of anaerobic digestion (AD) for the treatment of waste and generation of methane gas. The study focused on investigation of the microbiome involve in AD of poultry litter and was conducted using poultry litter as organic substrate under batch conditions at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of fifty-six (56) days in fifteen (15) liter fabricated digesters at 37<sup>O</sup>C. The pH, total solid (TS), moisture content (MC) total ammonia nitrogen, volatile solid (VS) was assessed before and after digestion while the microbial community diversity was analyzed using 16S rRNA amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS). The results indicated a pH of 7.91±0.04 before digestion and 7.33±0.06 after digestion and a TS value of 56.40±0.6% before digestion and 6.30±0.34% after digestion. A collective biogas yield of 5.21±21.00 bars were recorded. The characterization of biogas analyzed with non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer (gas board 3100p) revealed a percentage methane content of 50.31±1.33. The microbial community indicate Bacteroidetes (46.37%), Firmicutes (48.37%), Proteobacteria (8.17%), as the most dominant phylum. This study suggests the importance of molecular analysis as a fundamental tool to gain insight and deeper understanding of anaerobic digester performances.</p> Stella Suanu Leh-Togi Zobeashia, Peter Olabisi Abioye, Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah, Oluwafemi Adebayo Oyewole Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The ameliorative effect of the solvent extracts of <i>Ocimum basilicum</i> against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in albino rats <p>This study was designed to evaluate the protective activities of 4 different Ocimum basilicum L whole plant extracts against acute acetaminophen-induced liver damage in albino rats. A total of 42 rats were divided into 7 groups comprising the control (acetaminophen, water, and silymarin treated) groups and OB-treated (chloroform, diethylether, ethylacetate, and methanol extract) groups. Each treatment group was made up of 6 rats, with 3 replicates of 2 rats each. At the end of the treatment period, blood samples were collected to investigate the activities of liver enzymes, and liver tissue was harvested for histological analysis. Rats pre-treated with OB extracts showed decreased (p&lt;0.05) ALT, AST, and ALP activities when compared with the silymarin-treated and positive control groups. Serum urea decreased (p&lt;0.05) in OB-treated groups compared to the control groups and least (p&lt;0.05) activity was seen in rats pre-treated with diethyl ether and methanol extracts. Rats pre-treated with OB extract (except diethyl ether extract) showed decreased (p&lt;0.05) creatinine activity in comparison with the positive control group. The decreased value of serum total bilirubin and D bilirubin in rats pretreated with OB methanol extract was comparable to those of negative control. Histopathological examination revealed hepatic tissue necrosis in the acetaminophen-induced rats and varying degrees of injury and amelioration in other groups. The results from of all the solvent extracts of OB whole plant suggest significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities with the methanolic extract having higher hepatoprotective activity than the standard, Silymarin, and other solvent extracts.</p> Titilayo. M. Asala, Mathew. O. Abatan, Suliat. A. Salami, Oluwatosin. O. Baba-Onoja, Olatunde. B. Akanbi, Adekunle. B. Rowaiye, Benjamin. O. Ocheja, G. Ada Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Consumers’ Perception on Safety and Microbiological Assessment of Sanitary Pads Sold in The Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria <p>Urinary tract infections (UTI) a known public health problem is common in females. The objectives of this study were to assess consumers’ knowledge on possible contamination of sanitary pads, determine the quality of some commercial brands of sanitary pads and evaluate the effect of different storage conditions on their integrity. To assess consumers’ knowledge on possible contamination of sanitary pads, determine the quality of some commercial brands of sanitary pads and evaluate the effect of different storage conditions on their integrity. A cross-sectional analysis of 500 female respondents was done by a close ended, structured, interviewer dispensed inquiry form through stratified random sampling. Ten brands of sanitary pads were stored at conditions to simulate possible storage habits of consumers and at different time intervals (0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) samples were assessed for total bacterial count (TBC) and total fungal count (TFC) via the pour plate method. Standard methods were used to isolate and identify pathogens. Results revealed that 69.4 % of respondents stored their pads in sealed enclosures, 11.8 % were not aware of the dangers of poor storage and 51.4 % agreed that poor storage could result in microbial contamination. The results on microbial burden revealed that none of the pads were contaminated at the beginning of the study (Day 0). The presence of microorganisms (<em>B. subtilis, S. aureus </em>and<em> Mucor spp</em>) were observed after 24h of storage, especially in samples with open packages and stored in open shelves, followed closely by those unsealed in enclosed environments. These microbial growths can therefore be attributed to the storage conditions of the sanitary pads. Sanitary pads can harbour pathogenic microorganisms; there is a need to properly store them and once opened use them within 14 days to prevent environmental contamination.</p> Mercy I. Aboh, Marlene Ekpo, Fahd A. Khalid-Salako, Peters O. Oladosu Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Preliminary protective evaluation of stem bark ethanolic extract of <i>Sphenocentrum jollyanum </i>against n-acetyl-para-aminophenol (apap)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats <p>The toxicity of paracetamol (APAP) overdose is one of the leading causes of liver injury that finally may lead to drug-induced acute liver failure. Global attention has been shifted towards the use of herbal plants as an alternative use to modern or pharmaceutical drugs, especially in rural communities. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of <em>Sphenocentrum jollyanum</em> stem bark on N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six (n=5) groups (A-F). Control (group A), 1000mg/kg of APAP only (group B), 700mg/kg of Stem bark of <em>Sphenocentrum jollyanum</em> (SBSJ) only (group C), 1000mg/kg of APAP + 700mg/kg of SBSJ (group D), 1000mg/kg of APAP + 350mg/kg of SBSJ (group E), 1000mg/kg of APAP for 14 days + 700mg/kg of SBSJ for the next 7 days. The administration was done via oral gavage daily for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation under mild anaesthesia and their liver was carefully harvested. Histological examination of the liver was done using Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. APAP causes significant histopathological damages on the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue with tissue tears, hepatocyte degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis while significant regenerative changes similar to control were observed following administration of stem bark of <em>Sphenocentrum jollyanum</em>. The result suggests that the stem bark of<em> Sphenocentrum jollyanum</em> has beneficial effects on APAP-damaged live</p> Taiwo Oluseyi Adebayo, Ebenezer Adeola Ashamu, Olufemi Idowu Oluranti Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000