Lexikos https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex <p><em>Lexikos</em> is the official journal of the African Association for Lexicography (AFRILEX). The aim of <em>Lexikos</em> is to create a vehicle for national and international discussion of lexicography, and in particular to serve lexicography in Africa with its rich variety of languages; – to stimulate discourse between lexicographers as well as between lexicographers and linguists; – to establish and promote contact with local and foreign lexicographic projects; – to focus general attention on the interdisciplinary nature of lexicography, which also involves fields such as linguistics, general linguistics, lexicology, computer science, management, etc.; – to further and coordinate cooperation in all fields of lexicography; and – to promote the aims of the African Association for Lexicography (AFRILEX). Impact Factor: Lexikos is ISI-rated by Thompson Reuters on their various indexes, namely Arts and Humanities Citation Index®, Current Contents®/Arts &amp; Humanities, Current Contents®/Social and Behavioral Sciences, Journal Citation Reports/Social Sciences Edition, Social Sciences Citation Index®, and Social Scisearch® The Impact Factor of Lexikos in the Linguistics category with their latest rankings was 0.667. Lexikos is furthermore indexed on Scopus, Linguistic Bibliography Online, Linguistics Abstracts Online, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA International Bibliography &amp; R.R.K. Hartmann's Bibliography of Lexicography.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="http://lexikos.journals.ac.za/" href="http://lexikos.journals.ac.za/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://lexikos.journals.ac.za</a></p> Bureau of the WAT en-US Lexikos 1684-4904 Copyright is owned by: Bureau of the WAT Synonymy from a prototype theory perspective and its symbiosis with polysemy: Towards a new dictionary of synonyms https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257616 <p>This paper presents an attempt at providing a model for comprehensive, precise and systematic presentation of a word's synonymy within a dictionary entry, especially in the case of highly polysemous words. It is founded on the complementarity of polysemy and synonymy and a prototype-based view of the latter lexical relation. The proposed model is presented through four steps of tailoring an entry in a new dictionary of synonyms: the analysis of a word's polysemous structure, the compilation of a word's synonym sets viewed as prototype-based categories, the definition of synonyms within a set and the structure and organisation of an individual synonym set and the whole entry. Comprehensiveness of synonymy presentation according to the model is reflected in the fact that an entry lists synonym sets corresponding to different senses of the given headword as well as in the tendency for each set to offer a wide range of synonyms. Systematicity and precision in synonymy presentation are achieved primarily due to the application of prototype-based principles to the structuring and organizing of synonym sets and the defining of synonyms. The model also opens up the possibility of a transparent diagram-based visual representation of a word's synonymy in an electronic dictionary offering a more convenient visual organisation of large amounts of information.</p> Ana Halas Popović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 1 23 African Englishes in the <i>Oxford English Dictionary</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257619 <p>In some of its recent quarterly updates, the <em>Oxford English Dictionary </em>has published particularly large batches of new and revised entries from South African English, Nigerian English, and East African English. The present article is a detailed discussion of the editorial work behind these updates for African varieties of English, whose distinctive vocabularies the OED is currently taking steps to cover more widely. The paper explains how words are selected for inclusion, how new entries are researched and written, how new sources of textual evidence such as social media give OED editors greater insight into African Englishes, and how the dictionary's African consult-ants and users contribute to ensuring the accuracy and authenticity of the OED's definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, and quotation evidence. The article also highlights a selection of African words and phrases that have recently been added to or revised in the OED<em>, </em>all of which show the many different forms of lexical innovation that shape the distinctive vocabularies of African Englishes.</p> Danica Salazar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 24 40 A <i>New English–Serbian Dictionary of Sports Terms </i>in the light of contemporary challenges https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257621 <p>This paper deals with theoretical and practical aspects of the recently published <em>Noviengleskosrpski rečnik sportskih termina </em>[Eng. <em>A New English–Serbian Dictionary of Sports Terms</em>] (Milić et al. 2021). The aim is to shed light on solutions that have given rise to innovations in Serbian lexicography. Following the theoretical underpinnings of the lexicographic model and its description, the discussion centers on resolving macrostructural and microstructural issues that could not be brought into accordance with the existing lexicographic and lexicological norms. The problematic issues dealt with include the morphosyntax of headwords, the adaptation of Japanese-based and gymnastics terms from English into Serbian, and the Dictionary's medium in the digital era. The current research builds on previous works from 2017 to 2021, the main result of which was the publication of the Dictionary.