Epidemiology of odontogenic infections in a secondary healthcare centre in Southern Nigeria
Association of odontogenic infections with several systemic diseases is of public health importance in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the epidemiological and microbiological profiles of odontogenic infections and it aetiologic agents in dental patients in Benin City metropolis. Surface and deep socket swabs were collected from each patient before and after tooth extraction and processed for aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out on each isolate using standard microbiological methods. Demographics of patients were collected with standard data recording format. Patients aged 20-29 years were more predisposed to odontogenic infections, predominantly peridontitis (51.5%) followed by caries (18.6%) and irreversible pulpitis (9.3%). Teeth in the right lower quadrant of the mouth were most frequently excised in both sexes. Predominant isolates were: β-haemolytic Streptococci (34%), Enterococci (20.6%), Corynebacteria (11.9%), Staphylococci (9.3%), γ-haemolytic Streptococci (5.2%), Neisseria (1.5%), Bacillus (1%), and α-haemolytic Streptococci (0.5%). There was low level of susceptibility of isolates to amoxicillin 30% and high level of susceptibility to perfloxacin (80%). A total of 19.1% of isolates were resistant to the five classes of antibiotics, indicative of multiple drug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. Our study has shown that, treatment of odontogenic infection in the study centre must change and be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility test result to ensure rational use of available antimicrobials.
Keywords: Odontogenic infections; Antimicrobial activity; Epidemiological profile; Isolates