Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences <p>The <em>Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences</em> (JOPHAS) publishes original scientific and technical research works carried out on drugs and drug-related products, within and outside Nigeria in the fields of pharmacy, microbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, pharmacology, medical sciences and veterinary medicine. The journal aims at serving professionals in these aforementioned areas. Readership scope covers the entire globe, as the journal is made available to scientists all over the world.</p><p>This journal has been assigned impact factors of 0.312 for 2012 and 0.378 for 2013 as per Global Impact Factors <a title="(" href="" target="_blank">(</a></p> Department of Pharmaceutics University of Nigeria en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences 1596-8499 The copyright of the Journal content belongs to the Journal. Evaluation of anti-infective potential of methanol extract of <i>Moringa oleifera</i> root Lam (moringaceae)formulated as mouthwash <p>A mouthwash has been defined as a concentrated aqueous solution of one or more active ingredients with pharmaceutical excipients and usually possess deodorant, antiseptic and astringent properties. They are, meant for oral hygiene and for treating mouth infections and cleaning the buccal cavity. Mouthwash thus refers to a liquid product that is made to freshen breath but not intended to be swallowed, a typical example of liquid preparation is the mouthwash of Hydrogen peroxide. It is similar to gargles and is used for oral hygiene and to treat infections of the mouth. Pharmacogenetic studies were performed on the root of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam. The phytochemical constituents were identified and the screening revealed the presence of cardiac glycoside, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera root extract and its mouthwash formulations (MOR-A, MOR-B, MOR-C, MOR-D, and MOR-E) have been studied comparatively with a commercial mouthwash-Hydrogen Peroxide. The formulated mouthwash of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> root methanol extract at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 5.62 mg/mL - 7.08 mg/mL exhibited similar antimicrobial activity to that of commercial product (Hydrogen Peroxide). The order of the susceptibility of the microorganisms to the formulated mouthwash was: <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> &gt; <em>Candida albicans</em> &gt; <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. In the course of formulating the mouthwash, the activity of the extract was not negatively affected. Stability analysis showed that, there was no change in color, odor, taste and appearance in the formulated mouthwash after two months of storage. This justifies the use of Moringa oleifera root as chewing stick to promote the treatment of dental caries in traditional medicine.</p> Akeem A. Agboke Imoh I. Johnny Musiliu O. Adedokun Owoidoho V. Paulinus Nyong E. Etim Copyright (c) 0 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 20 2 3876 3889 Phytochemical screening and activity of methanolic extract of <i>Chrysophyllum albidum seed</i> on <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> isolated from ready- to- eat soya bean cake (Awara) sold at Kaduna State University environment <p><em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em>, commonly known as African star apple has been known to be effective in the treatment of various ailments ranging from skin irritation to diarrhoea. The therapeutic activity of this plant arose from primary and secondary metabolites i.e. alkaloid, glycosides, tannins and polyphenol that could be from any part of the plant such as stem bark, seed or leaf. The methanolic extract of the seed of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> was screened for the presence of phytochemicals and antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The <em>C. albidum</em> seed was extracted using methanol (70%) by maceration technique. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, phenols and saponins. Microbial studies on the Soya bean cake revealed the presence of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> in 5 out of 50 samples collected (10 %). The zone of inhibition of extract on the isolates of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is in the range of 0 to 22 mm for 31.25 to 125 mg/ml concentrations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract on the isolates were 62.5 mg/ml for 2 isolates (S1 and S27), while on isolates S7 and S25, the MIC was 125 mg/ml. The MIC of the extract on isolate S10 was non measurable. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract against isolates S1and S27 was 125 mg/ml, while on isolates S7 and S25, it was 250 mg/ml. The antibiotic discs used as a control (Amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin) were found to be relatively ineffective on the isolates. Based on the outcomes of this work, it is concluded that the seed of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> is a good source of antimicrobial agent. It is therefore, recommended that health workers should enlighten people on the use of plants as source of antimicrobial agents to minimize resistance by microorganisms to conventional antibiotics. Public health workers should also educate the general public on the importance of good hygiene, especially among those in charge of food production and hawking.