</p> Mira Milić Olga Panić Kavgić Aleksandra Kardoš Stojanović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 47 67 The names of the Balkan peoples and the names of the inhabitants of Balkan countries in lexicography (on the example of the <i>Dictionary of Montenegrin National and Literary Language</i>) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257622 <p>Lexicography is yet another witness of the historic recurrence in the Balkans — fifty years after banning Miloš Moskovljević's <em>Dictionary of Contemporary Serbo-Croatian Literary Language with Language Manual </em>(1966), the distribution of the first volume of the <em>Dictionary of Montenegrin National and Literary Language </em>(2016) of the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts was stopped due to political reasons. Among other things, the representatives of the Albanian and Bosniak people in the Parliament of Montenegro demanded that the <em>Dictionary of Montenegrin National and Literary Language </em>be withdrawn due to the "offensive" and "discriminatory" definition of the terms <em>Albanian </em>and <em>Bosniak</em>. This has shown, once again, that Balkan ethnonyms and (or) demonyms have considerable weight in the descriptions of lexical material and that they can lead to the situation where politics defeats lexicography. That is why we will deal, primarily from a linguistic perspective, with the lexicographic definitions of ethnonyms and demonyms that are controversial in Montenegro. Starting from their foundation on ethnic or civic identity, we want to examine the possibilities and justification of the definition of these concepts bearing in mind the broader socio-political framework.</p> Sanja Šubarić Jovana Đurčević Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 68 89 KIU (Kiswahili–Italiano-UniOr): The UniOr online dictionary for Italian L1 Swahili learners https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257666 <p>KIU is an online bilingual Swahili–Italian dictionary with about 6000 entries aimedprimarily at Italian L1 Swahili learners and which has been developed at the University of Naples 'L'Orientale'.</p> <p>The project was started in 2003 by M. Toscano and developed with the collaboration of lan-guage experts and young researchers until 2009 with the aim of offering online lexical resources from Swahili to Italian for learners of the language. After a long interruption, the work was resumed in 2019 by the authors of this article in cooperation with M. Toscano and a team of expert IT technicians. The current work consists of the development ex novo of the dictionary software, which had become obsolete, along with a redesign of some lexicographic features.</p> <p>In this report we will show how the upgraded version of the dictionary software has been implemented, with relevant learner-oriented features, by taking into consideration the standard lexicographic characteristics of Swahili–Italian bilingual dictionaries. This dictionary represents a valuable support for L2 learners and is the only on-line Swahili–Italian dictionary expressly built for university students and Italian users at large.</p> Flavia Aiello Rosanna Tramutoli Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 90 108 Evaluating the usefulness of the learning tools in monolingual online dictionaries for learners of English: Gauging the preferences of Polish students of English https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257668 <p>The aim of the report is twofold. First, the learning tools available in monolingual online dictionaries for learners of English are described. Second, an evaluation of the usefulness of the learning tools in online dictionaries is provided. To meet the aims of the present contribution, a survey was administered on 318 Polish students of English. The respondents, who participated in a lecture devoted to the topic of learning tools in online dictionaries, were instructed to complete a questionnaire. A mixed-question format was adopted. In the first part of the questionnaire, the participants had to rate the usefulness of the features of the <em>Macmillan Dictionary </em>on a semantic differential scale of 1–7. In the second part, there were two open-ended questions. The students were asked to name the most and least useful learning tools of the <em>Macmillan Dictionary </em>and explain their choices. The results suggest that English majors studying at a Polish university accord high priority to consulting online learning tools which give them valuable information on collocations, synonyms and semantically related words.