Journal of Research in National Development The <em>Journal of Research in National Development</em> aims to encourage interdisciplinary research, joint authorships and the recognition of the interface among disciplines. Favorite articles are quantitative, empirical and developmentally biased. It aims to serve all with interest in the development of developing countries, especially social scientists. Abstracts are available at <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> Full text of vol 5 (2) 2007 &amp; vol 6 (1) 2008 is available open access at <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> en-US Copyright is owned by the journal (Kenneth U. Nnadi) (Editor) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 16:15:15 +0000 OJS 60 Critical assessment of federal government's bailout in southwestern Nigeria <p>The bailout for states by the federal government of Nigeria has become a subject of controversy with many arguing that the disbursement of the funds has been skewed in favour of some states to the detriment of others. The parlous state of the economy occasioned by dwindling oil receipts made bailout inevitable. Little wonder why the federal government had in early July, 2015 approved the sum of 804.7 billion naira as lifeline for states, to enable them pay their workers several months of arrears of salaries. Activities in many states were virtually grounded. In fact, the issue of unpaid salaries became endemic in many states. This could be attributed to white elephant projects, procurement of private aircrafts, construction of airports and taking loans and bonds to finance various projects by some of the state governments, which had no direct impact on the lives of the people.</p><p>This paper on ''Critical Assessment of Federal Government's Bailout in Southwestern Nigeria'' looks into issues surrounding the disbursement of bailout in the affected states especially in the Southwestern states of Nigeria which include: Osun, Oyo, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos states. It further considers reasons for the bailout, themes of the bailout and the divergent views on bailout to these states. In conclusion, this paper shall suggest in addition to other scholars' perspectives on the benefits of bailout and ways forward in providing alternative method that can avert the states delaying or siphoning the bailout.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Assessment, bailout, bail-in, federal government</p> Bello M. Ayodele Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of small and medium scale enterprises on economic growth in Nigeria <p>This paper recognised SMEs as source of economic growth in Nigeria. The paper identified SMEs’ contribution to Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from 1982 to 2012, and carried out analysis on the effect of SMEs on economic growth in Nigeria, within the same period. Secondary data were collected from CBN Statistical Bulletin (2002, 2013, 2015), Central Bank of Nigeria, Annual Report and Statement of Accounts (2011; 2012), and National Bureau of Statistics –Job Creation and Employment Surveys (2012). Data were analyzed using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). The study disclosed that there is a significant and positive relationship between SME’s contribution to Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Nigeria’s GDP from 1982 to 2012. The paper recommended that Government should make good policies and carry out concerted effort towards the development of SMEs in order to make them serve as the source of economic growth in Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> SMEs, economy, growth, effect</p> Omonigho Tonia Okhankhuele Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Work environment stressors and personnel efficacy in Nigeria’s maritime industry <p>This study assessed the impact of work environment stressors on the efficacy of marketing, logistics and supply chain personnel in the Nigerian maritime industry. The descriptive survey research design was adopted as the study guide. Using purposive sampling technique to draw up the working population which consisted of marketing, logistics and supply chain personnel from selected maritime resources and shipping companies in Lagos metropolis, a sample size of 359 respondents was randomly administered questionnaire which served as research instrument. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficients for the research instrument ranged between 0.73 and 0.86. Four hypotheses were postulated to guide the study, while the data generated were analyzed using a linear regression. The findings revealed that workload, safety condition and work environment noise have significant associations with work effectiveness, while a negative but significant association was found between innovative working tools and work effectiveness at α= .05 level. The study concluded that individual employees and corporate organizations need to manage stress by identifying the stressors and stress levels. It was recommended to the managements of maritime resources and shipping companies in Nigeria to always allow their employees to enjoy holidays and annual leave so as to enable them to recreate and live above stress.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Efficacy, safety, workload, tools, noise, stressors</p> Isaac Oladepo Onigbinde Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Academic achievement of physics education students’ in two Nigerian universities <p>The objective of this study was to find out factors affecting the academic achievement of physics education students’ in Benue State University and University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The study sought answers to four research questions. The research was carried out using a sample size of 108 students of the department of curriculum and teaching, faculty of education, Benue State University and the department of Science Education, College of Agricultural Science Education, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. A questionnaire was used for data collection. A simple percentage and chi-square were used for the analysis of the data collected. Two hypotheses relevant to the research questions were tested. Several teacher, student’s, parental and institutional factors were found to affect students achievement. These factors include cultism among students’, lack of interest in teaching by teachers, inadequate finance from parents and poor study habits and lack of laboratory and library facilities, Recommendations were made towards overcoming the negative effect of these factors.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Factors, academic, achievement, physics education</p> Alachi Sunday, A.B. Owadara, C.O. Nwosu, C Njoku Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Stakeholders responses on health maintenance organizations participation in Nigeria’s national health insurance scheme <p>National Health Insurance Scheme uses the services of Health Maintenance Organizations to run the scheme. This model of administering a national health insurance scheme is different from how so many other national health insurance programs are run in other parts of the world. The designing of the NHIS to include the participation of HMOs is presumed to be an important model that would facilitate easy access to health care and improve the quality of health service delivery to citizens of the country. HMOs participation in the NHIS is paradoxical because HMOs are known as for profit organizations while NHIS are known as non for profit organizations. If HMOs are to participate in the scheme without making adequate profits, how then would they become profitable enough to sustain and remain in business? To ensure that the scheme is properly implemented, HMOs would have to perform a number of tasks/functions that may eventually result in engaging in practices that would be harmful to the scheme. However, years after the NHIS was established in the country, HMOs still function as major implementing partners of the NHIS. To inquire more about this model of running the NHIS, an assessment of stakeholders’ perceptions on the possibility of and the challenges of this sort of partnership is necessary to ascertain its workability in order to infer into what the future of the scheme would be like. To achieve this research study, responses from stakeholders like the NHIS itself, the HMOs and the Health Care Providers were collected in a total of nine In-Depth Interview sessions. Data on HMOs participation in the national health programme were obtained from the respondents, transcribed and analyzed. The findings of this study showed that HMOs played very important roles in running the NHIS. It therefore recommends that this NHIS model be strengthened to achieve its goals.