Lexikos https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex <p><em>Lexikos</em> is the official journal of the African Association for Lexicography (AFRILEX). The aim of <em>Lexikos</em> is to create a vehicle for national and international discussion of lexicography, and in particular to serve lexicography in Africa with its rich variety of languages; – to stimulate discourse between lexicographers as well as between lexicographers and linguists; – to establish and promote contact with local and foreign lexicographic projects; – to focus general attention on the interdisciplinary nature of lexicography, which also involves fields such as linguistics, general linguistics, lexicology, computer science, management, etc.; – to further and coordinate cooperation in all fields of lexicography; and – to promote the aims of the African Association for Lexicography (AFRILEX). Impact Factor: Lexikos is ISI-rated by Thompson Reuters on their various indexes, namely Arts and Humanities Citation Index®, Current Contents®/Arts &amp; Humanities, Current Contents®/Social and Behavioral Sciences, Journal Citation Reports/Social Sciences Edition, Social Sciences Citation Index®, and Social Scisearch® The Impact Factor of Lexikos in the Linguistics category with their latest rankings was 0.667. Lexikos is furthermore indexed on Scopus, Linguistic Bibliography Online, Linguistics Abstracts Online, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA International Bibliography &amp; R.R.K. Hartmann's Bibliography of Lexicography.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="http://lexikos.journals.ac.za/" href="http://lexikos.journals.ac.za/" target="_blank">http://lexikos.journals.ac.za</a></p> Bureau of the WAT en-US Lexikos 1684-4904 Copyright is owned by: Bureau of the WAT On recent proposals to abolish polysemy and homonymy in lexicography https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182654 <p>Two articles appeared recently in Lexikos that propose the abolishment of homonymy and polysemy in lexicography, particularly in dictionaries with a text reception function only. This contribution identifies two main theoretical premises of the proposal in these articles and chal-lenges them. They are: (i) a theory of the lemma as linguistic sign; and (ii) the results of dictionary criticism. Under examination, it is found that both premises fail to support the proposal with regard to polysemy. With regard to homonymy, the first premise is proven invalid, and the second is found to be valid. This implies that the theoretical basis for the proposal should either be reviewed (for which the lexicographical communication theory is offered), or the proposal should rely on the sole practical and unproven argument of data accessibility. The contribution simultane-ously develops a potential broad framework for the lexicographical communication theory. The framework constitutes a lexicographical text grammar, which is presented as a parallel communi-cation code to elements of the lexicographic text theory and linguistic grammars. It is argued that dictionary articles constitute texts in which these two grammars overlap to varying degrees, repre-senting a hybrid form of textual communication.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> lexicographical communication theory, grammar, homonymy, lexicographical communication, lexicographical grammar, linguistic sign, linguistics, polysemy, semiotics, lexicographic</p> Herman L. Beyer Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 1 31 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Corpus-driven Bantu Lexicography Part 1: organic corpus building for Lusoga https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182655 <p>This article is the first in a trilogy that deals with corpus-driven Bantu lexicography, which is illustrated for Lusoga. The focus here is on the building of a so-called 'organic corpus' from scratch, while the next two instalments will deal with the use of that corpus on the macro-structural and microstructural levels, respectively. Not many detailed descriptions of corpus-building efforts exist for Bantu languages, so each and every step is discussed in detail, paying particular attention to the parameters that have to be taken into account, while not losing sight of the need to log the metadata either.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bantu, Lusoga, corpus building, organic corpus, oral, written, source, period, genre, topic, metadata</p> Gilles-Maurice de Schryver Minah Nabirye Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 32 78 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Corpus-driven Bantu Lexicography Part 2: lemmatisation and rulers for Lusoga https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182657 <p>This article is the second in a trilogy that deals with corpus-driven Bantu lexicogra-phy, which is illustrated for Lusoga. The focus here is on the macrostructure and in particular on the building of a lemmatised frequency list directly within a dictionary-writing system. The pro-gramming code for the parts of the lemmatisation that may be automated is included as addenda. A second focus is on the embedded part-of-speech and alphabetical rulers, for which it is shown how these may be used to plan the actual compilation of the dictionary entries.