</p> Bartosz Ptasznik Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 109 124 The future of metalexicography: Reaching for the mesosphere https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257672 <p>In this research article, a quantified look is taken at the metalexicographic endeavours of the past half century, starting in 1971. It is argued that the year 2021 represents a tipping point, and for that reason, when illustrations are needed in the article, those are preferably taken from the work of Sue Atkins, who passed away in 2021. It analyses the formation of the various continental lexicography associations, as well as their conferences and linked proceedings, and ends with the current and future role of the global lexicographic alliance. In addition, a comparative bibliometric study is undertaken of the four main journals of our field. It is shown that the number of metalexicographic studies and the impact these have continued to grow, to the point where dedicated tools and databases are currently needed for the efficient examination and use of the now many thou-sands of conference papers, journal articles, and other publications. A brief section also deals with modern dictionary user research, which is, according to current thinking, subsumed under meta-lexicography. With and from this vast amount of data, the future direction of metalexicography is extrapolated. The undertaken research is thus very much data-driven, and refrains from thought experiments to arrive at that future.</p> Gilles-Maurice de Schryver Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 136 165 Phonostilistische und regionale variation der deutschen Aussprache in den orthoepischen nachschlagewerken der dritten generation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257673 <p>Mit der Veröffentlichung des <em>Deutschen Aussprachewörterbuchs </em>(2009) und der kom-plett überarbeiteten siebten Ausgabe des <em>DUDEN-Aussprachewörterbuchs </em>(2015) sind im 21. Jahr-hundert zwei orthoepische Nachschlagewerke erschienen, die der aktuellen Landschaft der deutschen Aussprachewörterbücher in vielerlei Hinsicht eine neue Dimension verliehen. Aus diesem Grund halten wir es für gerechtfertigt, diese als Aussprachewörterbücher einer neuen Generation aufzu-fassen.</p> <p>Die beiden hier zu analysierenden Wörterbücher zeichnen sich durch neuartige medientech-nische Lösungen und die erstmalige Einbeziehung multimedialer Komponenten aus. Vor allem aber präsentieren sie eine gewandelte, deutlich erweiterte und realistischere Auffassung des pho-netischen Standards, die der phonostilistischen Vielfalt der deutschen Aussprache Rechnung trägt. Dabei wird auch zum ersten Mal in der deutschen Phonolexikographie die polyzentrische und polyareale Natur des Deutschen anerkannt, indem die Standardaussprachen Österreichs und der Schweiz sowie deren subnationale bzw. regionale Varietäten berücksichtigt und zum Gegenstand der Beschreibung gemacht werden. Diese beiden grundlegenden Neuerungen der zur Debatte stehen-den Aussprachewörterbücher werden im vorliegenden Aufsatz einer kritisch-vergleichenden Betrachtung unterzogen.</p> <p><strong>English </strong><strong>Abstract: </strong>By publishing the <em>Deutsches Aussprache-wörterbuch </em>(2009) and the seventh, completely revised and updated edition of the <em>DUDEN Aus-sprachewörterbuch </em>(2015), two orthoepic reference works have thus far been released in the 21st century that in many respects add a new dimension to the current dictionary landscape in the field of German pronunciation. For this reason, we consider it justified to regard them as pronunciation dictionaries of a new generation.</p> <p>The two dictionaries to be discussed in this paper are remarkable for their novel editorial solutions and the unprecedented inclusion of a number of multimedia components. But more crucially, they present a changed, significantly expanded and more realistic understanding of the phonetic standard that takes into account the phonostylistic diversity in German pronunciation. Furthermore, and no less importantly, they do also acknowledge, for the first time in German phonolexicography, the polycentric and polyareal nature of German by including the standard pronunciations of Austria and Switzerland, as well as their subnational or regional varieties, and making them subjects of description. These two fundamental innovations of both dictionaries receive a critical comparative examination in the present article.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>PHONOLEXICOGRAPHY, PRONUNCIATION CODIFICATION, PRONUNCIATION DICTIONARY, GERMAN PRONUNCIATION, STANDARD PRONUNCIATION, PHONETIC STANDARD, PHONETIC VARIATION, PHONOSTYLISTIC VARIATION, REGIONAL VARIATION, LINGUISTIC PLURICENTRISM</p> Krzysztof Nycz Zygmunt Tęcza Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 166 183 Frequency or Keyness? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257674 <p>The possibility of compiling electronic corpora, as of the second half of the last century, has provided new opportunities for vocabulary research. This has also resulted in the development of a series of computer software solutions for the lexical analysis of texts and the building of vocabulary lists for language learners. In this article, the differences in building technical vocabulary lists according to their frequency and keyness in corpora of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) are discussed. Both criteria have been discussed in terms of their benefits and limitations, and the possibilities of the most convenient combination of both. Finally, the word frequency list has been upgraded with keywords to provide a more comprehensive, but still very attainable, word list suitable for building a bilingual glossary or to be extended into a dictionary.