Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) 2024-01-07T11:25:35+00:00 Dr. Damilola S. Olawuyi (Executive Director) Open Journal Systems <p><em>The Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy</em> (JSDLP) is Nigeria’s first interdisciplinary&nbsp;sustainable development journal, published by the OGEES Institute, Afe Babalola University, Nigeria.&nbsp;The journal fosters the dissemination of research results and scholarly papers by teaching and&nbsp;research scholars in Africa and across the world in the area of sustainable development law and&nbsp;policy. The OGEES Institute publishes two issues per year.</p> <p>The thematic focus of the journal span across broad areas of sustainable development law and policy&nbsp;ranging from the economic, social and environmental dimensions. As such papers that explore broad&nbsp;themes of sustainable development such as environment, natural resources, green economy,&nbsp;international trade, banking, taxation, public policy, public private partnerships, alternative dispute&nbsp;resolutions, peace, and conflict studies are normally given top consideration. The Editorial Board of&nbsp;the Journal comprises international development scholars and experts from Italy, United Kingdom,&nbsp;Indonesia, Nigeria, Canada and the United States that provide leadership and lend their expertise to&nbsp;promote and enhance the scholarly relevance of the journal.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Editorial Comment 2024-01-07T10:35:37+00:00 Victor Ojakorotu <p>No abstract.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Making schooling a sustainable development project: A case of rural secondary schools in Limpopo Province 2024-01-07T10:38:16+00:00 Ngwako Solomon Modiba <p>This paper explores how schooling could be made a sustainable development project for rural secondary school learners whose drop-out rate is alarmingly high. The paper resulted from diverse discourses some of which regard current rural secondary school learners to be facing a bleak future considering how they prematurely exit the secondary schooling system in large numbers. This paper is conceptual and empirical in nature within the qualitative research paradigm. The research question guiding this paper is: what shall it take to transform the current public secondary school system to remain captivating and absorbing for rural learners never to be tempted to drop-out? Interviewing technique and documents review were employed to collect data. Out of the population of 16 secondary schools in one of the circuits in the Sekhukhune district in Limpopo Province, South Africa, three rural secondary schools were conveniently sampled. In each of the school, a science education specialist or head of department, a teacher serving in the School Governing Body and a Chairperson of the Representative Council of Learners, became research participants. Findings revealed that firstly, schooling could facilitate upward socioeconomic mobility of learners. Secondly, enduring schooling could be a key to escaping rural poverty. Thirdly, schooling could reduce inequalities. Fourthly, schooling could foster tolerance and peaceful societies. Fifthly, schooling could generate gender equity. Lastly, without schooling non-proficiency rates by learners could remain disturbingly high. The researcher recommends for the addressing of the gap between the rural under-connected, under-developed and the highly digitalised secondary schools to ascertain that no single learner is left behind as regards the sustainable development project through schooling. Furthermore, for the thriving of sustainable development project, governments need to be encouraged to prioritise schooling of all rural learners in policy and practice.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Bridging The Gap: Harnessing Diaspora Philanthropy to Develop Rural Infrastructure in Zimbabwe 2024-01-07T10:41:27+00:00 Lewis Edwin Chigova Costa Hofisi <p>Research on diaspora philanthropy's contribution to rural development is growing. With increasing Zimbabwean emigration, investigating the migration-remittance-development nexus is vital. This paper explores the main drivers, actors, and opportunities central to diaspora philanthropy in bridging the resource gap in rural development through a qualitative research approach. Document analysis and literature review are applied as data collection tools. It uses Ubuntu, Stewardship Theory, and the United Nations’ “leaving no one behind” mantra as theoretical frameworks to showcase how diaspora philanthropy can aid in bridging the resource gap in rural infrastructure development. The paper highlights the rural projects that have received support from diaspora communities in Zimbabwe. Additionally, the paper exposes the institutional, legal and policy frameworks enabling diaspora philanthropic activities in Zimbabwe to maximise their potential impact on rural communities. It concludes that diaspora philanthropy contributes to sustainable rural infrastructure development. The paper recommends reviewing the Zimbabwe diaspora policy and enacting enabling legislation to provide clear guidelines for enabling frameworks for diaspora philanthropic activities.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Covid-19 Pandemic and Institutional Management at The Higher Learning Institution in Gauteng Province 2024-01-07T10:43:52+00:00 Sihle Dlamini Kaizer Makole <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has affected institutional management at higher learning institutions in South Africa, including Gauteng province. Institutional managers were challenged to think strategically to maintain sound functionality. In the South African institutional context, restrictive measures of level 5 lockdown forced higher learning institutions to adopt online learning without proper preparation impacting on quality of institutional management, undertaking research, and learning and teaching. ‘Uberfication’ of the university in learning and teaching affected social interactions which is a hallmark of academic freedom through knowledge sharing and debates for intellectual stimulation. Unintended consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic called for new institutional management approaches at higher learning institutions in the Gauteng province to maintain the stability of effective administration and management for students’ academic success. A qualitative study using a case study design was undertaken to analyze how departmental managers performed their administrative duties to safeguard teaching and learning during the Covid-19 pandemic in a higher learning institution in the Gauteng Province. