Phytochemical And Antidiarrhoeal Evaluation Of The Hexane And Methanol Extracts Of The Leaf Of Lecaniodiscus Cupanioides Planch (Sapindaceae)
Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planch (Sapindaceae) is widely used in Nigeria folk medicine for the treatment of many ailments such as inflammatory conditions, hepatomegaly, stomach disorders and bacterial infections. This study investigated the phytochemical and antidiarrhoeal activities (if any) of both the hexane and methanol extracts of the leaves, to justify its use in traditional medicine. Phytochemical tests were carried out using standard methods of analyses. The hexane and methanol extracts of the leaves were screened for possible antidiarrhoeal activities on mice gastrointestinal tract using two models which include measure of inhibition of castor oil- induced diarrhoea and measure of intestinal transit time. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, triterpenoids and anthraquinone glycosides in the hexane and methanol extracts, while tannins were only found to be present in the methanol extract. Results of the castor oil- induced diarrhoeal model and intestinal transit time model showed that the hexane and methanol extracts administered at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively, produced no significant difference (p > 0.05) in terms of the average number of stools and the percentage distance travelled by charcoal meal in mice when compared to that of the control (10 ml/kg of 5% solution of Tween 80) but significantly differ (p < 0.05) from that of the reference group receiving 3 mg/kg loperamide. This suggests that both extracts possess biologically active metabolites responsible for the laxative activity observed at the tested doses. Thus, it could be used in the treatment of constipation.
Key words: Lecaniodiscus cupanioides, Hexane extract, Methanol extract, Phytochemical, Gastrointestinal.