</p> Zorica Đurović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 184 206 The treatment of argument structure constructions in online English learners' dictionaries: The case of <i>V N ADJ ASCs</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257675 <p>Despite their diversity and complexity in structure and meaning, little research has been conducted into the systematic presentation of argument structure constructions (ASCs) in English learners' dictionaries (ELDs). To fill in the gap, this paper focused on the treatment of <em>V N ADJ </em>ASCs in the "Big Five" online ELDs against usage data. First a list of 40 target verbs was obtained using two measures of contingency (i.e., faithfulness and collostruction strength) through collostructional analysis of <em>V N ADJ </em>ASCs in the British National Corpus, and then the related ASCs regarding their macro- and micro-structural presentation in selected dictionaries were examined. It was found that most ELDs attach importance to ASCs, notably LDOCE, which assigns many of them the status of phrases. Nevertheless, the treatment of ASCs in current ELDs is inadequate. First, the inclusion of ASCs in most ELDs is far from sufficient. Second, in some cases, there is a mismatch between a valency pattern illustration and an illustrative example. Last but not least, most ELDs are not consistent with respect to their policy of listing and encoding ASCs, and assigning them the status of phrases. We proposed, in the framework of the usage-based construction grammar, some suggestions for optimizing the treatment of ASCs.</p> Yongfang Feng Hai Xu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 207 226 Mit wortschatz und lexiko-grafischen ressourcen handeln: Kritische überlegungen zur anwendung lexikalischer, lexikografischer und digitaler kompetenzen im virtuellen raum beim akademischen schreiben im DaF-Bereich https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257676 <p>Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich kritisch mit dem Wortschatzerwerb beim akademischen Schreibprozess im fortgeschrittenen DaF-Bereich in Zusammenspiel mit der Entwicklung einer angebrachten Sprachbewusstheit und einer aktuellen und umfassenden digitalen Kompetenz. Aus-gangspunkt ist die Beobachtung, dass im akademischen L2-Schreibprozess das umfangreiche Informa-tionspotenzial sowohl der ein-, zwei- und mehrsprachigen lexikografischen und lexiko-grammatischen Online-Ressourcen sowie anderer sprachtechnologischer Werkzeuge nur ungenügend bekannt ist. Dementsprechend werden die vielzähligen digitalen Sprachressourcen nicht optimal für Methoden der Vermittlung von Wortschatz und der Handlung mit ihm, z.B. beim akademischen Schreiben herangezogen. Andererseits nehmen die digitalen Medien immer mehr Raum in unserem Alltag ein und stellen auch sprachtechnologisch hoch entwickelte Werkzeuge für verschiedene L2-Kom-petenzbereiche, wie z.B. das Übersetzen bereit. Ziel des Beitrages ist es daher, sowohl Wege für die sinnvolle Nutzung der vorhandenen Internetressourcen aufzuzeigen als auch ganz neue auf künst-licher Intelligenz beruhende Wege zu skizzieren. An ausgewählten Ressourcen soll exemplarisch das umfangreiche Informationspotenzial aufgezeigt sowie Möglichkeiten der Nutzung beim akade-mischen Schreiben diskutiert werden. Ein Ausblick verweist auf die Notwendigkeit, sich auf revolutionäre technologische Veränderungen im Bereich der Fremdsprachdidaktik einzustellen.</p> <p><strong>English Abstract:</strong><strong>. </strong>The paper deals with vocabulary acquisition in the academic writing process in advanced GfL in interaction with the development of appropriate language awareness and wide-ranging up-to-date digital literacy. The starting point is the observation that in the academic L2 writing process the extensive information potential of monolingual, bilingual and multilingual lexicographic and lexico-grammatical online resources as well as other language technology tools is not adequately known. Accordingly, the many digital language resources are not optimally used for methods of teaching vocabulary and acting with it, e.g. in academic writing. On the other hand, digital media occupy more and more space in our everyday life and also provide highly developed tools based on linguistic technology for various L2 competence areas, such as translation. The aim of this paper is therefore both to show ways of making sensible use of existing internet resources and to outline entirely new ways based on artificial intelligence. Selected resources will be used as examples to demonstrate the extensive information potential and to discuss possibilities for use in academic writing. An outlook points to the necessity of adapting to revolutionary technological changes in the field of foreign language didactics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>LEARNER'S DICTIONARIES, VOCABULARY ACQUISITION, ACADEMIC WRITING, MULTILITERACIES, ONLINE-LEXICOGRAPHY, LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGIES, GERMAN AS FOREIGN LANGUAGE, CORPUSLINGUISTICS, WRITING