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Health Care Provider, Health Maintenance Organization, health insurance</p> Emelda I. Emmanuel Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 ISO 9000 and quality standards improvement in the maintenance units of selected manufacturing firms in Lagos <p>The adoption of ISO 9000 has been widely recognised as potent approaches for improving firm performance and competiveness However, varying level of performance and success have been recorded by firms that adopted it. This study investigated ISO 9000 as a tool for improving quality standards in the maintenance units of selected manufacturing organisations within Lagos Metropolis. The study used cross-sectional descriptive research design, using quantitative research approach. Data were obtained through 110 copies of questionnaire administered to employees across twenty-two selected manufacturing firms in Lagos metropolis. Out of 110 copies, 106 were retrieved and 79 were valid for data analysis, giving a response rate of 71.18%. Data gathered were analysed using mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The results show that the adoption of ISO 9000 quality certification tools is significantly related to and influenced the effectiveness of quality practices and standardization in the maintenance units of manufacturing organizations. Similarly, the perception of ISO 9000 tools and effectiveness of quality standardization in the manufacturing firms does not significantly vary across employees’ cadre. On the basis of the findings, the study concludes that ISO 9000 tools certification and practices is not only relevant but very important to enhance business performance and competiveness of manufacturing firms. The study therefore recommends more firms to adopt ISO 9000 for firms` performance and competiveness.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> ISO 9000, quality management system, maintenance department, certification, performance</p> Paul Olanrewaju Olonade, Emmanuel Olateju Oyatoye Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 New public management reforms in Nigerian democratic governance: issues and challenges <p>The paper examined the changes in public sector reforms in Nigeria over the last several decades. Nigeria has embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called “New Public Management” (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiency and the provision of public services The politicisation of the public service has been a subject of author interest. This paper brings concepts and ideas from around the world about the need for and ways of achieving more responsive and accountable new public management within the framework of democratic governance. The paper adopts a content analysis method through the use of secondary data. The findings of the paper revealed that the adoption of NPM has improved public service in the delivery of social service to the citizens. It also reduced corruption in the public service through the implementation of e-government and SERVICOM initiatives to the citizens. The paper concluded that NPM reforms had led to the emergence of a truly reprofessionalised Nigerian public service in the fourth democratic governance.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Democracy, governance, new public management, accountability, reform</p> Theophilus Olumuyiwa Agboola, Kazeem Oyedele Lamidi Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising campaigns <p>Advertising is generally aimed at increasing demand, influencing people to change brands or motivating people to make a purchase; advertising messages are designed to induce and lure consumers to buy particular products or services. The way the consumers perceive an advertising campaign will, therefore, determine how they will respond to the advertisement. Thus, the researchers embarked on a self affirmative discourse of the implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising campaigns. The discourse shows that advertisers must use persuasive strategies that will make the consumers to be loyal to their brands; more so, the strength of the social judgement theory is that it illustrates the most important elements that motivate people to buy a product and it also shows what the connections are between the motives and attributes of products or services. An understanding of the social judgement theory is important to companies because it helps companies to spend money on advertising campaigns more effectively. It was, therefore, concluded that social judgement theory helps the consumers to interpret advertising campaigns and decide whether to act positively or negatively. The researchers recommended that advertising campaign planners must ensure that they use techniques that will make consumers to interpret advertised products, goods and services from a positive angle; more so, celebrities used in association with advertising campaigns must be seen to be credible, as this will go a long way in positively influencing the consumers.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Implications, social judgement theory, persuasion, advertising, campaigns</p> Ezekiel S. Asemah, Angela N. Nwammuo Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Transportation constraints to rural health accessibility in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State Nigeria <p>The rural areas is generally characterized by low population density, low level of economic activities and traffic; long distances between nodal points, such as service centres; high unit costs for service delivery, operations, maintenance, and often difficult geographic and weather conditions. Rural communities face transport constraints which limit their ability to reduce their poverty and in order to satisfy their need for greater access to health, education and every possible opportunities, ease of physical accessibility and freedom of movement are top priorities. Questionnaire was administered on a randomly selected sample of 200 residents in the area. Of the 200 questionnaires administered, 182 questionnaires were received for analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary data, thus allowing for a robust research. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentages were adopted to present the socio - economic characteristics in the area. Findings showed that the about 52.2% of sampled population are male, 12.1 % are degree holders, 39% of respondents are young within the 25 – 35 yrs age bracket, 70.3% married. Also, that majority of the respondents (54.4%) said that there are rural health facilities in their area, while about 78% of the respondents observed that road network in the area is either bad / very bad (poor). It was established that lack of transport infrastructure coupled with poor road maintenance were seen as the leading causes of inaccessibility of the area.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Accessibility, Rural, Mobility, Density, Agriculture, Travel</p> Adebayo Owolabi Oyetubo, Oluwaseyi Joseph Afolabi, Olalekan Adedamola Oluwaji Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Level of personal computer (PC) tablet penetration among undergraduate students of University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria <p>This study was designed to find out level of Personal Computer (PC) tablet penetration among undergraduate students of university of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Random sampling technique was adopted to select 200 students from selected Faculties in University of Ilorin. The questionnaire were administered, collected and analyzed. Frequency count, percentage and mean were used to interpret demography data and research questions. The findings of the study revealed that PC tablet is a learning tool as students easily view course materials on their PC tablet which makes learning interesting. As a result, undergraduates have positive perception on the use of PC tablet for learning. Based on these findings, it was recommended that, the use of PC tablet should be limited to academic activities only, increase the bandwidth of internet connection so that students can have full access to internet to download educational material and to increase learning pace among others.