Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jophas <p>The <em>Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences</em> (JOPHAS) publishes original scientific and technical research works carried out on drugs and drug-related products, within and outside Nigeria in the fields of pharmacy, microbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, pharmacology, medical sciences and veterinary medicine. The journal aims at serving professionals in these aforementioned areas. Readership scope covers the entire globe, as the journal is made available to scientists all over the world.</p><p>This journal has been assigned impact factors of 0.312 for 2012 and 0.378 for 2013 as per Global Impact Factors <a title="(http://globalimpactfactor.com)." href="http://globalimpactfactor.com" target="_blank">(http://globalimpactfactor.com).</a></p> Department of Pharmaceutics University of Nigeria en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences 1596-8499 The copyright of the Journal content belongs to the Journal. Synthesis and some physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl starch from maize grains https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jophas/article/view/204513 <p>The objective of this study was to synthesize carboxymethyl starch (CMS) from maize grains <em>(Zea mays</em> Linn, var. cuseoensis), and to evaluate some of its physicochemical properties. Maize starch was extracted from maize grains by wet-milling followed by filtration and drying. The starch was treated with monochloroacetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of concentrations between 10 and 50% w/v to produce sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The properties of the CMS evaluated included swelling and hydration capacities, density and porosity. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis was also employed to confirm the attachment of carboxymethyl group to the starch molecule. Results showed that the CMS synthesized with 40 and 50% NaOH (CMS 40 and CMS 50) possessed swelling capacities of 3940 and 4405%, with hydration capacities of 627.50 and 632.40% respectively. Their bulk density was lower than that of the natural maize starch, while their porosity was higher. These suggest good tablet disintegration characteristics. The FTIR results revealed the presence of carboxymethyl group in the modified starch.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Carboxymethyl starch, monochloroacetic acid, sodium hydroxide solution, Fourier transform infra-red analysis, swelling power, hydration capacity</p> H.B Wunia I. S. Okafor Copyright (c) 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 18 1 Evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of<i> Annona Muricata</i> seed extracts on resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens of public health importance https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jophas/article/view/204514 <p>The use of medicinal plants for treatment of diseases has become a common practice due to the increasing resistance of microbial agents to known antimicrobial drugs. We investigated the antimicrobial effects of <em>Annona muricata</em> on multidrug resistant <em>Corynebacterium renale</em> isolated from bird and a fungal pathogen<em> Candida albicans.</em> The<em> C. renale</em> isolate was characterized using biochemical and morphological methods; and screened for antibiotic susceptibility using a panel of 8 antibiotics. The resistance profile of the <em>C. renale</em> isolate was compared with <em>C. albicans</em> using seed extracts (hexane, ethyl ether and ethanol) of<em> A. muricata</em> at different concentrations. Among the 8 antibiotics tested, only ciprofloxacin showed activity on the <em>C. renale</em> with a zone of inhibition (ZI) of 25.00 mm as against the standard which was ≥21 mm. All the extracts showed appreciable antimicrobial effects in a concentration - dependent manner with the highest inhibition zone recorded at 400 mg/ml. The hexane extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the <em>C. renale</em> at all the tested concentrations. The hexane and ethyl ether extracts showed almost similar activity on the <em>C. albicans</em> isolate at all the tested concentrations. The ethanol extract showed the highest ZI of 17.60 ± 1.67 mm on<em> C. albicans</em> at 400 mg/ml and this was statistically significant (P = 0.05) when compared with the other concentrations. The two control antifungals, voriconazole and fluconazole had higher zones of inhibition of 29.6 ± 1.34 mm and 19.00 ± 2.00 mm respectively than all the extracts. The results suggest that the plant extracts (ethanol and ethyl ether) showed appreciable antimicrobial effects at 400 mg/ml and hence could act as a potential drug for antimicrobial therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Annona muricata</em>, antibacterial, antifungal, <em>Candida albicans, Corynebacterium</em>, medicinal plants.</p> A.C Mgbeahuruike A.S Hubert P.E Joshua I.E Nwoko M.T Salawudeen Copyright (c) 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 18 1 Knowledge and attitude to ebola virus disease control among non-clinical students in a Nigerian University https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jophas/article/view/204515 <p>Viral diseases are possible causes of epidemics and pandemics. Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans with high morbidity and mortality rate. It is a disease of economic and public health concern, therefore adequate knowledge relating to the prevention and control is vital. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge and attitude to Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) control among non -clinical students of the University of Benin, Nigeria.. A descriptive study of undergraduate non- clinical students was carried out at the University of Benin main campus. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data and then analyzed with SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics were done and frequencies and proportions were used to summarize variables of interest. Three hundred and fifty (350) students were recruited and 99.4% response rate was achieved of which 197 (56.6%) were females and 273 (78.4%) were between the age of 16-25 years. Amongst the 348 respondents, 345(99.1%) have heard of Ebola virus disease. The respondent’s knowledge of some of the symptoms of Ebola virus disease were as follows; fever 333 (95.7%), headache 325 (93.4%), vomiting 325 (93.4%), diarrhoea 302 (86.8%), intense fatigue/general weakness 300 (86.2%), abdominal pain 274 (78.7%), and bleeding 314 (90.2%). Knowledge relating to universal health precaution was average as 199 (57.2%) knew about universal health precautions. About 282(81.0%) respondents feel the need for more information on Ebola virus disease especially the availability of drug therapy. A total of 318 (91.4%) of the respondents agreed to Ebola virus disease being a serious disease. Thus, non-clinical students demonstrated a good knowledge and attitude to Ebola virus disease control. Awareness campaigns, drug information service and public health education are important means of communicating health information to prevent and control viral epidemics or