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bantu, Lusoga, corpus lexicography, lemmatisation, lemma–tised frequency list, part-of-speech ruler, alphabetical ruler, multidi–mensional lexicographic ruler, dictionary</p> Gilles-Maurice de Schryver Minah Nabirye Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 79 111 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Corpus-driven Bantu Lexicography Part 3: mapping meaning onto use in Lusoga https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182658 <p>This article is the third instalment in a trilogy of studies that deal with corpus-driven Bantu lexicography as applied to Lusoga. Having dealt with corpus-building in Part 1, and macro-structural aspects in Part 2, we now focus on the microstructure of a dictionary and in particular on the concept of Mapping Meaning onto Use. The starting point is Patrick Hanks's book chapter by the same title, which we transpose to a study of the high-frequent motion verb -<em>v</em>- in Lusoga. Our detailed analysis is as much practical as it is methodological.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bantu, Lusoga, corpus lexicography, distributional corpus analysis, mapping meaning onto use, meaning potentials, motion verbs </p> Gilles-Maurice de Schryver Minah Nabirye Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 112 151 10.4314/lex.v28i0. New insights in the design and compilation of digital bilingual lexicographical products: the case of the diccionarios valladolid-UVa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182659 <p>This contribution deals with a new digital English–Spanish–English lexicographical project that started as an assignment from the Danish high-tech company Ordbogen A/S which signed a contract with the University of Valladolid (Spain) for designing and compiling a digital lexi-cographical product that is economically and commercially feasible and can be used for various purposes in connection with its expansion into new markets and the launching of new tools and services which make use of lexicographical data. The article presents the philosophy underpinning the project, highlights some of the innovations introduced, e.g. the use of logfiles for compiling the initial lemma list and the order of compilation, and illustrates a compilation methodology which starts by assuming the relevance of new concepts, i.e. object and auxiliary languages instead of target and source languages. The contribution also defends the premise that the future of e-lexicog-raphy basically rests on a close cooperation between research centers and high-tech companies which assures the adequate use of disruptive technologies and innovations.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> dictionary concept, empirical resources, logfiles, ngram viewer, internet as a corpus, compilation methods, lexicographical data, online dictionaries, integrated dictionaries, writing assistants, l2-reception dictionaries, l2-production dictionaries, translation dictionaries </p> Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera Sven Tarp Peter Sepstrup Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 152 176 10.4314/lex.v28i0. 'n Leksikografiese datatrekkingstruktuur vir aanlyn woordeboeke https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182660 <p>Op die gebied van die leksikografie het die oorgang vanaf gedrukte na aanlyn woordeboeke 'n ingrypende invloed op talle aspekte van sowel die leksikografieteorie as die leksi-kografiepraktyk. In die voortgesette ontwikkeling van die leksikografieteorie moet hierdie invloed verwoord word sodat daar riglyne gebied kan word vir die optimale benutting van die vooruit-spruitende aanpassings in die leksikografiepraktyk. Woordeboekstrukture moet opnuut ondersoek word om vas te stel watter strukture in die nuwe medium behou kan word, watter strukture aan aanpassings onderhewig is en watter nuwe strukture na vore tree.</p><p>In hierdie artikel is die fokus op aanpassings in leksikografiese strukture. Daar word verwys na strukture waarvoor aanpassings reeds in die metaleksikografie bespreek is. Die hoofklem is op verskillende vorme van die dataverspreidingstruktuur in aanlyn woordeboeke. Voorsiening word gemaak vir 'n omvattende dataverspreidingstruktuur wat in woordeboekportale gebruik kan word en die gebruiker toegang tot woordeboekeksterne bronne gee. Die behoefte aan groter vryheid van die gebruiker om data te kies wat benodig word, lei tot voorstelle vir 'n nuwe struktuur, naamlik die datatrekkingstruktuur. Met behulp van hierdie struktuur kan gebruikers regstreeks vanuit 'n bepaalde posisie in 'n aanlyn woordeboek toegang kry tot die internet as leksikografiese korpus om aan die data daar die inligting te onttrek wat in 'n bepaalde gebruiksituasie verlang word. Die data-trekkingstruktuur bevestig die status van woordeboeke as geïntegreerde inligtingsinstrumente en plaas hulle binne die bestek van 'n oorkoepelende datastruktuur.</p><p><strong>Sleutelwoorde: </strong>aanlyn woordeboek, datastruktuur, datatrekkingstruk-tuur, dataverspreidingstruktuur, eenvoudige dataverspreidingstruktuur, leksikografiese strukture, omvattende dataverspreidingstruktuur, oor-koepelende dataverspreidingstruktuur, stootmedium, trekmedium, uit-gebreide dataverspreidingstruktuur, woordeboekportaal, woordeboek-portaalstruktuur</p><p><strong>English Title: </strong>A lexicographic data pulling structure for online dictionaries</p><p><strong>English Abstract</strong></p><p>In the field of lexicography the transition from printed to online dictionaries has had a significant influence on numerous aspects of both lexicographic theory and the lexicographic practice. In the continued development of lexicographic theory this influence has to be formulated in order to pre-sent guidelines for the optimal application of the resulting adaptations in the lexicographic prac-tice. Dictionary structures should be investigated to determine which structures can be maintained in the new medium, which structures need to be adapted and which new structures are coming to the fore.