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Touch-screen, personal computer, information and communication technology, mobile technologies</p> Ayotunde Atanda Falade, Michael Olubunmi Odewumi, Adebayo Emmanuel Alimi Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative arts in primary schools in Zaria, Nigeria <p>The Effect of the Montessori Method on teaching was investigated among children to discover their artistic development in Zaria, Kaduna State. The problem of the study is that the Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative arts is not adequately explored in the primary schools, while other teaching methods used, do not bring out the full potentials of children’s artistic capabilities. Thus the study attempted to find out if the Montessori Method has effect on children’s artistic development. The aim of the study is to explore the effect of the Montessori Methods on the development of children’s creativity. Quasi experimental design was used for analyzing the instruments. A drawing test was administrated to the children using the Montessori Method of teaching; a semi-structured interview was also administered to the teachers. Total of 1,030 pupils (boys and girls) in primary schools from randomly selected schools were involved in the study. The data collected was analyzed using simple t-test, ANOVA and chi-square. The method of teaching was assessed on children’s developmental stages in creative artistic development between pre-schematic stage, schematic stage and gang stage. The findings revealed that the Montessori Method on Teaching had a positive effect on the Children’s artistic development and performance in the primary schools in Zaria. The pupils had a general positive and enthusiastic attitude towards culture and creative arts. This shows that when children are given the opportunity and enough art materials to express themselves, they would be able to display their different characteristics. The Montessori Method of teaching was better adopted than the conventional teaching methods used on the development of the creative artistic abilities of Children in the primary schools.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Developmental stages, gang stage, Montessori teaching methods, cultural and creative arts</p> Hamsatu Saleh, Barnabas Sunday Danjuma Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introducing complexities into diversity management in the Nigerian workforce system: announcing the arrival of crude oil in the nation’s economy <p>Nigerian economy from 1950’s (before the discovery of crude oil) was not as open to the influx of expatriates as it became after the discovery of crude oil. The study historically examines how the discovery of crude oil in Nigeria opened up the Nigerian border for the influx of businesses and people from different countries with diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. This break down in border for the purpose of improving the country’s economy gave rise to the phenomena of multinationalisation/internationalisation of businesses which led to convergence of people from different demographic backgrounds to work together in the various workplaces. Given the inherent heterogeneity of the country’s population, the advent of multinational companies has made it more difficult to manage the diverse workforce. This is as a result of some peculiar challenges emanating from the arrival of expatriate staff from countries across the world. The study historically reviews the impact of globalisation and multinationalisation/ internationalisation of businesses on the workers’ demographics, and how the employers and the country at large are affected. This paper, relying on comparative historiography, investigates the impact of the influx of foreign workers on the already diverse Nigerian workforce. The study employs empirical evidence available in extant studies to draw a comparison between the demographics of the Nigerian workforce before and after the discovery oil, that is, the period when the economy was driven by non-oil exports and when it was largely based on revenues from the export of the crude oil. The findings reveal that the Nigerian workforce system is significantly affected by the importation of expatriates by oil companies. Human resource managers must therefore be well-equipped with the right skills and experiences for managing the ever-changing workforce.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Crude oil, diversity, internationalisation, multinationalisation</p> Olusoji George, Kolawole Yusuff Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Economic analysis of the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity in Nigeria <p>The climate fluctuation in Nigeria poses a serious threat on Nigeria’s Agricultural Productivity level, this study examined the length of relationship which exists from 1970 to 2014. The study made use of secondary data. Descriptive and Error Correction Model were employed in the analysis of the data. The results revealed that there has been an upward trend in Agricultural output over the years, and that the past level of changes in agricultural output has positive and significant effects on the present level of its economic performance. Also, a change in the temperature overtime has negative effects on the level of agricultural output but was found to be insignificant at 5%. Furthermore, the previous change in rainfall exhibits positive relationship with agricultural output which is 30%, and this implies that a 0.30 increase change in rainfall will likely result into a unit increase change in agricultural output and vice versa. Past level of changes in agricultural expenditure has positive and significant effects on the level of agricultural output. A proportional rise in past level of labour increases current agricultural output and found to be significant at 5%. The study concluded that climate change has effect on agricultural output, while the effect of temperature is neutral, that of rainfall is positive and significant.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Economic analysis, climate change, agricultural productivity, temperature, government expenditure</p> A.O. Oloruntuyi, A.O. Adigun Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of globalization on the socio-linguistic landscape of Nigeria <p>The process of globalization, its nature and impact on the linguistic landscape of Nigeria constitute the main concerns of the present study. The thrust of the argument in this study is that globalization is an irreversible process and that the survival of Nigeria’s cultural values (including language) is largely based on how the .government and civil society readily withstand the risks and challenges (such as the dying of minority languages) and embrace the opportunities which the globalization process offers.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Globalization, society, linguistic, language</p> Amos Dlibugunaya, Hilda Ojonugwa Obaje Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The decline of cash crop economy in the lower Niger 1943-1976 <p>The objective of this study is to examine the interlocking factors which determine the decline of cash crop economy in the Lower Niger region in the period 1870-1976. The study is significant because it ascertain the effects of such decline and the economic changes on development of Nigeria. In the colonial period, trade in agricultural commodity served as a major source to earn European currency. Transnational corporations, which purchased these commodity crops, left Nigeria soon after political independence when the Nigerian government promulgated several laws in attempt to indigenize the economy. This action spell doom for agriculture produce export and poverty for producers engaged in the business. Both the Nigerian government and its citizens have been battling to resuscitate agricultural export crop since the late 1970s, but the Nigerian people are already used to petro-dollar economy and the white collar jobs. The study adopts inter-disciplinary methodology in collation and interpretation of data. The study recommends among others that, Nigerian government should revamp cash crop economy on the Lower Niger to serve as viable alternative to crude oil export.