ASSISTANT, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE</p> Meike Meliss Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 227 254 Lexical analysis of nautical and marine engineering corpora: Similar or different lexicographic results https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257677 <p>English for Maritime Purposes comprises a variety of different registers. However, most of the dictionaries and glossaries are dedicated either to General Maritime English or Nautical English, while other aspects of the maritime industry are poorly covered by specialized lexico-graphic material, especially as regards formal dictionaries. Considering that the main classification onboard ship in terms of the crew and operational systems is related to the Deck and the Engineering Department, we sought to explore the similarities and differences between the technical lexes of the two areas, in order to see whether separated dictionaries and glossaries might be required, or a common maritime one would suffice. To test and measure the tackled technical vocabularies, we utilized contemporary corpus linguistics methods and software. The results show significant differences in the key vocabulary of the compared corpora. The findings clearly and once more call for special attention and focus when it comes to the interpretation of maritime lexis, as well as for establishing a clear distinction between English for Nautical and for Marine Engineering purposes.</p> Zorica Đurović Milena Dževerdanović-Pejović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 255 276 The operative function in Spanish lexicography exemplified through sport dictionaries and other reference works https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257680 <p>Over time, dictionaries have been adapted to meet users' consultation needs. As a result, other types of data such as instructions or specialised explanations have been included in these works in order to fulfil their purpose. It is in this context that operative lexicographical tools are produced, although such tools have traditionally received very little attention from a metalexico-graphic point of view. Through the analyses of 5 existing dictionaries and other reference works from the 18th to the 20th centuries regarding equestrianism, football and fencing, this article shows that many lexicographical information tools in Spanish were indeed produced to satisfy the need for practical knowledge through instructions (operative need). Based on this finding, this article argues that the operative function of lexicography deserves a place in lexicographical theory and lexicographical academic literature. An interesting finding that emerges from these analyses is that almost all the dictionaries analysed are polyfunctional, and they share a list of characteristics based on their typology, media and historical moment that can help to make clear the importance of the operative function in the Spanish lexicographical tradition. Furthermore, on the basis of the above analyses, several answers are given to guide future research on operative lexicographical products.</p> Ángel Huete-García Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 277 298 The Language of ethnic conflict in English online lexicography: Ethnophaulisms in "powered by Oxford" Lexico.com https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257681 <p>This article aims to explore the relationship between the language of ethnic conflict (Allen 1983; Palmore 1962) and English online lexicography in the present cultural moment. Given the in-fluence of the Internet on dictionary consulting (Béjoint 2016; Jackson 2017) and the alarming increase of racism and xenophobia, especially online, at the global level in this digital age (see Gagliardone et al. 2015), this article presents a pilot study examining the treatment of "ethnophaulisms" (Roback 1944), commonly referred to as ethnic or racial slurs, in the "powered by Oxford" dictionary content, which is licensed for use to technology giants like Google, Microsoft, and Apple by Oxford University Press (Ferrett and Dollinger 2021; Pettini 2021). In particular, the analysis focuses on the online edition of the <em>Oxford Dictionary of English</em>, as hosted on the "powered by Oxford" Lexico.com web-site. Preliminary findings show how this free online dictionary mirrors the taboo and discriminatory nature of ethnophaulisms and warns the Internet user against the derogatory and offensive power of these words.</p> Silvia Pettini Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 299 317 Phonological inclusion, and exclusion, regarding South African English in the online OED https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257682 <p>This article approaches the subject of inclusivity and diversity from a phonological perspective, as applied to the online <em>Oxford English Dictionary </em>(OED). Specifically, the pronunciation guide within the OED entry for South African English (SAE) is investigated. On the one hand, that the OED provides a list of World Englishes is a step forward in terms of diversity, avoiding the linguistic hegemony of British and American English, for example. On the other hand, the pronunciation guide for SAE relies on a rather singular variety — that reflective of white South Africans. Moreover, the OED pronunciation guides for all varieties of English reflect "educated urban speakers of standard English". Therefore, the pronunciation guide is exclusive regarding race and class, and thus additional varieties of SAE are not represented. As such, while the OED, as a trusted source, has made efforts to address linguistic diversity, more work needs to be done in this area.