</p><p>The focus in this article is on adaptations in lexicographic structures. Reference is made to structures of which the adaptations have already been discussed in metalexicography. The main emphasis is on different types of data distribution structures in online dictionaries. Provision is made for a comprehensive data distribution structure that can be employed in dictionary portals to give the user access to dictionary-external sources. The need of users for more freedom to select their required data, leads to proposals for a new structure, namely the data pulling structure. By employing this structure users can access the internet as lexicographic corpus from any point in an online dictionary to retrieve from the data there the information they require in a specific situation of use. The data pulling structure confirms the status of dictionaries as integrated information instruments and puts them within the scope of an over-arching data structure.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> comprehensive data distribution structure, data distribution structure, data pulling structure, data structure, dictionary portal, dictionary portal structure, extended data distribution structure, lexicographic structures, online dictionary, over-arching data distribution structure, pull medium, push medium, single data distribution structure</p> Rufus H. Gouws Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 177 195 10.4314/lex.v28i0. A lexicographic approach to teaching the English article system: help or hindrance? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182661 <p>This article reports on changes in EFL learners' article choice performance before and after receiving lessons on the main rules applicable to article usage combined with dictionary con-sultation guidance. A sample of 43 Korean college students undertook the same forced-choice elicitation task once as a diagnostic test and again as a post-intervention test at three-month inter-vals. Unlike the diagnostic test, in which the participants were only asked to choose the correct articles, the post-intervention test asked them to give written accounts of their decision-making procedures as well. The analyses of the diagnostic test results, specifically the items requiring the indefinite article or the zero article, demonstrated EFL learners' struggle with indeterminate nomi-nal numbers, underlining the importance of clear lexicographic treatment of such information. Further, the post-intervention test and the written think-aloud data analyses suggested that although using a bilingualised dictionary for nominal countability is useful in general, dictionary consultation can sometimes impede users from using articles correctly. Specific problem areas are discussed.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> English article system, nominal countability, article use, bilingualised dictionary, Korean EFL learners</p> Sugene Kim Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 196 220 10.4314/lex.v28i0. An Empirical study of EFL Learners' Dictionary use in Chinese–English translation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182662 <p>This article reports on the results of a study which investigated English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of an electronic dictionary in a L1–L2 translation task. Forty-seven university graduate students from a Chinese university were asked to translate a Chinese passage into English on computers with the support of an embedded dictionary. Screen recorders were used to record their dictionary use behavior and a follow-up interview was conducted to tap into the thinking processes behind their behavior. The results of the study show that when translating, EFL learners demonstrate preferences for L2 equivalents and content words in their lookups, and reveal specific problems such as a preoccupation with L2 equivalents and lack of awareness of other lexical information, which may hinder correct application of dictionary information. This study suggests that dictionary use behavior may affect the development of students' ability to translate and requires attention from both EFL learners and teachers. It is further suggested that translation teachers should alert learners to the importance of checking other lexical information in a dictionary in their translation practice.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> dictionary use preferences, dictionary use processes, efl learners, translation task, interview, screen recording, log files </p> Pengcheng Liang Dan Xu Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 221 244 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Once again why lexicography is science https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182663 <p>The article addresses some issues connected with the disciplinary status of lexicogra-phy. Drawing on the views of scholars such as L. Zgusta, R. Ilson, H. Wiegand, R. Gouws, H. Ber-genholtz, S. Tarp, R. Lew and others, the author argues in favour of the viewpoint that lexicogra-phy is a science and that working on a dictionary is a scientific activity. The main issues tackled in the paper include understanding the complex nature of word meaning, the role of dictionaries in the description of word meaning and the development of lexical semantics. Attention is also paid to the definitional method of the study of word meaning, which is based on the analysis of diction-ary definitions, components of the theory of lexicography, the relation between lexicographic theory and practice, and the teaching of lexicography as an academic discipline at universities.