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Lower Niger, cash crops, economy, decline</p> Anthony Danladi Ali Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Small and medium enterprises’ financing and dynamics of gross fixed capital formation: evidence from Nigeria <p>This study aims at investigating the impact of Small and Medium Enterprises’ (SMEs) financing on the dynamics of Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) in Nigeria in both short and long run. SMEs have been described as drivers of domestic investments and growth. Literatures reveal that although there had been concerted efforts at enhancing SME financing in Nigeria, the results reflect an empty box as the funds meant for SMEs are either grossly inadequate or diverted. This has undermined the role SMEs play in stimulating investment (GFCF) and ultimately, economic growth. The current recession in Nigeria could possibly be remedied by strengthening the SME sub-sector of the economy through adequate funding. This is necessary in the face of a tight monetary policy currently being enforced to check the growing inflationary trends in the country. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Co-integration and Error Correction Model (ECM) were used in analyzing the effect of SME financing on GFCF. The results revealed that over the period under review (1984 -2014), there actually exists a significant and positive relationship between SME financing and dynamics of GFCF in Nigeria in both the short and long run. Specifically, SME financing is a major contributor to the short run dynamic behavior of GFCF in Nigeria. This study therefore confirms that policies aimed at stimulating SME financing in Nigeria will invariably positively affect capital formation and ultimately, economic growth. The researcher recommends that the government should continue to implement policies that will channel cheap funds to the SMEs sector and ensure that these funds are not diverted to other sectors while creating the enabling infrastructural, legal and institutional environments for SMEs survival and growth. This will engender accelerated investments and may be the key to pulling the economy out of the current recession in the face of tightening monetary policy.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> SME, Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Error Correction Model</p> Success O. Abusomwan, Liberty N. Arodoye Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The stylistic study of the language of Ogun State House of Assembly <p>The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss certain linguistic features of the language used in Ogun State House of Assembly. The approach adopted for the study is that of general stylistics or linguistic stylistics, which studies variation in language. The methodology adopted is that of fieldwork. A total number of twenty –seven official reports of legislative sittings of the Ogun State House Assembly, Eighth Assembly from March to September, 2016 were collected, categorised, analysed and discussed. It was found that there was a particular way of address by the members of the house and a special usage of the use of personal pronouns and different sentence types is observed. In conclusion, the language of legislative debates constitutes a distinct sub-variety of the language of politics. It is suggested that more work should be done in studying the language of debates in the houses of assembly in Nigeria so as to make a comprehensive statement about the language of politics in the country.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Linguistic stylistics, register, metaphor, personal pronouns, allusion</p> Christiana Oluwaseun Meshioye, Christopher Awonuga Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the sustainability of composting as a solid waste management practice in Nigeria <p>Solid waste composting has emerged as an innovative approach to managing solid waste in various regions of the world. However, the sustainability of this approach to solid waste management has been sparsely investigated in the study area. This paper reviews composting case studies in Nigeria with the aim of providing information on its economic, social and environmental sustainability. Five composting projects were purposively selected, and information on them were sought through direct observation, interview and from journal articles, magazine and research thesis; and were qualitatively analysed. It is evident from the study that composting holds great potentials for sustainable waste management practice in Nigeria, however, its limited application in the country still undermines benefits. Consequently, the paper recommends among others data management on solid waste by relevant agencies and stakeholders, and formulation of a national policy focusing on proper integration of composting into solid waste management system in Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sustainability, sustainable development, solid waste, compost</p> N.O. Ogunseye, U.O. Salisu, G.O. Adeyeni Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The freedom of information act and the practice of journalism in Nigeria: an appraisal <p>This study examines the effectiveness of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in Nigeria. Within this context, the paper investigates the influence of FOIA on journalism practice in Nigeria. The article also observes the challenges and limitations of the Act as well as the role of the media in the usage of the FOIA, tracing the journey; origin, history and the justification for the Act. Case studies of early deployments were also mentioned. The study employed Libertarian media theory and Teological ethnical theory as the theoretical framework. Focus Group Discussion and telephone interview were used to solicit responses from journalists, media scholars and media entrepreneurs. The findings of the study revealed that there is low level of awareness among the general public on the usage and effectiveness of the Act. Also, it was found that there is unavailability of supervisory regulating body to coordinate the enactment of the legislation. It therefore recommended among other things the creation of high awareness of the general public on the usage and workings of the Act as well as putting in place machinery to reinforce its institutionalization.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Freedom of Information Act, media, press freedom, journalism, legislation</p> Oluwatomi Caleb Adeniji Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Interest rate behaviour and the Nigerian economy: an error correction mechanism approach <p>Interest rate behaviour and the performance of the Nigerian economy was carried out to examine the impact of interest rate fluctuations through regulated and deregulated interest rate regimes on the economy of Nigeria. The study in addition assessed the impact of credit to the private sector as well as credit to the government on Nigeria’s economic performance. The study examined the variables from 1980-2015 with the use of econometric techniques of unit roots using the Augunented Dickey FulLer (ADF) test, the Johansen cointegration test and the Error Correction Mechanism. Findings revealed the serious impact interest rate has on economic performance, as well as credit to the private sector and the government, and all were consistent with economic theories. The study recommended policies capable of putting interest rate at consistent moderate rate to spur investment for both private and public via easy access to investable funds for sustained improved economic performance.