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze findings and recommend solutions for effective institutional management in higher learning to prepare for crises similar to the Covid-19 pandemic. The study contributes to institutional management approaches during social crises.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Covid-19, Development, and sustainability of Peace in Conflict-Affected African Countries 2024-01-07T10:45:45+00:00 Samuel Chukwudi Agunyai <p>Contrary to the general opinion that the COVID-19 pandemic is destructive, it presented a mutual agreement situation between conflicting parties in some African states. Although the sustainability of this mutual agreement is difficult to establish, evidence shows that conflicting parties jointly agreed to combat the common enemy called COVID-19 purposefully because the pandemic affects all, including warriors in battle fields. While several studies on this subject are quick to criticize the pandemic as highly destructive, there is very little research on the positive attributes of the pandemic. Drawing on secondary data and state fragility theory, this article examines how the pandemic somehow stimulated development and peace in some conflict-ridden African states. It specifically interrogates how sustainable development and peace were during the pandemic era. The findings reveal the extent to which development and peace have fared amid COVID-19 in Africa.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Exploring policies and Acts on Gender mainstreaming and the criteria for promotions in institutions of higher learning: A case study of a rural based University in Limpopo, South Africa 2024-01-07T10:47:25+00:00 Abgirl Muleya Tsoaledi Daniel Thobejane <p>This article examines the intricate relationship between sustainable development, policy formulation, and legal instruments that address gender disparities in promotions within institutions of higher learning around the world, and South Africa in particular. In this article we explore the conundrum of gender inequalities and policies that seem to promote gender equity and the inability by institutions of higher learning, to implement them. Promotion criteria in these institutions are also looked at to ascertain whether they are still skewed towards male academics or not. The South African Constitution addresses gender equality and employment equity. However, female academics are barely visible in senior positions, thus prompting us to question whether this democratic constitution is being adhered to. A qualitative analysis was used to measure the gendered-ness of the promotion criteria at a particular institution of higher learning in the Northern part of South Africa called Limpopo. The study uses a qualitative approach in collecting and analysing the data. Also, a focused ethnographic research was embarked upon as this method is applicable to any discipline whenever there is a desire to explore specific cultural perspectives held by groups of people (in this instance, female academics) within a specific problem-focused framework such as those female academics who are facing challenges when it comes to promotions. Findings from the study reveal that most of the female academics were aware of the requirement of the promotion criteria and that it was applied in the same manner for both males and females. However, Female academics were few in senior positions due to the fact that the promotion criteria were very stringent and that institutions of higher learning fail to recognize that men and women have dissimilar needs, interests, and responsibilities. Furthermore, there were academics who were frustrated with not progressing and opted to settle in their current positions because they disliked being tasked with handling complicated responsibilities that would disturb them from their household duties. The study therefore recommends that community leaders and policymakers should also work together in advocating for gender-inclusive policies and legislation that promote equal opportunities for women in all spheres of life, including in institutions of higher learning and TVET’s (Technical and Vocational Educational Training Institutions)</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Role of Emotional Intelligence in South African State-Owned Entity Leadership for Sustainable Business Management and Development 2024-01-07T10:49:18+00:00 Philani Emmanuel Ndimande Pfano Mashau <p>The State Companies has faced significant challenges attributed to mismanagement and leadership abuses, leading to the disruption of crucial business operations, particularly within supply chain and finance processes, as well as violations of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA). Furthermore, the organization has experienced a loss of vital expertise, largely due to the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic. These issues are intricately intertwined with the emotions of individuals, the caliber of leadership within the organization, and the overall approach to business management. Hence, it becomes imperative to investigate the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the effective governance of this prominent state-owned enterprise. This study adopted a quantitative research approach to explore the intricate relationships among various variables. Utilizing a census sampling method, the research encompassed the entire population (n=130), employing a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of three distinct assessments while adhering to rigorous standards of reliability, validity, and ethical considerations. The findings of this study show the substantial influence of managers' emotional intelligence on the management of business activities within this state-owned entity. Moreover, it was established that demographic factors such as race, age, educational level, and gender did not yield statistically significant variations in emotional intelligence. Nevertheless, the study did identify a certain level of significance regarding the impact of COVID-19 on business management. In light of these findings, it is recommended that the organization institute training programs and departmental sessions focused on enhancing emotional intelligence, thereby fostering greater emotional intelligence insights and practical applications across the organization. Such measures are essential for the organization's sustained growth and development in the pursuit of sustainable business management.