</p><p>The author argues that the right approach to lexicography and its disciplinary status is particularly important in our era of globalisation. Only state-of-the-art lexicographic and corpus resources will secure the future of many languages, particularly lesser-used languages, and such resources will not be created until lexicography receives proper recognition as a science with "big interdisciplinary vocation" (Tarp 2017); until lexicography is turned into an academic discipline through advanced theory of lexicography, through teaching lexicography at universities, etc.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> disciplinary status of lexicography, meaning of words, componential analysis of meaning, definitional method of analysis, OED, theory of lexicography, lexicographic practice, teaching lexicography, academic discipline, MA in lexicography</p> Tinatin Margalitadze Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 245 261 10.4314/lex.v28i0. The effectiveness of using dictionaries as an aid for teaching standardization of English-based sports terms in Serbian https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182664 <p>This paper reports on the effectiveness of a new teaching method employing diction-aries as an aid for teaching the standardization of English-based sports terms in Serbian. The research was conducted among the students of a sports faculty in 2017 by means of a questionnaire distributed to the students both at the beginning of the second half of an ESP course and again at its end. Its aim was to measure the students' progress related to the acquisition of standardized sports terms in Serbian as an indicator of the effectiveness of the new teaching method. The find-ings generally indicate a certain degree of improvement of the students' knowledge of standard-ized sports terminology, though a less than satisfactory amount of progress regarding their lin-guistic competence. Even though the outcomes did not fully meet the goals set in advance, they do provide solid arguments for further efforts in developing and monitoring dictionary use in teach-ing the standardization of English-based sports terms in Serbian within the ESP curriculum and, even more importantly, for the systematic education of dictionary usage as part of the mother tongue curriculum.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> dictionary use, English, Serbian, ESP teaching, sports terminology, standardization</p> Mira Milić Tatjana Glušac Aleksandra Kardoš Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 262 286 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Correct hypotheses and careful reading are essential: results of an observational study on learners using online language resources https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182666 <p>In the past two decades, more and more dictionary usage studies have been published, but most of them deal with questions related to what users appreciate about dictionaries, which dictionaries they use and what type of information they need in specific situations — presupposing that users actually consult lexicographic resources. However, language teachers and lecturers in linguistics often have the impression that students do not use enough high-quality dictionaries in their everyday work. With this in mind, we launched an international cooperation project to collect empirical data to evaluate what it is that students actually do while attempting to solve language problems. To this end, we applied a new methodological setting: screen recording in conjunction with a thinking-aloud task. The collected empirical data offers a broad insight into what users really do while they attempt to solve language-related tasks online.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> dictionary use, observational study, language learners, online resources, search strategies, online dictionaries, automatic translators</p> Carolin Müller-Spitzer María José Domínguez Vázquez Martina Nied Curcio Idalete Maria Silva Dias Sascha Wolfer Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 287 315 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Polish Americans in the history of bilingual lexicography: the state of the art https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182679 <p>This paper measures dictionaries made by Polish Americans against the development of the Polish–English and English–Polish lexicographic tradition. Of twenty nine monoscopal and biscopal glossaries and dictionaries published between 1788 and 1947, four may be treated as mile-stones: Erazm Rykaczewski's (1849–1851), Władysław Kierst and Oskar Callier's (1895), Władysław Kierst's (1926–1928), and Jan Stanisławski's (1929). Unsurprisingly, they came to be widely repub-lished in English-speaking countries, primarily the United States of America, for the sake of Polish-speaking immigrants. One might therefore wonder whether there was any pressing need for new dictionaries. There must have been, assuming that supply follows demand, because as many as eight Polish–English and English–Polish dictionaries were compiled by Polish Americans and pub-lished by the mid-twentieth century. The scant attention accorded this topic suggests a chronologi-cal approach to these dictionaries is in order, firstly, to blow the dust from the tomes; secondly, to establish their filial relationships; and, lastly, to evaluate their significance for the bilingual diction-ary market.