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Interest rate, credit, regulated, deregulated, performance</p> A.D. Iortyer, A Imoisi, A.I. Abuh Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The status of human and material resources used in teaching biology in Ilorin, Kwara State <p>The study explored the status of human and material resources used in teaching biology in public schools in Ilorin. A descriptive survey method was adopted. All senior school students in Ilorin constituted the population, out of which 20 secondary schools were randomly selected. A checklist tagged Inventory of Resources for Teaching Science (IVRTS) was used for data collection. The data were analyzed using frequency count and percentages. The findings revealed a wide range of biology apparatus, equipment, reagents, charts, models, slides and specimens. However, many schools are characterized with inadequate resources and the available ones are not frequently utilized by the teachers. The study recommends that government should employ adequate professional qualified science teachers and laboratory personnel and that the untrained teachers should be mandated to go for professional training; it was also recommended that unavailable materials should be improvised.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Biology, human resources, availability, adequacy, level of use</p> Taibat Jimoh Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The status of human and material resources used in teaching biology in Ilorin, Kwara State <p>The study explored the status of human and material resources used in teaching biology in public schools in Ilorin. A descriptive survey method was adopted. All senior school students in Ilorin constituted the population, out of which 20 secondary schools were randomly selected. A checklist tagged Inventory of Resources for Teaching Science (IVRTS) was used for data collection. The data were analyzed using frequency count and percentages. The findings revealed a wide range of biology apparatus, equipment, reagents, charts, models, slides and specimens. However, many schools are characterized with inadequate resources and the available ones are not frequently utilized by the teachers. The study recommends that government should employ adequate professional qualified science teachers and laboratory personnel and that the untrained teachers should be mandated to go for professional training; it was also recommended that unavailable materials should be improvised.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Biology, human resources, availability, adequacy, level of use</p> Taibat Jimoh Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and visibility during harmattan in Makurdi Town, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the connections between temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and their effect on visibility of Makurdi town during the harmattan season. Data on mean monthly temperature of harmattan months of November, December, January and February (2001 to 2011), Wind speed and visibility records for the same period were obtained from the Nigeria Metrological Agency Makurdi. Monthly accident records from 2009 to 2011 were acquired from the Federal Road Safety Commission to compare accident rates within and outside the harmattan period. The data for this study was analysed using tables, bar graphs and Product moment correlation. The result showed that temperature within the harmattan months has fluctuated but showed an increasing trend in all the months. The rate of temperature increase across the months showed highest rates in the month of January, followed by February, November and lastly December. A correlation of temperature and harmattan wind speed shows a weak negative relationship value of - 0.29. The result implies that the speed of harmattan wind in Makurdi is not dependent on temperature within the environment; the speed is determined by the general regional wind movement pattern. Environmental friendly practices like planting of trees, gardens and lawns, tiling of the roads and water sprinkling can help curb the effects of the harmattan dust.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Harmattan, visibility, variability, wind speed, pressure gradient</p> Johnson Orfega Mage, Jennifer Ngodoo Agber Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria <p>A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for any meaningful development in a given society and to a large extent, its success greatly depends on effective implementation of appropriate administrative machinery. The study examined roles and responsibilities of transport administrators in sustaining transport development in Lagos, Oyo and Ogun States, Nigeria; challenges facing transport administrators; and relationship between performance of transport administrators and sustainable transport development. This study adopted both primary and secondary sources of data, primary data entailed the use of two (2) different set of questionnaires designed for transport administrators and transport users. Nine (9) copies of questionnaire were purposively administered to the director in charge of policy coordination and planning in each transport ministry and selected agencies in the sampled states. Data on transport users’ socio-economic characteristics and perception on level of satisfaction on sustainable transport development indicators were obtained. Four hundred and ninety (490) questionnaires were randomly distributed among the transport users. Multiple regression analysis result of relationship between performance of transport administrators (dependent variable) and sustainable transport development variables (predictors) indicated statistical significance (<em>F</em><sup>15</sup><sub>470</sub> 4.035 = <em>P</em>&lt;0.05). The six explanatory variables that contributed significantly to the performance of transport administrators include congestion perception (β=0.137, <em>t</em>=2.610), affordability (β=0.272, <em>t</em>=5.308), control of travelers assault (β=0.119,<em> t</em>=2.396), control of noise pollution (β=0.099, <em>t</em>=1.978), control of air and water pollution (β=0.109,<em> t</em>= 2.291) and availability of non-motorized transport infrastructure (β=0.144, <em>t</em>=2.835). Thus, the study proffered adequate measures towards achieving sustainable transport development in the country.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Transport, administrators, development, planning</p> Umar Obafemi Salisu Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Philosophical analysis of government business in Nigeria <p>This article critically and constructively reviews the current philosophy of the government business in Nigeria. The paper however, traced the antecedent of the Nigerian Public Enterprises from the state-led development to a more commercial or business-like approach. In spite of these developments that are accounted for in this paper, the performance of the Nigerian Public Enterprises have been and continued to be criticized for her lack of productivity, efficiency, and transparency. This article by way of concluding discussion suggests the sustainability of the reform in the Nigerian Public Enterprises.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Public enterprises, philosophy, business, government</p> Olamitunji Dakare Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Spatio-temporal growth pattern and patronage level of airline travel agencies in Nigeria <p>This study assesses the growth pattern of airline travel agencies over a period of forty years across locations in Nigeria as well as the patronage level of agency business. The need for the study arises because of the technological marketing of airline tickets through direct online ticket sales that aims at reducing cost by eliminating travel agents’ commissions. The study made use of primary data involving a questionnaire survey of 215 IATA travel agents on their view about the patronage level of agency business. Secondary data required for the study were extracted from the records of IATA on the number and locations of registered travel agencies in Nigeria from the year 1975 – 2014. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential analyses. Data were also mapped to show the spatial distribution of travel agencies across locations in Nigeria over four decades. The study found a decrease in the growth rate of travel agencies during the fourth decade of 1995 – 2004. The results of the mapping show that Lagos dominates the location of travel agencies in Nigeria over the years. The patronage level of travel agencies by both individuals and corporate bodies was found to be moderate. It was recommended that that travel agents need to strategise to diversify business focus into other areas such as hotel booking and organisation of tours.