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sustainability Development and Environment in Africa: A philosophical review 2024-01-07T10:51:46+00:00 Phemelo Olifile Marumo <p>Both the environment and the possibility of a better living are benefited by sustainable development. However, if it is used improperly, it may harm people, the environment, and sustainable development. This is seen in how the earth has degraded as a result of poor management. Due to soil erosion, deforestation, and climate change that are being caused in the name of sustainable development, the ecosystem is being drained. This outcome is linked to the explorers' self-centeredness, which was motivated by their interests and wealth. Many mining dumps that have not been sealed after being inspected for diamonds, gold, and other minerals and natural resources like rice, potatoes, corn, and so forth are examples of this, and they are used to over-plough the land in the name of sustainability development and living the earth barren.<br>The illegal miners who are aggravating environmental harm and accelerating earth deterioration for future generations are using the mining dumps further in the name of sustainable development by reducing poverty and unemployment in South Africa. The environment will deteriorate and become uninhabitable if this is not monitored. Using the search engines like Desktop, articles and proceedings, the paper will begin by highlighting sustainability development and its admirable goals of bringing about a better quality of life for the populace. However, this did not last for very long because diligent explorers invaded the planet, harming the ecosystem. The paper will then focus on the effects of environmental degradation after effects on sustainable development. The study will attempt to establish how an African environmental stewardship philosophy might help with the preservation of the ecosystem as it closes.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Enyigba-Izzi -Echalike-Ikwo Land Crisis and Implications for Societal Development 2024-01-07T10:54:13+00:00 Kelechi Johnmary Ani <p>In African modern states, boundary demarcations were artificially created during independence by the colonial imperialist. This was because the colonial imperialists who led Africans to the path of independence sat at the comfort of their offices and drew the map of Africa. While it could be said that our nationalists were only interested in freedom, their failure to clearly define inter-state borders has continued to challenge the security of their lives and property. This study focuses on Enyigba-Izzi and Echalike-Ikwo crisis and its implications for societal development in Nigeria. The study which was rooted on the human need theory used key informant interviews in collecting data from the field. The study found that the armed conflict has been recurrent and intermittent in the area from 1961 till 2021. It documents the multiple negative effects of the conflict in relations to the sustainable development of that environment. The study finally recommends multi-dimensional post conflict peacebuilding strategies that would bring peace and development to the area.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Covid-19 Pandemic Is a Clarion Call for A Systems-Thinking Based Approach 2024-01-07T10:56:32+00:00 Phakamani M Buthelezi <p>This qualitative research-based study evaluates the level of preparedness of newly qualified higher learning entrants to higher learning centers. The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has brought about an unexpected innovation to higher education. The post effects are a clarion call to the global community to jointly collaborate, integrate and interconnect learning to cope with any unexpected pandemic in the future. The pandemic is continuously making an abecedarius of a systems-thinking based approach. Whilst learning is increasingly relying on digital technology, the overall education approach is missing an approach that integrates pre and post higher learning elements to a sustainable education system which is ready for any future pandemic. The study is based on responses of ten university students who entered the university for the first time during the COVID-19 pandemic. The students were randomly selected to answer 5 open-ended questions using a qualitative research method. The results have shown that moving from a normal school learning environment to a higher education environment was traumatic and created unnecessary confusion. Also, the support given at the time was inadequate as students had to climatize themselves with university life. The results further point out that there must be an integration between high school and university education. The integration requires adequate support for everyone involved in the education system. Importantly, the study recommends that investing in digital technology is an indispensable necessity that does not only make students to be globally competitive but makes them to be ahead of any eventuality. This study provides feedback from universities’ students/participants to better improve e-learning.