</p> M.S. Salihu J. Shamaki M. B. Sani M. A. Garba Copyright (c) 0 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 20 2 3890 3899 Screening the aqueous stem bark extract of <i>Parkia filicoidea</i> (Fabaceae) for anti-nociceptive activity <p><em>Parkia filicoidea</em>, family: Fabaceae is commonly known as the African Locust bean tree and is held to have numerous ethnoeconomic uses including medicinal uses like easing of rheumatism and toothache in traditional medicine. The stem bark of the plant is prepared via decoction and taken orally by individuals routinely as an analgesic agent. The aim of this study is thus to screen the aqueous stem bark extract of the plant for analgesic activities using different animal models to validate the plant’s folkloric use. The methods used in the study include: Acetic acid-induced writhing test in mouse, Hot plate test, Tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. In each of these models, albino rats or mice were divided into five groups of five animals each. The plant extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses, the negative control received distilled water, while the positive controls received aspirin (100 mg/kg) orally and pentazocine (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, depending on the model. The results of this study showed a significant (p˂0.05) decrease in the number of the writhes for the acetic acid-induced test when compared with the control (distilled water) as well as a significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in the response latencies or reaction time in the hot plate, tail flick and formalin-induced pain test. The effect of the extract compares well with the standard drugs used. The extract can thus be said to possess analgesic activity comparable to the reference drugs; aspirin and pentazocine, and due to the mechanism of action of these reference drugs, the extract’s effect is therefore believed to be both centrally and peripherally-mediated. The study suggests that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of <em>Parkia filicoidea</em> has an analgesic activity that can be employed for therapeutic advantage as an alternative treatment for pain.</p> O.J. Owolabi A.O, Odaman I.O. Bolanle S.O. Innih R.O. Aikpit-Anyiiduitua Copyright (c) 0 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 20 2 3900 3907 Evaluation of adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral medications among HIV/AIDS patients in a teaching hospital in Ilorin, Nigeria <p>The morbidity and mortality caused by HIV/AIDS have significantly decreased as a result of the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). The frequent occurrences of HAART adverse drug reactions (ADRs) potentially negate the recent advances made in the treatment of the infection. The aim of this present study is to assess the frequency, severity, and connection between ADRs and the HAART regimens being utilized by HIV/AIDS patients in an Ilorin teaching hospital. Using a validated data capture form created for the study, we retrospectively evaluated and analyzed the clinical records of patients living with HIV/AIDS who received treatment at the Antiretroviral Therapy Clinic in UITH between January 2022 and December 2022. The severity of the ADRs was evaluated using a modified Hartwig and Siegel scale, and causality was evaluated using Naranjo's likelihood scale. The evaluation included 384 patient case files that met the inclusion criteria. The most prevalent adverse medication reactions were seen in young adults between the ages of 31 and 40, and they were more common in females (65.9%) than in males (34.1%). Patients with the most often prescribed first-line combination of Tenofovir, Lamivudine, and Dolutegravir experienced the highest frequency of ADRs. The most frequent ADRs were nausea and vomiting (39.6%), followed by loss of appetite (29.4%), and exhaustion (15.9%). The majority of ADRs (92.7%) were mild in nature, and 80.5% were likely caused by the HAART combination that was being used, according to the assessment of severity. Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting were the most frequent ADRs. They were frequently observed in female patients receiving the tenofovir, lamivudine, and dolutegravir first-line combination. The majority of ADRs were low in severity and most likely resulted from the usage of the HAART combination. ADRs should be actively monitored, patients should be taught to promptly report ADRs, and HAART combinations with a history of proven safety and efficacy should be used in order to build on the successes of HAART in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.</p> Olalekan Ayodele Agede Matthew Olumuyiwa Bojuwoye Maryam Abimbola Jimoh Isa Musa Wasagu Sunday Bode Ogunjemilua Copyright (c) 0 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 20 2 3908 3916 Quality control of commercially produced paracetamol tablets marketed in Nsukka; Enugu State <p>Some brands of paracetamols tablets marketed in Nsukka, Enugu State were evaluated in this study. The tablet qualities investigated include uniformity of tablet weight, hardness, friability, assay of active ingredient, tablet dimensions (thickness and diameter), disintegration time and dissolution rates while the test methods used were BP standard or modification of the BP standard. The tablets evaluated were compared to the BP standards for paracetamol tablets. It was found that in terms of hardness of tablets, all the tablets had acceptable hardness as they ranged from 3.8 to 8.8 Kgf. For weight uniformity test; Nemel has more uniformity while Parakrics has least uniformity of weight. The friability test showed that Rico paracetamol has least friability with 0.031% and Cinnamol with highest friability percentage<br>(1.653%). In disintegration time test; M &amp; B has least disintegration time of 0.56 mins, while Nemel has highest disintegration time of 9.15 mins. Data from this study should serve as a reference for the authentication of Cinnamol paracetamol tablets in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.</p> O. J. Asogwa E. C. Ibezim F. O. Nduka O. E. I. Imanyikwa Copyright (c) 0 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 20 2 3917 3927