pandemics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Viral epidemic, Ebola Virus Disease, Students, Knowledge, Attitude</p> P.T Osahon F.E Olakunle Copyright (c) 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 18 1 Stability of shea-paraffin oils blend emulsions with mixed nonionic emulsifiers for broad-range required hlb of shea oil https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jophas/article/view/204517 <p>This study aimed to determine the required hydrophile-lipophile balance (RHLB) value of shea oil to facilitate producing its stable emulsions using mixed nonionic surfactants as emulsifier. Oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion formulations were produced, containing shea oil/liquid paraffin blends as oil phase, and o/wemulsifiers: Tween 20/Span 20, Tween 80/Span 80, or w/o-emulsifier Span 85/Tween 80; using the hydrophilelipophile balance (HLB) number of each surfactant in the mixed-emulsifier pair to compute requisite proportions to use for specific prospective RHLB-value targets for shea oil (SHO*) in formulation. Physical stability characteristics of each formulation (creaming rate, mean globule size and viscosity) were monitored for 12 weeks. The stability qualities of the formulations made with different o/w-emulsifiers were significantly different. RHLB value of shea oil for o/w emulsion system (deduced from the most stable formulations using the different emulsifiers) differed; and the values for o/w and w/o systems (determined from least mean globule sizes) varied with sampling time over a broad range of prospective SHO* targets; attributed to limitations of HLB theory. Stable o/w or w/o emulsion formulations were thus produced by each emulsifier over a broad range of shea oil RHLB values. The RHLB parameter inadequately defines stability of shea oil emulsion formulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Shea oil, Required hydrophile-lipophile balance (RHLB), Mixed nonionic surfactants, Emulsion formulation.</p> A.O Oyedele Copyright (c) 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 18 1 Phytochemical composition, acute toxicity and lipid profile of the methanol leaf extract of Piliostigma Thonningii (Fabaceae) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jophas/article/view/204518 <p>Cardiac complications and diseases constitute a major cause of death, globally. <em>Piliostigma thonningii</em> has been claimed to be ethnomedicinally relevant for the treatment of heart pains among others. It is against this background that the phytochemical composition, oral acute toxicity and the effect of the methanol leaf extract on the lipid profile of physiologically normal rats, were investigated using established procedures. Results confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, reducing sugars, saponin, steroid, phenolics and tannins. While the extract in a dose - dependent manner caused a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the treated rats when compared to the control group. The HDL/LDL ratio in all the treated groups was significantly higher than that of the control group signalling the usefulness of the plant extract in the prophylactic and curative management of lipid peroxidation, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disorders. There was no mortality at 2 g/kg p.o after 24 hours and no sign of delayed toxicity or mortality after 14 days of observation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antilipidemia, Phytochemical, Piliostigma thonningii, Toxicity</p> C Ogbiko Copyright (c) 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 18 1 Evaluation of antibacterial activity of the crude and defatted methanol extracts of <i>Eucalyptus Camaldulensis</i> using spectrophotometric method https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jophas/article/view/204519 <p>This study was designed to explore new antibacterial agent(s) from the crude and defatted methanol extracts of <em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em>. The extracts were extracted by cold maceration, prepared, reconstituted and examined for their antibacterial activity using standard procedures. The extracts were challenged with pure clinical isolates of <em>Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinectobacter baumanii</em> and <em>Burkolderia cepacia</em> viz-a-viz standard antibiotics of chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amoxicillin at 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml concentrations using spectrophotometric method. Using the zone of inhibition as inhibitory parameter, both the crude and defatted methanol extracts of <em>E. camaldulensis</em> showed promising antimicrobial activity comparable to the standard antibiotics for all tested microorganisms. This research holds promise for the exploration of various potentially active secondary metabolites which would help in developing pharmaceuticals especially antibacterial drugs. The isolation and characterization of the exact metabolites responsible for these activities are therefore highly recommended.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antimicrobial, <em>Eucalyptus camaldulesnsis</em>, Spectrophotometric method</p> Musa Achimugu Dickson Sandra Ombia Dorgu Ayo Oshe Alaba Husseini Kanki Ogbiko Cyril Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo Philipp Krastel Copyright (c) 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 18 1 Phytochemical, nutritional and antimicrobial properties of the leaves of Nigerian <i>Ziziphus Spina</i> – Christi (l.) Willd https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jophas/article/view/204522 <p><em>Z. spina</em> found in the tropical regions of the world is a small tree capable of resisting heat and drought. Traditionally, the leaves of the plant are preserved as feed for animals during intense drought as well as used to treat external wounds, swellings, diarrhea, and intestinal spasm among others. Phytochemical screening was performed using standard procedures, while the nutritional and antibacterial studies were conducted using the Association of Analytical Chemist (AOAC) and agar well diffusion methods respectively. The result of the phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, reducing sugars, among others. Moisture content (27.24 ± 1.19 %), total ash (29.11 ± 0.66 %), acid insoluble ash (1.43 ± 0.06 %), alcohol-soluble extractive (0.26 ± 0.14 %) and water-soluble extractive (0.72 ± 0.12 %) values were obtained from the quantitative proximate analysis. The mineral analysis revealed 14 ± 0.09, 135 ± 1.29 and 1.05 ± 0.19 mg/100 g dry weight as the sodium, potassium and phosphorus compositions respectively. <em>Escherichia coli</em> was found to be the most susceptible bacteria to the extract with an MIC value of 0.25 mg/ml while <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was the most resistant strain with an MIC value of 1.00 mg/ml. Conclusively, the leaves of the plant may find use in food formulation operations as well as explored further for the treatment of microbial infections.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Antimicrobial, Extract, MIC, Nutritional,<em> Ziziphus spina</em></p> C Ogbiko Zisg Adiya SS Adamu AM Isah I. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 18 1