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Illegal Gold Mining and Sustainable Human Security in Osun State, Nigeria 2024-01-07T10:59:05+00:00 Ruth Oore-ofe Ogunnowo Victor Ojakorotu <p>There is an abundance of gold in Osun state, Nigeria. The illegal exploration of gold is a bane of the state. Section 44 (3) of the Nigerian Minerals and Mining Law of 1999 vests the ownership and control of mineral resources within the country on the Federal Government. However, anthropogenic activities such as illegal mining thrives in Osun state, further altering the ecology of affected communities. Farmlands have been confiscated by illegal miners and dug about 200 meters below landscape, allowing for erosion and soil contamination. The study aims to assess the environmental security effects of illegal mining on the host communities in Osun state, Nigeria. While environmental security is the focal point of discourse, other elements of human security stem from the former. Secondary sources such as books, journals, and internet materials will be employed. The study finds out that the enactment of sustainable development policies and legal frameworks notwithstanding, illegal gold mining activities thrive in the local communities of Osun state, Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that regulatory agencies conduct surveillance of the mines and strictly enforce punitive measures to defaulters of the mining law in Nigeria.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Has Covid-19 really moved education to 4IR where learning will be digital, with a few occasions of face-to-face engagements? 2024-01-07T11:01:14+00:00 Vincent Motau <p>The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic had an impact on institutions of higher learning in Africa. As a result, the government introduced a new system of learning that led the institutions of higher learning to shift away from physical or face-to-face teaching and learning to online. This made some of the universities comprehend that online learning is doable in Africa. The aim of this study is to examine whether Covid-19 really moved education to 4IR where learning will be digital, with a few occasions of face-to-face engagements? This paper followed a qualitative methodology and was guided by an exploratory research design. The data was collected from 25 participants who were selected purposively. The collected data was transcribed using Microsoft Word and analyzed using thematic content analysis. A key finding of this paper is that the lectures and students were inconvenienced by the introduction of online learning and teaching. Most of the academic institutions still prefer physical learning because it is effective and affordable. This paper recommends that a hybrid approach of teaching and learning be adopted as the digital system should also not be abandoned post-COVID-19 because it makes it easier to conduct teaching and learning in institutions of higher learning.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Local Economic Development in the Post-Apartheid South Africa 2024-01-07T11:02:59+00:00 Lusanda Beauty Juta <p>Concerted efforts have been geared towards development in the South African Post-apartheid era at local level. Studies have shown that local governments have recognized local economic development as a crucial tool for addressing development-related challenges. The extent to which the municipalities have ingrained the local economic development goal, however, has received little to no attention. Hence, this paper intends to fill the missing gap and answers the following questions: what are the key components of economic development at the local level in the post-apartheid era? To what extent has the local economic development stimulated growth and development with particular reference to small and medium scale enterprise? What are the donors’ approaches to local development and their critical challenges? Using the secondary sources of data collection, this paper reviews current level of economic development at local municipalities in South Africa. Thereafter, it examines the impact of the municipal government strategies designed to stimulate political and socio-economic development agenda at the local level in South Africa. This paper identifies strategic planning and local resources needed to address the local economic development in South Africa.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Prosodic and Morphological Survey of Siswati Personal Names 2024-01-07T11:04:33+00:00 Khulisile Judith Nkuna Joshua Jabulani Mayisela <p>This article explores how personal names are granted to EmaSwati nation. Personal naming system is a significant practice among Africans and it differs greatly from language to language. Personal names belong to the science called onomastics and to a further category named <em>anthroponomastics</em>, while place names belongs to <em>toponomastics</em>. The rationale of this work is to provide the structural meanings, interpretations and principles of unity from structural to functional views. The morphological principles and structures are expected to ensure that they are linguistically combined for harmonized connotations and meanings. Morphological structures of Siswati personal names are investigated, with a focus on prefixes, suffixes, and infixes that convey information about gender, age, and social status. Morphological patterns are analyzed to discern any historical or sociolinguistic influences. The study also delv es into the semantic layers of Siswati personal names, uncovering the meanings, associations, and cultural connotations attached to specific names. This semantic analysis sheds light on how names reflect the values and beliefs of the Siswati speaking community. The bestowal of personal names are influenced by the process of enculturation and socialization which are shown by multiculturalism. They are looked at from social and cultural life of the society and morphologically delineated. The prosodic features such as stress, intonation and rhythm are vital for correct pronunciation of sounds. The linguistics and textual analysis are adopted for this research work.