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Pharmacognostic standardisation of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica, GER. and LABR. (Fam: Dracaenaceae)
Pharmacognostic standardization of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica, Ger. and Labr. (Dracaenaceae) has been carried out. The dried powdered leaves were subjected to macroscopic, microscopic, analytical standards and quantitative analysis using standard procedures. Chromatographic fingerprints of both water and ethanol extracts of the leaves were obtained using analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the retardation factors (Rf-values) of the individual spots were calculated. Macroscopic examination showed dark green coloration on the upper surface and pale green on the lower surface, marked with dark and light green bands, and entire margin marked with red and white lines. Apex is acute, with pinnate (feather-like) venation, fleshy and leathery when dry. Microscopic examination of the powdered leaves showed anomocytic stomata, bundle of xylem fibres (septate), pericyclic fibres, spira vessels, prisms of calcium oxalates, mucilage cells and starch grains. Transverse section of the leaf showed anomocytic stomata, phloem, spongy mesophill, palisade cells, mucilage cell, pericyclic fibres, collenchyma, xylem vessels and prisms of calcium oxalates. The palisade ratio, stomatal number, stomatal index (upper and lower surfaces), vein-islet number, and veinlet termination number were 8.25±o.48, 30.25±0.63,(54±0.02 and 45±0.02),15.75±0.48 and 12.25±0.63 respectively. Percentage composition of the total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, acid-insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive value, water soluble extractive value and moisture content were 9.38±0.06, 9.31±0.06, 3.82±0.00, 2.52±0.00, 1.27±0.02, 1.12±0.02 and 27.01±0.01 respectively. Retardation factors (Rf-values) of water and ethanol extracts in different solvent systems were (0.41, 0.50, 0.56, 0.65 and 0.35, 0.50, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.79), (0.59, 0.74 and 0.16, 0.35, 0.40, 0.47, 0.81) and (0.55, 0.70 and 0.42, 0.47, 0.52, 0.87, 0.98) in chloroform: methanol: ammonium hydroxide (5:4:1), chloroform: methanol (1:1) and chloroform: ethanol (1:1) respectively.