Journal of Philosophy and Culture 2021-03-29T15:25:19+00:00 Prof. Peter K. Grant Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Philosophy and Culture is devoted to the promotion of scholarship in philosophy, culture and allied disciplines.</p><p> </p> Plutarch’s Essay on Superstition as a Socio-Religious Perspective on Street Begging 2021-03-29T15:21:51+00:00 G. O. Adekannbi <p>Plutarch (c.46AD), in his work,<em> Peri </em><em>Deisidaimon</em>ia<em> </em>(On Superstition)<em>,</em> presents a striking portrayal of superstition in the First Century. The Philosopher who also served for decades as a priest of Apollo portrays the pernicious effects of some supposed religious practices as worse than the outcome of atheism. His position constitutes a forceful explanation to ostensibly controversial socio-religious behaviours. This article discusses some of the priest’s concerns as well as his rebuff of religious attitudes that are borne out of what he describes as misrepresentation of the gods or superstition. Plutarch’s essay is seen as illustrating a reason for a socio-religious situation in Africa, a continent that shares a similar religious background with the world of the writer. Specifically, with the example of the hard fight against street begging in some parts of Nigeria, the article shows how social reform programmes could fail when effects of traditional African beliefs and cultural practices remain potent. <strong></strong></p> 2014-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) How to Talk about Physical Reality? Other Models, Other Questions 2021-03-29T15:23:08+00:00 Benjamin B. Olshin <p>Investigating the nature of our apparent physical reality is a profound challenge. Our models from physics, while powerful, do not treat reality <em>per se</em>. The famous painter Paul Gaugin articulated the relevant existential questions famously in a grand painting - questions that also give the painting its title: <em>D’où venons-nous? Que sommes-nous? Où allons-nous?</em> People of religious faith, of course, assume that one can know the ultimate truth of reality, and, then, know the answers to these questions. But even in such a case, there is the issue of how a believer has obtained their faith, through a revelatory or other epistemological process. Joseph Campbell grasped the difficulty of framing the key questions, noting that, “the transcendent is unknowable and unknown. God is transcendent, finally, of anything like the name ‘God.’ God is beyond names and forms.” This metaphysical puzzle concern, in part, models. Physics uses models, and such models are powerful tools: they allow us to navigate through the physical reality we live in, and manipulate aspects of it. However, the models do not lead humanity closer to any ultimate truth, or even give us a clue that there might <em>be</em> an ultimate truth. The problem of using models and talking about reality can be viewed in a new way however, using certain structures in Chinese philosophy. The ancient <em>Dao De Jing</em> states: “The heavens and the earth are not partial to institutionalized morality”. We can extend that to say, “The universe is not partial to institutionalized models”.</p><p> </p> 2014-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Problem of Destiny in Akan and Yoruba Traditional Thoughts: A Comparative Analysis of the Works of Wiredu, Gyekye and Gbadegesin 2021-03-29T15:23:50+00:00 Majeed M. H. <p>Many African scholars have expressed varied thoughts about the concept of a person, specifically about that which constitutes a person in African philosophy. These philosophers include Kwasi Wiredu, Kwame Gyekye and Segun Gbadegesin. What they have in common, though, is that their ideas on the concept of a person issue largely from the traditional philosophies of some West African peoples. Wiredu and Gyekye reflect on Akan conceptions while Gbadegesin carries out his discussions from the Yoruba cultural perspective. This paper examines the thoughts of these prominent philosophers, with a particular focus on the constitution of the person and the nature of his or her destiny.</p> 2015-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies 2021-03-29T15:25:01+00:00 Olakunbi O Olasope <p>In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the Graeco-Roman world. It still carries a capital charge in some societies and is considered a felony in others. As for adultery, it may be prosecuted in some cultures while in others it is a matter to be decided by the family council.</p><p>This paper examines laws concerning the abuse of and exploitation of women in ancient and modern societies, especially within the context of their biologically determined roles and sexual culture. It also seeks to establish the socio-legal rights (if any) of women, especially those who were traumatised and sexually abused. The research method is mainly content analysis. It employs sources such as legal evidence in the form of recorded speeches of the Attic orators along with literary accounts, historical or legendary and epigraphic inscriptions.</p> 2014-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Why Was Carthage Destroyed? A Re-Examination from an Economic Perspective 2021-03-29T15:25:19+00:00 Goke Akinboye <p>The story of Rome’s destruction of the once buoyant maritime city of Carthage in 146 B.C. has been explained by many scholars, generally, in terms of the fear and security threats posed by Carthaginian naval authority and great trade across the Mediterranean. This kind of generalization leaves little room for other intrinsic causes of the destruction and plays down the core policies that characterized Roman imperialism in North Africa during the Republican times.</p><p>Adopting the political economy approach, this paper, therefore, re-examines from the economic perspective, the principles and dynamics which underlined the international relations of Rome in Africa during the stirring times of the second and third Punic wars with a view to identifying the strong economic motives that led to the eventual annihilation of Carthage. The paper shows that Carthaginian Africa was a region of great economic potential in the western Mediterranean. It reveals that Rome was a typically imperialistic state which employed various <em>divide et impera</em> stratagems to exploit the rich agricultural resources of the region. The paper concludes that the crippling of Carthage was premised not just on the fear or jealousy of Carthage but more importantly on the Roman desire to exploit the North African vast territories, wealth and agricultural resources.</p> 2014-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)