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Moving Towards Equitable Society: Attitudes of Female Emerging Adults Towards LGBTQIA + Community in Lagos, Nigeria 2024-01-07T11:10:20+00:00 Israel Uzochukwu Akinwale Gbenusola Abike <p>The younger people are expressing diverse views and attitudes towards LGBTQIA+ community in most countries and Nigeria is also becoming more receptive to people that are seen as being different. The present study examined the attitude of female emerging adults towards the homosexual community in Lagos State, Nigeria with the aim of investigating the attitude of female emerging adults towards the homosexual community based on the demographic variables, as well as examine the extent in which religiosity predicts the attitude of female emerging adults towards homosexual community. Cross sectional survey design was used in this study using convenient sampling method, a sample of 394 female emerging adults participated in the study. Two standardised psychological instruments, namely: Attitude towards Homosexuality scale (ATHS) English-version and Religious Affiliation Scale (RAS) were used. Findings revealed a significant positive relationship between religiosity and attitude of female emerging adults towards homosexual community. Furthermore, results indicated that religiosity is a significant predictor of attitude of female emerging adults’ attitudes towards homosexual community and finally, participants with high levels of religiosity reported more positive attitude towards the Homosexual community. In conclusion, the study revealed that religiosity plays a significant role in shaping the attitude of female emerging adults towards homosexual community, highlighting the need for further exploration of this relationship, additional factors that may be a contributor to shaping our attitude within the African context.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Unlocking academic excellence: The journey of online tutors at a distance learning institution in South Africa 2024-01-07T11:13:10+00:00 Prince Chukwuneme Enwereji Annelien Adriana van Rooyen <p>The study set out to assess the efficacy of an online tutoring programme at a large distance education institution in South Africa based on lecturers’ evaluations. Online-tutoring or e-tutoring has emerged as a prominent educational support system, particularly in the context of online and distance learning. Understanding how lecturers perceive the effectiveness of e-tutoring is crucial for improving and optimizing this mode of instructional support. The study employed a quantitative research approach, utilizing online questionnaires as data collection instruments. The questionnaires focused on capturing the lecturers' assessments on the advantages, challenges, and overall effectiveness of e-tutoring services in facilitating student learning. Statistical methods, such as descriptive statistics and inferential analysis, were utilized to analyse the collected data and draw meaningful conclusions. The findings reveal that the lecturers perceive e-tutoring as a valuable resource which enhances student learning outcomes. The advantages highlighted include personalized support, improved accessibility, and flexibility in meeting individual student needs. The online tutors (e-tutors) were seen as effective in addressing students' queries and providing clarifications on complex subject matters. However, several challenges were also identified, such as the need for adequate training and support for e-tutors, ensuring consistency in quality, and managing the workload associated with e-tutoring responsibilities. Lecturers emphasized the importance of professional development and collaborative efforts between e-tutors and academic staff to enhance the overall effectiveness of e-tutoring services. The study concludes that e-tutoring has the potential to significantly contribute to the academic success of students at the University of South Africa.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Contradictions of Market-Friendly Policies in Post-Apartheid South African Municipalities 2024-01-07T11:15:31+00:00 Ntsikelelo Benjamin Breakfast <p>This article provides a closer examination of the extent of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE), public–private partnerships (PPPs) and the outsourcing of services at local government level, which South African local government authorities are required by legislation to implement. This includes examining their theoretical underpinnings and the documents or legislation that set them up, their objectives, the extent of their use, their possible incompatibility and any formal evaluation of them (policy documents and legislation that have been carried out). The principal aim of this article is to provide an in-depth analysis of the market-friendly policies at local government level. The central question is: Do business-friendly policies promote sustainable development for the majority at local government level in South Africa? This is a qualitative literature review study. At the theoretical level, the political economy as a method of analysis is employed as a standpoint theory. There is a tendency–in some of the critical literature which creates a knowledge gap, as well as in the public debate – to include the whole set of policies as constituting a simple neoliberal package, which is problematic. There is an invidious interdependency between the two tendencies. Although the B-BBEE elements may be seen to be antithetical to free-market strategies, they in fact rely on those free-market elements to remain effective. The main line of argument in this article is that business-friendly policies in the form of B BBEE and PPPs are partly inspired by neoliberalism (B-BBEE is not neoliberal per se, although it may be heavily influenced by it) and neoliberalism in practice is contradictory in nature as it involves the allocation of state resources to politically influential individuals, rather than promoting economic development for the majority.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Management of Diversity: A Major Challenge to Governance in Democratic Countries 2024-01-07T11:17:02+00:00 Emeka Anyaoku <p>No abstract.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Bridging Sectors for Tomorrow’s Success: Redefining Higher Education Spaces through Industry Collaboration for Classroom Innovation, Mental Health, and Students’ Well-Being 2024-01-07T11:20:16+00:00 Philip G. Laird <p>No abstract.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024