Effect of aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. on cat blood pressure and rat gastrointestinal tract
Studies were conducted to assay the therapeutic potentials of the dried fruit of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. believed in traditional medicine to be useful both as a laxative and a hypotensive agent. The plant material was extracted with distilled water and the extract was concentrated in vacuo with a yield of 15.34%w/w. The effects of the extract on the gastrointestinal propulsion of charcoal meal for laxative effect and on blood pressure of albino rats at known concentrations were monitored. Also, phytochemical analysis to determine the chemical constituents of this extract was performed. The results showed that the extract dose-dependently decreased the adrenaline-induced hypertension in rats from 0.1 to 0.4 ml 2 mg/ml after which further increase in extract dose did not lead to a further reduction in blood pressure. The extract also dose-dependently increased intestinal propulsion from 25 mg/kg to 200 mg/kg (p < 0.05) with the charcoal meal after which there was no further increase. The dried powdered fruit was observed to contain alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, sterols, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, saponins, reducing sugars, combined sugars and ketoses. The study shows that the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum could be useful as a laxative and hypotensive agent.
Keywords: Solanum macrocarpum, blood pressure, hypotensive effect, laxative effect; aqueous extract