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Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences

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Preliminary Pharmacognostic study of the leaves, Stembark and Root of Mangifera Indica L. (Anacardiaceae)

CO Ezugwu, UE Odoh, GI Ezeani

Abstract


The standardization of the leaf, root and stem-bark of Mangifera indica has been undertaken. The macroscopy, microscopy as well as the transverse sections of these parts were described. The ash values, solvent extractive values, moisture contents and preliminary phytochemical analysis of these parts were also determined. The macroscopical features of the morphological parts showed that the surface of the leaf is green and pubescent with an entire margin and lanceolate-oblong shape. The stem-bark has a hard texture and the bark is usually dark grey-brown to black. The root consists of a long and unbranched tap root with a dense mass of superficial feeder roots. It is light brown in colour. The result of the microscopic analysis showed the presence of cork cells, bundles of fibres, single fibres, prisms of calcium oxalate crystals, pitted vessels and sclereids in the stem, anisocytic stomata, epidermal cells, unicellular trichomes, starch granules, xylem vessels in the leaf and bundles of fibres, cork cell, prism of calcium oxalate crystals, bundles of fibres with calcium oxalate crystals and single pitted fibres with lumen in the root. The transverse section of the leaf revealed the presence of the epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll and vascular bundles and that of the stembark revealed the presence of epidermis, cork, cortex, vascular bundles and the pith while that of the root revealed the presence of epidermis, cortex, vascular bundle and the pith. The analytical standards determined were found to be: 4.80, 1.97, 6.39, 1.80, 1.04, 2.11 and 7.9 % for total ash, acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash, water soluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively for the stem bark ; 5.05, 1.60, 5.41, 3.70, 0.82, 0.60 and 6.30 % as total ash, acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash, water soluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively for the root and 5.50, 1.78, 7.10, 1.75, 0.78,0.82 and 5.80 % as total ash, acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash, water soluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively for the leaf. The result of the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids and steroids.

Keywords: Mangifera indica, analytical standards, phytochemical analysis, microscopy, macroscopy

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2012)



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