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Airlines, agencies, patronage, temporal, spatial</p> I.T. Bawa, I.J. Musa, J.O. Adefila, A.E. Ubogu Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Transportation challenges of retailing petroleum products in Akure, Nigeria <p>Transportation is crucial for the distribution and retailing of petroleum products for consumption. However, the transportation of petroleum products is faced with varying degree of challenges. To this end, this study examines transportation challenges facing efficient retailing of petroleum products in Akure. The study collected data on the location of petroleum retailing points from Ibule to Shasha market on the Ilesa – Akure – Owo expressway in Akure using GPS. Questionnaire survey was also conducted to collect data on the transportation challenges of retailing petroleum products in Akure. The study purposively sampled 126 respondents who are staff of the petroleum products retailing points on Ilesa – Akure – Owo expressway. Point analysis of the GIS and descriptive analysis were employed to analyse the data collected for the study. It was revealed that a total of 42 petrol stations are located within a distance of 15.651Km from Ibule – Shasha market in Akure with an average of 372 metres between two stations. It further showed high cost of fuelling, bad roads and traffic congestion as the most significant transportation challenges facing the retails of petroleum products. It was recommended that the government agency in charge of road maintenance should be more proactive to their responsibilities.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Petroleum products; retailing points; Akure, transportation challenges</p> J.A. Adenigbo, G.T. Balogun, T Olisa Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of traditional institutions in community development Ede Town of Osun State <p>The study examined the roles of the Traditional Institutions in the community development with reference to Ede Township in both Ede North and Ede South Local Government Areas of Osun State as well as bringing the effects and impacts of Traditional Institutions on socio-economic development to the people of Ede land because the role of Traditional Institutions in community development ranged from providing good leadership as custodian and repository of the community, to mobilize physical, human and financial resources for the local development at large. This is germane because of the prevalent of kingship crises in Yorubaland in contemporary times. This paper discovers that regardless of the fact that Ede people lives within Osun West Senatorial District, they retain their political autonomy from time immemorial. Traditional institutions play important role in various spheres of the state and society at large. These institutions existed in the past, and they were necessary for the normal functioning of good society, but now they are being integrated into local governance to play a big role in the state. The paper concluded by providing some recommendations, among others, that Traditional institutions play significant roles in the socio-economic development and infrastructural amenities for the betterment of people in Ede community and a set of harmonized policies remain critical for a successful battle against rural development in Nigeria and traditional institutions should be restructured to adapt to become more effective in the modern context.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Indigenous institutions, administration, kingship, community, local governance, development</p> Bolanle W. Shiyanbade, Oluwadolapo Ajuwon Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Bad leadership and institutional failure: foundation of corruption in Nigeria <p>This study basically assesses the phenomenal rise of corruption in Nigeria. While the study recognizes the varying perspectives of the causes of corruption among developing nations, the study asserts that the dramatic rise of corruption to the present level of impurity is caused by bad leadership and institutional failure. In every nation-state system, the constitution of the country clearly establishes certain institutions and clearly spells out their functions. Thus, the legislature, the executive, the judiciary and political parties are saddled with statutory obligations to see to the proper functioning of society. Upon these political institutions is also bestowed with the duty of checks and balances aimed at preventing corruption and perpetration of other social vices in society. However, these institutions particularly in Nigeria is weak, soft and corrupt thus are ineffective, inefficient and lacks the moral and legal authority to provide check on one another. Against this background, the study advances the view that the high level of corruption in Nigeria is as a result of the weakness of institutions. However, institutional failure is closely related to leadership failure. The study thus opined that there is a significant relationship between leadership and institutional failure and rise of corruption in Nigeria. The study adopted the ‘soft state’ analysis as an explanatory framework for the failure of these prescriptive institutions and relied on secondary data for its information.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Corruption, leadership, institutional failure, soft state, militarism and colonialism</p> Korikiye Mc. Wenibowei Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Sociocultural factors and the success of immunization in selected Local Governments of Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>Globally, immunization has been considered as one of the effective methods of reducing child morbidity and mortality rate. In spite of the increasing immunization coverage worldwide, Kaduna state in Nigeria has remained one of the areas with high mortality rate as a result of vaccine preventable diseases. Research indicates correlation between sociocultural factors and the success of immunization in Nigeria. While how sociocultural factors affect the success of immunization in Kaduna state has not been given adequate attention in literature, this study examines the nexus between the two with special reference to Kaduna state so as to avoid overgeneralization. Six LGs were selected from the three senatorial districts in the state. Both primary and secondary sources of data were utilized. In the case of primary data, interviews and focus group discussion (FGD) were conducted with women and health personnel to elicit their views on immunization services delivery, while questionnaires were administered to staff respondents on the success of immunization. Existing literature related to immunization especially journals and conference proceedings as well as unpublished documents were reviewed. Data gathered were subjected to correlation test using SPSS software. Results indicated significant success in terms of immunization coverage with little decline in mortality rate in the state. The study indicated correlation between sociocultural factors and the success of immunization in the state. The study recommends the need to increase the involvement of religious and traditional rulers in the sensitization exercise. The study further suggests the need to sensitize the public more on the importance of immunization at all levels of government.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Immunization, morbidity, mortality, sociocultural</p> Idris Ahmed Jamo Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of small and medium enterprises in Lagos state: the implications of finance <p>The main aim of this study is to examine the impact of finance on the performance of small and medium enterprises in Lagos State. The research design adopted for this study is survey research design. Data analysis and hypotheses test from 250 SME owners and operators using Pearson correlation and regression analysis indicate that, there is a relationship between SME finance and business performance. Limited information on loan qualification criteria and high interest rate mostly pose challenge to SMEs in their quest to access finance. Results also show there is significant relationship between financial management practices and the performance of SMEs. Sequel to findings of the study, it is recommended that government Flexible arrangements should be put in place for SMEs in Lagos State to enable them access fund. Government should find way to encourage financial institution to lend to SMEs by providing guarantees, interest rate subsidies and other incentives.