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> history, bilingual lexicography, bilingual dictionary, polish americans, source language (SL), target language (TL), equivalent, lexicographer, tradition </p> Mirosława Podhajecka Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 316 342 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Semi-automating the reading programme for a historical dictionary project https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182680 <p>This paper describes the resources and software procedures used or developed in a major enabling step towards the revision of the scholarly reference work <em>A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles</em> (<em>DSAE</em>, Silva et al. 1996), namely the semi-automatic generation of a digitally-sourced lexical database on which new and updated dictionary entries will be based; as well as the addition, in parallel, of a new corpus of South African English (SAE) to the project. Drawing on online data sources and an extensive list of known SAE word forms, we have developed a software toolchain to gather, encode, annotate and collate textual sources, producing: (i) a 3.1-billion part-of-speech-annotated corpus of South African English; (ii) a lexical database of illustrative quotations for over 20,000 known SAE word forms, available for selection at the entry-revision stage; and (iii) a list of potential new variant spellings and headword inclusion candidates. These steps replace, where recent electronic sources are concerned, the mechanical aspects of quotation gathering, normally undertaken manually through a reading programme requiring years of teamwork to acquire sufficient coverage (cf. Hicks 2010).</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> corpora, dictionary workflows, historical lexicography, language varieties, lexical databases, reading programmes, South African English</p> Tim van Niekerk Johannes Schäfer Ulrich Heid Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 343 360 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Objectivity, prescription, harmlessness, and drudgery: reflections of lexicographers in Slovenia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182681 <p>This contribution reports on a study that set out to paint as complete a picture as pos-sible of the context and content of modern Slovenian lexicography. We aimed to discern the phi-losophical underpinnings, the most noteworthy accomplishments, and the main projects of Slovenian dictionary work as presented by our seven subjects, who are all prominent members of the lexico-graphic community. We sought specialists who work on synchronic topics and concentrate more on the standard language and terminology rather than on dialectal variation and other lexico-graphic topics that are of more interest to scholars than to educated lay persons. The interview script consisted of thirteen narrative questions, designed to allow the interviewees to reflect in as much depth as possible on their daily practice as well as on their underlying vision of what lexi-cography or terminography is. This article discusses the development and influences of Slovenian lexicographic theory and presents part 1 of the results of this study: the views of the practicing lexicographers on whether they perceive their lexicographic work as drudgery and what they see as the essential nature of their role in society — how the dictionary maker can be a force for good and avoid any potential for harm.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> harmless drudge, drudgery, harm, harmlessness, interview, lexicographer, lexicographic philosophy, lexicographic principles, monotony, repetitiveness, tedium</p> Alenka Vrbinc Donna M.T.Cr. Farina Marjeta Vrbinc Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 361 383 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Towards Chinese learner's dictionaries for foreigners living in China: some problems related to Lemma selection https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182683 <p>During the past decades, various dictionaries for foreign learners of Chinese have seen the light. Except for one picture dictionary which is almost completely ignored in the aca-demic literature, none of these dictionaries has taken into account the special needs which foreign-ers living in China and learning Chinese may have. This contribution will discuss these needs with special focus on lemma selection. We argue that foreigners living in China, in order to meet their lexicographical needs, require additional words typically occurring in social contexts in which they often find themselves, whether or not these words have a high corpus-frequency. As a solution we therefore recommend a set of selection criteria that combines corpus frequency and context rele-vance. Finally, we discuss how logfiles reflecting user behaviour can be used as a new and very reliable empirical source for lemma selection for an online Chinese learner's dictionary.