The use of Ultrasound in distinguishing complications of the Jugular Vein arising from Intravenous Catheters and Injections in Horses
The ultrasound technique was used to provide both structural and functional information concerning the integrity of the jugular vein following intravenous infusion and injections. These were performed in the routine administration of antibiotics and fluids for the treatment of horses mainly suffering from colic. The complications noted during examination included peri-phlebitis, thrombosis-phlebitis and peri-venous abscesses of varying sizes at the injection site, and something affecting most of the jugular vein. The different lesions which often could not be determined, particularly in cases of thrombo-phlebitis where partial or complete occlusion of the vein occurred. When noted early, using ultrasonography, exacerbaration of the thrombus could be prevented by avoiding repeated intravenous injection or by the removal of indwelling catheter.
The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 21 2001: pp. 16-19