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> SMEs, finance, financial management, performance</p> A.J. Abosede, B.A. Hassan, R.O. Oko-Oza Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of manpower training and development on organisational goals attainment: a study of Lapo Microfinance Bank Limited, Lagos <p>Employees’ are the most cherished assets in any business organisation. However, there is need to develop their skills, knowledge and capability to contribute towards the accomplishment of organisational goals. This study adopted cross-sectional survey research design using quantitative research approach. Convenience sampling approach was used as sampling technique and collected data were analysed using simple percentages, correlation and regression analyses. Findings of the study reveal significant positive relationship between manpower training and development and organisational goals. Manpower training and development was also found to exert significantly influence on quality service delivery of the bank. On the basis of this finding, the study concludes that effective manpower training and development is vital to the accomplishment of organizational goals. The study recommends that business organisations should develop strong policy in the area of manpower training and development and ensure adequate budgetary allocation to finance the training programme consistently.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Manpower training, development, organisational goals, service quality</p> George Olusoji, Adedayo M. Adetokun, Godbless Akaighe Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Public–private partnership: how successful is the NHIS – HMO collaboration in health care delivery in Nigeria? <p>Collaboration between the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) is a form of public-private partnership in health care delivery in Nigeria. National Health Insurance Schemes’ adoption of Health Maintenance Organizations to manage NHIS enrollees is seen as an effective and efficient means of running the scheme. The effective performance of Health Maintenance Organizations’ role in the scheme, leads to increased access to health care services and ensures the overall achievement of NHIS goals. These organizations work on certain intricate modalities that do not allow HMOs to set their prices in managing NHIS enrollees but are still expected to ensure that enrollees are properly managed based on the agreed modalities for collaboration. If the scheme is successfully managed by the HMOs, there is the likelihood that the goals and objectives of NHIS would be achieved. And if not, NHIS goals would not be achieved. This is why the paper sought to investigate how this form of collaboration operates and the challenges that could result from collaboration. To achieve this therefore, a review of literature was done to highlight the functions of HMOs in Nigeria’s NHIS, and the possible challenges that could come with this form of collaboration. In undertaking this study, nine in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of participating organizations. At the end, the study discovered that HMOs played a prominent role in ensuring that the scheme is well implemented. The study therefore recommended that there should be constant review of the modalities on which the two organizations work as partners.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Public-Private Partnership, National Health Insurance Scheme, Health Maintenance Organization</p> Emelda I. Emmanuel Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Banks’ risk appetite, heterogeneity and monetary policy: evidence from Nigeria <p>The study examines the effects of bank heterogeneity on risk appetite under changing monetary policy stance of the monetary authority. The scope of the study covers the period 2005 to 2015 using data obtained from the published accounts of the affected banks and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin, various volumes. Using the AutoRegressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach, the study confirms that the risk appetite of commercial banks in Nigeria is significantly influenced by monetary policy variables and by bank-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the findings established the fact that domestic systemically important commercial banks in Nigeria tend to have lower appetite for risk than the unsystemic banks meaning that the bigger the banks, the safer the entire financial system in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that the Federal Government of Nigeria, through the agency of the Central Bank, should continue to keenly monitor the entire banking system, but particularly the systemically important banks (SIBs) to avoid distress or crisis in the financial system. Again, the unsystemic banks that are seen to be performing poorly should be encouraged to either merge or be acquired to form mega banks which will eventually make the entire system stronger.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Heterogeneity, risk appetite, monetary policy, monetary authority</p> A.E. Osuala, C.C. Opara Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Macroeconomic determinants of conditional stock-bond correlation <p>This paper analyzes effects of macroeconomic variables on cross- asset market linkages based on the stock-bond returns correlation. The study focuses on the dependence of stock-bond returns correlation on inflation and interest rate, and attempts to explain conditional stock-bond correlation using the argument that these variables’ effects change based on levels of their volatilities as suggested by rational present value asset pricing theory, rather than the characteristics of the distribution of conditional correlations. We propose that variation in the effects of expected level of interest rates and inflation across their volatility levels can explain conditional stock-bond returns correlation. The findings show that inflation expectations and volatilities but not interest rate can explain conditional stock-bond correlations.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Conditional stock-bond correlations, macroeconomic variables, inflation, volatilities</p> Favoured Mogbolu, Joshua Rotimi Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Tax aggressiveness and corporate social responsibility fluidity in Nigerian firms <p>Modern corporations epitomize the nexus between shareholding and wider-spectrum stake-holding, where key units desire to fundamentally maximize or fairly satisfice. Driven by benevolence, firms made meaningful contributions to society but now, many are exploiting the fluidity of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to lubricate tax aggressiveness. This study examines interfacing and intervening variables using data from 13 distinguished firms among Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) top 30. The analytical methods involve descriptive, correlation and regression statistics, with robust, fixed and random effects consideration. The results establish that tax aggressiveness is significantly related with CSR focal components (environmental enhancement and community involvement). Accordingly, the firms are implored to leverage on their fortunes to enhance tax compliance and reinvent CSR indulgence among globally competitive entities. This should strategically synchronize with transaction, speculation and precaution financing intents to forge mutually expedient cash flow mechanisms for sustainable corporate advancement and national development.