</p> Alex Baratta Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 318 323 A further look into the use of a dictionary APP in EFL writing: A replication study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257683 <p>The study replicated the experiment by Chen and Liu (2022), investigating the effect of dictionary use on EFL writing. It involved the same research variables as the original study except for adopting a different dictionary. Sixty-two English majors took two writing tests, one without dictionary assistance, the other with access to a mobile phone dictionary application which features a combination of an L1–L2 and an L2–L1 dictionary for bidirectional search. The application can keep a record of users' search inputs and entry clicks. A questionnaire was also conducted to survey the students' evaluation of the dictionary application. Different from the negative results found by the original study, the replication revealed a non-significant effect of dictionary use on writing performance, providing solid evidence that a better dictionary leads to fewer consultation errors, although the improvement in writing scores brought about by dictionary use was only marginal. The study confirmed the original finding about the positive impact of dictionary use on lexical sophistication. It also identified some differences in dictionary lookup patterns between the participants of the replication and the original study in terms of search frequency, preference for language search, preference for search items, and use of source dictionaries. The implications of the study for dictionary making are discussed.</p> Yuzhen Chen Suping Liu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 324 349 Developing dictionary skills through monolingual and bilingual English dictionaries at tertiary-level education in Hungary https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257684 <p>Among reference works, dictionaries are particularly important in foreign language learning. Dictionaries provide language learners with a wide range of data, however, wading through the mass of data and information can be a daunting task. Mastering dictionary skills should be important in the language learning process; however, in official educational documents in Hungary, there are no clear guidelines on how to develop these skills. By integrating dictionary skills into the curriculum and teaching them explicitly in lessons, teachers could play an important role in bridging the gap between lexicographers and dictionary users. In the present study, we report on our methods of teaching lexicography and dictionary skills to students at a Hungarian university. The authors are speaking from experience, the discussion and accompanying material are based on more than 15 years of teaching practice. To ensure that the training can meet the expanding needs of young students, a longitudinal study was launched in 2020 to examine students' changing habits and needs. The aims of the article are threefold: first, to encourage the teaching of lexicography at university level by providing concrete methods, then to highlight the importance of dictionary skills, and finally, to emphasise the importance of integrating the effective teaching of the use of electronic dictionaries into dictionary didactics. In this context, the article underlines the need to incorporate new evaluation criteria as well as to develop new skills for digital dictionaries, different from those for print dictionaries, into education.</p> Katalin P. Márkus Ida Dringó-Horváth Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 350 381 Nuwe raamstruktuurtipes in aanlyn woordeboeke https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257685 <p>In die leksikografiepraktyk lei die oorgang vanaf gedrukte na aanlyn woorde-boeke tot talle veranderinge. Hierdie veranderinge moet in die leksikografieteorie beskryf word. Woordeboekstrukture is ook 'n teiken van veranderinge, met ou strukture wat aangepas en nuwe strukture wat ontwikkel word. In hierdie artikel is die fokus op verskeie aspekte van een van die nuwe struktuurtipes in aanlyn woordeboeke, naamlik die skermskootstruktuur. Hierdie struktuur huisves onder meer individuele woordeboekartikels, artikeldele, beperkte artikels asook artikel-deeltrajekte. Naas die kernartikel laat die skermskootstruktuur ook uitgebreide artikels toe wat 'n nuwe tipe raamstruktuur vertoon, te wete 'n artikelraam. 'n Artikelraam kan die gevolg van horison-tale uitbreiding na links en/of regs asook opwaartse en/of afwaartse vertikale uitbreiding wees. Geïntegreerde en niegeïntegreerde artikelbuitetekste bied huisvesting aan leksikografies relevante data wat nie in die kernartikel verskyn nie. Veral in die kommersiële leksikografie raak nieleksiko-grafiese data in woordeboeke al hoe belangriker en die skermskootstruktuur moet so beplan word dat hierdie data gehuisves word sonder om data-oorlading tot gevolg te hê. Dit kan geplaas word in 'n soekraam wat in die skermskootraamstruktuur voorsien word.