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Chinese learner's dictionaries, lemma selection, social contexts, corpus frequency, context relevance </p> Mei Xue Sven Tarp Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 384 404 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Enhancing the learnability of Chinese–English dictionaries for Chinese as a foreign language learners: the neglected legacy of Robert Morrison in his compilation of <i>Wuche Yunfu</i> (1819) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182685 <p>In previous studies on learner lexicography, design features of both the content and presentation of learner's dictionaries are the two major research concerns. The quality assessment of learner's dictionaries also covers the two dimensions. Terms used for evaluating them are respectively "usability" or "availability" for the former and "findability" or "accessibility" for the latter. However, the lexicographical construction of "learnability", which takes into account the users' reference and learning needs, remains virtually unexplored either theoretically or practically. Compared to the features of dictionary design mentioned above, "learnability" as the design phi-losophy of learner lexicography is worth more serious consideration. The present paper aims at exploring the lexicographical notion of "learnability" by way of introducing the neglected legacy of Robert Morrison in his compilation of <em>Wuche Yunfu</em> (五车韵府) (1819)<sup>1</sup>, which is characterized by a high degree of learnability illustrated in the dictionary entries. Morrison's pioneering efforts may help with the conceptual clarification of "learnability" in compiling learner's dictionaries, bilingual ones in particular. Moreover, it is hoped that the recognition of Morrison's lexicographical practice will be beneficial to the future production of better Chinese–English dictionaries for non-native Chinese learners.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> learnerability, learner lexicography, Chinese as a for foreign language learners, <em>Wuche Yunfu</em>, Chinese–English dictionaries, bilingual</p> Ying Ye Xiangqing Wei Wenlong Sun Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 405 427 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Corpus-based research on terminology of Turkish Lexicography (CBRT-TURKLEX) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182687 <p>In this paper, we introduce an ongoing lexicographic corpus project. The Center for Lexicography, abbreviated as SÖZMER, was established under the aegis of Eskisehir Osmangazi University to support lexicographical projects. SÖZMER decided to initiate a corpus-based Turkish lexicography project. This project will be the first stage of the endeavour aimed at preparing a spe-cialized dictionary for Turkish lexicography. The primary aim of the project is to prepare an elec-tronic corpus for researchers of Turkish lexicography. The secondary aim of the project is to obtain a word list of Turkish lexicographic terms. This paper presents a description of the process of data collection and the methodology employed for building a specialized corpus. The study contains an outline of the project background, needs, problems, and the phases of corpus building.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Turkish lexicography, terminology, corpus linguistics, dictionary, data collection, database, term extraction </p> Erdoğan Boz Ferdi Bozkurt Fatih Doğru Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 428 439 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Web-based exploration of results from a large European survey on dictionary use and culture: ESDexplorer https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182688 <p>We present ESDexplorer (https://owid.shinyapps.io/ESDexplorer), a browser appli-cation which allows the user to explore the data from a large European survey on dictionary use and culture. We built ESDexplorer with several target groups in mind: our cooperation partners, other researchers, and a more general public interested in the results. Also, we present in detail the architecture and technological realisation of the application and discuss some legal aspects of data protection that motivated some architectural choices.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> survey, data collection, data processing, data presentation, data analysis, technology and architecture, target group, plot, browser application, ESDexplorer</p> Sascha Wolfer Iztok Kosem Robert Lew Carolin Müller-Spitzer Maria Ribeiro Silveira Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 440 447 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Which learning tools accompanying the paid online version of <i>LDOCE</i> do advanced learners of English find useful? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182689 <p> The aim of the report is twofold: to (1) briefly describe the learning tools of the <em>Long-man Dictionary of Contemporary English</em> (LDOCE6) which are available to English learners in the paid online version of the dictionary (sixth edition); and (2) present the results of the questionnaire that was conducted on 114 students of English at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The participants completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to assess the usefulness of the learning tools of the paid online version of LDOCE6. The first section of the paper introduces the reader to the five major British monolingual learners' dictionaries on the market and the most prominent features of LDOCE. The second section is a description of the learning tools available to learners of English in the paid online version of LDOCE6. The following section elaborates on the earliest questionnaire studies conducted in the field of dictionary use, and some of the problematic aspects of this research method are discussed. The report ends with a presentation of the results of the questionnaire and a brief discussion.