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Corporate social responsibility, environment, stakeholder, tax, aggressiveness</p> Prince Umor C. Agundu, Akeem A. Siyanbola Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Poverty reduction strategies and programs: the Nigeria’s experience <p>Poverty reduction is one of the most important issues in the global development agenda because of its high prevalence and vicious effects in less developed countries. Nigeria represents the largest economy in Africa and one of the biggest producers of crude oil in the world, yet the country is counted amongst the poorest countries in the world. This paper reviews the poverty reduction strategies and programs in Nigeria using the historical research design. The paper concludes that poverty reduction programs in Nigeria have not been effective due to policy inconsistency and the lack of coordination between the federal government and the sub-national governments in policy design and implementation.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Poverty; Poverty reduction; Development; Nigeria</p> Hassan Nuhu Wali, Ismail Hayatu Sanusi Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Financial and economic implications of solid waste management in Nigeria <p>The paper empirically assessed financial and economic relevance of solid waste management in Nigeria. Two major hypotheses were formulated to govern the study. Survey research method was employed to generate data from 300 personnel of the internal revenue board and ministry of labour and productivity in Anambra State. Respondents to questionnaire were selected using random sampling technique and generated data was tested with Z-test statistic. Descriptively, a large proportion of respondents strongly agreed that solid waste management has significant effect on internally generated revenue (IGR) and youth employment in the state. Consistently, the computed Z values laid between -1.96 and 1.96 of their critical values implying the acceptance of the two alternative hypotheses. The paper among others suggests that Nigerian government should employ, train and empower unemployed youths in the area of solid waste management to reduce the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Solid waste, employment, internally generated revenue</p> Edward Ogbonnia Eleje, Peter C. Anienwelu, Gbenga Ayodele Adebayo Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 An analysis of flight announcers’ language at the Murtala Muhammed Airport, Lagos <p>Hearing an announcement made over the loud speaker in any Nigerian airport leaves most hearers with the impression that the announcer has an excellent command of English. There are however some listeners, mostly travellers that claim that they barely hear or understand what is being announced. This is a serious challenge since air travel is a global phenomenon that requires the highest level of intelligibility. This study thus aims to investigate the pronunciation pattern in the language of flight announcers at the Murtala Muhammed Airport, Lagos, in line with the Labov's theory of Linguistic Variation. Data was elicited from ten flight announcers, through purposive sampling; using a questionnaire and reading test. Output of the reading test was recorded, phonetically transcribed and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result showed that exposure to native speakers, age of respondents and years of working experience, affects correct pronunciation. It also showed that most flight announcers approximate the English phonemes with what is obtainable in their mother tongue while some others exhibited cases of dialectically influenced personal speech handicap.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Flight announcers, intelligibility, linguistic variation, pronunciation pattern</p> Bereton-aye Esther Ugboko, Charles Ogbulogo Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Government policy on privatization of power in Nigeria: end-users financial cost perspective <p>Since the privatization of the power sector in Nigeria in 1999, the cost impact to end-users have not received adequate empirical evaluation. Using data from consumers of privatized electricity power in Enugu State, this paper sought to evaluate the significant effect of privatization on end-users of electricity product. The survey research method was employed with two major hypotheses formulated to govern the study. Respondents were selected using random sampling technique and generated data was tested with Z-test statistic. Descriptively, a proportion of the respondents strongly agreed that privatization has a significant cost effect on consumers. The finding led to the acceptance of the two alternative hypotheses and rejection of the null hypotheses because the computed Z values were between -1.96 and 1.96 of their critical values. The paper among others recommed that government should establish a mechanism to regulate charges to end users of electricity product by privatized electricity distribution companies.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Privatization, electricit, financial cost, end users</p> Edward Ogbonnia Eleje, Peter C. Anienwelu, Yemisi Funmilayo Bosun-Fakunle Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Relationships between fluid pressure and capillary pressure in permeability and wettability predictions <p>In this work, the Bower’s and Gardner’s technique of velocity-to fluid pressure gradient methods were applied on seismic reflection data in order to predict fluid pressure of an X- oil field in Niger Delta Basin. Results show significant deflection common with fluid pressure zones . With average connate water saturation Swc computed to be 6%, capillary pressure and fluid pressure respectively 292-399 and 1212-1239 psi, the same relative permeability and wettability were predicted. The wavy signature of the curves suggest large pore throats, i.e increase in grain sizes of the particles as the depths of deposition increased, confirming the fining upward sequences that characterize proximal deltaic regions. More oil is therefore possible to occupy these larger pore throats. Well (1) indicates water-wet reservoir. With 54% Sw at kro equal to krw, well 1 is interpreted as a water-wet reservoir, while Well (2) indicates a mixed wettability, with 54% and 46% Sw at kro equal to krw. This suggests that well (2) will have some EOR implications during production. It is also possible that once oil is in place, the operation of temperature and pressure might have geochemically altered the properties of the mineral surfaces such that they become oil wet. Therefore mature reservoir might have a mixed wettability, with water-wet in small pores containing water and oil-wet in larger pores containing oil.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fluid, pressure, capillary, wettability, permeability</p> O.B. Eke, N.A. Nsiegbe, I.A. Ogunleke Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of project work on secondary school students science process skill acquisition in biology <p>The study investigated the effect of students’ project work on secondary school science process skills acquisition in Biology. The study was carried out in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State. Three research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of the study was quasi experimental design; specifically pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group design. The sample consisted of one hundred and thirty four (134) SSII biology students. A Science Process Skill Acquisition Test (SPSAT) was used for Data Collection. The instrument was validated by experts and the reliability co-efficient obtained was 0.87 using the test-retest method in conjunction with the Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significance for the hypotheses. The results revealed that students’ project work had a significant effect on science process skill acquisition in biology. It also revealed that Gender was not a significant factor in students’ science process skill acquisition in biology. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended among others that workshops and conferences should be organized to update the teachers’ knowledge on the use of students project work as an instructional strategy for enhancement of students’ acquisition of science process skills in biology.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Project work, science process skill acquisition, gender</p> Chris O. Obialor, Abigail M. Osuafor, E.I. Nnadi Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000