</p> <p><strong>English Abstract:</strong> In the lexicographic practice the transition from printed to online dictionaries resulted in numerous changes. These changes have to be accounted for in lexicographic theory. Dictionary structures also are a target of changes, with some old structures being adapted and new structures being developed. The focus in this article is on various aspects of one of the new structures in online dictionaries, namely the screenshot structure. This structure accommodates among other individual dictionary articles, partial articles, restricted articles as well as partial article stretches. Besides the core article the screenshot structure also allows extended articles that display a new type of frame structure, namely an article frame. An article frame can be the result of horizontal expansion to the left and/or right as well as upward and/or downward vertical expansion. Integrated and non-integrated arti-cle outer texts accommodate lexicographically relevant data that are not included in the core article. Especially in commercial lexicography non-lexicographic data in dictionaries become increasingly important and the screenshot structure should be planned in such a way that these data can be accommodated without resulting in data-overload. Non-lexicographic data can be allocated to a search frame prevailing in the screenshot frame structure.</p> <p>ARTICLE FRAME, ARTICLE FRAME STRUCTURE, DATA DISTRIBUTION, FRAME STRUCTURE, MENU TEXTBLOCK, ONLINE DICTIONARY, OUTER TEXT, SCREEN-SHOT FRAME, SCREENSHOT STRUCTURE, SEARCH FRAME</p> Rufus H. Gouws Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 382 403 The concept of lexicographic condensation: A review of and perspectives on digital lexicography https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257687 <p>This study focuses on the concept of lexicographic textual condensation in order to determine its role in digital lexicography. Current interpretations of this concept, which was originally coined for printed dictionaries, are analysed. Special emphasis is placed on the relevant differentiation between the various textual levels in which the content of these works are distributed and on the difference between primary and secondary condensation. Examples from English–Spanish digital dictionaries will be explored in order to answer the question of how condensation is presented in these works and what types of components or items are particularly affected by it. Finally, meaning of condensation forms in current dictionaries based on the reading approaches applied to reference works is discussed. We support the argument that these forms are intrinsic to the type of <em>text </em>that we call a <em>dictionary</em>, and that the reasons behind condensation mechanisms are not limited to mere spatial constraints, but that these, together with other formal aspects, can make it easier to find the desired answers through a nonlinear reading process that is generally and legitimately applied to dictionaries.</p> M. Teresa Fuentes Morán Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 404 424 A necessary redefinition of lexicography in the digital age: Glossography, dictionography and implications for the future https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257690 <p>This paper deals with developments in the field of lexicography that resulted in the need for a new definition of this term. The paper offers a brief look at the origin, use and development of the term <em>lexicography </em>and at the use of glosses in former and current times. It is shown how the digital era enables the use of certain lexicographical features in other sources than dictionaries. This leads to an expansion of the scope of the term lexicography. A strong focus is on the use of glosses, originally inserted by scribes as snippets into manuscripts to help with the understanding of difficult words and expressions. The use of glosses has increased, and they are currently commonly used in a variety of environments. In digital products glosses play an innovative, productive and significant role to present new types of lexicographical data. This demands the recognition of glosses as lexicographical entries and leads to a redefinition of the term <em>lexicography </em>that includes two major sub-fields, namely <em>dictionography </em>and <em>glossography</em>.</p> Sven Tarp Rufus H. Gouws Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 425 447 Heming Yong and Jing Peng. <i>A sociolinguistic history of British English lexicography.</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257692 <p>No abstract.</p> Yanxiu Li Centre for Linguistics and Applied Linguistics Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 41 46 John Considine. <i>Sixteenth-Century English Dictionaries.</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257669 <p>No abstract.</p> Ai Zhong Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 125 130 Annette Klosa-Kückelhaus and Ilan Kernerman (Eds.). <i>Lexicography of Coronavirus-related Neologisms.</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/257671 <p>No abstract.</p> Jian ZhoZhou Shuliang Dong Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 33 1 131 135