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English</em>, online dictionaries, questionnaires, learners' dictionaries</p> Bartosz Ptasznik Robert Lew Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 448 460 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Das Rumäniendeutsche in der Neuauflage (2016) des <i>Variantenwörterbuchs des Deutschen Ioan Lăzărescu zum 65. Geburtstag gewidmet https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182690 <p>Noch vor Jahresende 2016 ist eine völlig neu bearbeitete, erweiterte und aktualisierte zweite Auflage des <em>Variantenwörterbuchs des Deutschen</em> (VWB) erschienen, das bisher lexikografisch nicht kodifizierte standardsprachliche Besonderheiten in Rumänien, Namibia und Mexiko erfasst. Im Hinblick auf das veränderte Normdenken zur standardsprachlichen Regio-nalität ist es erfreulich, dass sich das VWB vornimmt, das gesamte gegenwärtige Varietätenspek-trum am Rande und weit außerhalb des geschlossenen deutschen Sprachgebiets lexikografisch zu dokumentieren. Mit der Fokussierung auf die schriftsprachliche Seite der Standardvarietäten, der sich die Bestandsaufnahme im VWB widmet, belegt das Wörterbuch Unterschiede und damit auch Eigenheiten der Viertel(s)zentren, um sie von der zweifelhaften Einschätzung als Non-Standard zu befreien. In der Erstauflage des VWB (2004) wurden nur die lexikalischen Varianten der deutschen Standardsprache in den Ländern und Regionen, wo Deutsch offizielle und/oder Amtssprache ist, kodifiziert. Aufgrund dieses lobenswerten Bestrebens gilt es zu fragen, inwiefern eine überzeu-gende lexikografische Bearbeitung der in der Erstauflage zu Unrecht vernachlässigten Viertel(s)zen-tren gewährleistet wurde. Im Beitrag soll dies exemplarisch am Beispiel des <em>Rumäniendeutschen</em> auf-gezeigt werden. Die Bewusstmachung typischer Erscheinungsformen außerhalb des deutschen Amtssprachengebietes im täglichen Gebrauch wird den Vergleich der Viertel(s)zentren miteinan-der fördern und auch dazu beitragen, dass auch <em>dieses Deutsch</em> intensiver wahrgenommen wird.</p><p><strong>Schlüsselwörter:</strong> variantenwörterbuch, varietäten des deutschen, viertelzentren, lexikographische beschreibung, Rumäniendeutsch, Rumänismus </p><p><strong>English Title:</strong> Romanian German in the 2016 edition of the <em>German Variant Dic-tionary</em>. Dedicated to Ioan Lăzărescu on his 65th Birthday </p><p><strong>English Abstract</strong></p><p>Towards the end of 2016, a fully revised, extended and updated second edition of the <em>Variantenwörterbuch des Deutschen</em> (German Variant Dictionary, GVD) was published, covering hitherto not lexicographically coded peculiarities of the German language in Romania, Namibia, and Mexico. In view of the changed normative thinking about standard language regionality, it is gratifying that the GVD undertakes to lexicographically document the entire variety spectrum beyond the boundaries of the closed German language area. Focussing on the written-language side of the standard varieties to which the inventory in the GVD is dedicated, the dictionary points out differences and thus peculiarities of the different varieties of the German language spoken in the quarter centres, in order to free them from their suspect assessment as non-standard. In the first edition of the GVD (2004), only the lexical variants of Standard German in countries and regions where German is the official and/or administrative language were coded. In view of this praiseworthy endeavor, it is important to question to what extent a convincing lexicographical treatment of the quarter centres, which had been unjustly neglected in the first edition, has been ensured. In the article, this will be exemplified on the basis of <em>Romanian German</em>. Raising awareness of typical manifestations in everyday use out-side of the German official language area will promote the comparison of the quarter centres, and also contribute to the fact that <em>this German</em> is also perceived more intensively.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> German variant dictionary, varieties of German, quarter centres, lexicographical description, Romanian German, Romanianism</p> Doris Sava Copyright (c) 2018-01-29 2018-01-29 28 465 485 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Book Review: <i>The Routledge Handbook of Lexicography</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182691 <p><strong>Book Title:</strong> <em>The Routledge Handbook of Lexicography</em></p><p><strong>Book Author: </strong>Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera</p><p>2018, 810 pp. ISBN: 978-1-138-94160-1. London/New York: Routledge. Price £165.00.</p> Dai Lingzhen Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 486 493 10.4314/lex.v28i0. Book Review: <i>Zweisprachige Lexikographie zwischen Translation und Didaktik</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lex/article/view/182692 <p><strong>Book Title:</strong> <em>Zweisprachige Lexikographie zwischen Translation und Didaktik</em></p><p><strong>Book Authors: </strong>María José Domínguez Vázquez, Fabio Mollica &amp; Martina Nied Curcio (Eds.)</p><p>Lexicographica. Series Maior 147. 2014, vi + 334 pp. ISBN 978-3-11-036973-1. e-ISBN 978-3-11-036663-1. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter. Price: € 109.95.</p> Maria Smit Copyright (c) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 28 494 503 10.4314/lex.v28i0.