Material, compressional and mechanical properties of Borassus aethiopum (African fan palm) starches
The compressional and mechanical properties of tablet formulations incorporating native and modified Borassus aethiopum starches as binder were evaluated. The native Borassus aethiopum starch (BAS) was modified to yield fully gelatinised starch (FGBAS) and microcrystalline starch (MBAS). The compressional properties of the starches were evaluated using geometric analysis, Heckel and Kawakita equations, while the mechanical properties were assessed through tensile strength and brittle fracture index determinations. The results show that modification had significant effect on both the compressional and mechanical properties of Borassus native starch (p< 0.05). The modified starches had a lower particle diameter and a corresponding increase in surface properties, and angle of repose. The ranking order for the angle of repose and surface factor is MBAS>FGBAS>BAS, while the ranking order for particle diameter is MBAS<FGBAS<BAS. The ranking order the mean values of the starches is BAS>MBAS>FGBAS, FGBAS with the least py values had the fastest on set of plastic deformation while MBAS with the least pk and BFI values has highest overall plastic deformation, and least tendency to produce tablets with production defects such as capping and lamination. Modified Borassus starches show significant improved mechanical and compressional properties over the native Borassus starch.
Keywords: Borassus starches, tablets, compressional and mechanical properties