Antidiabetic And Toxicological Evaluation Of Aqueous Ethanol Leaf Extract Of Secamone Afzelii Rhoem (Asclepiadaceae) In Rats
Secamone afzelii Rhoem is used in ethnomedicine for hepatic diseases, diabetes, venereal diseases, amenorrhoea and toothaches. This present study was aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic activity and to establish the toxicological profile of the plant to confirm its traditional application and justify continuous usage. Doses of the extract ranging from 100 to 500 mg/kg were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats. The dose of 500 mg/kg was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide (1.25 mg/kg) was used as the reference standard. Acute toxicological evaluation was carried out in mice, while 14-day assessment was done in rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides and saponins. The various doses of the extract produced significant (p <0.05) reduction in blood glucose levels in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These doses were more effective than glibenclamide in normoglycaemic rats. Oral doses as high as 5 g/kg did not cause death or toxicological symptoms in mice. Densely stained nuclei and congested central vein in liver and ill-defined testicular cells were seen in slides. No histological changes were seen in the tissues of the heart and kidneys. We conclude that S. afzelii possesses antidiabetic properties in rats which lends credence to its use in ethnomedicine, but its overall safety profile needs to be further evaluated.
Keywords: Secamone afzelii, antidiabetic, toxicological profile, ethnomedicine