Compendium of cardiac diseases among children presenting in tertiary institutions in southern Nigeria: A rising trend
The burden of children with cardiovascular disease is on a rising trend. These rising trends are enhanced by the development of new technology in the diagnosis of cardiac lesions.This article is aimed at documenting the current trends in the occurrence of cardiac disease among children attending tertiary hospitals in Sothern Nigeria. This is a descriptive study which involved four hundred and thirty-nine (439) children who had cardiac disease confirmed with echocardiography from four health institutions, namely; Niger Delta University, Bayelsa, Nigeria; University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; Triple care hospital, Enugu, Nigeria and; Blessed children hospital, Enugu, Nigeria over a five-year period from July 2016 - July 2020.The prevalence of congenital heart disease was 83.6% and only 16.4% being acquired heart disease. Many of the children with congenital cardiac defects have associated features of Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and the frequency was related to the type of defect; 6.4% (28/439). These features of Down syndrome are seen mainly in children with AV canal defect 33.3% (14/42) and least in children with TOF 2.0% (1/51). Zero-point two nine percent (1/439) had dextro-cardia and 0.2% (1/340) had VACTERAL (ano-rectal malformation) association, 0.2 % (1/439) had cleft lip, 1.8% (8/439) had dysmorphism other than down syndrome. Five 62.5% (5/8) of such dysmorphic features were associated with VSD. The majority of the children with cardiac disease were from the middle class 63.6% followed by the higher class 21.9% and the least is from the lower class 14.5%. The prevalence values of heart disease were quite higher than that documented in previous studies. The is a rising prevalence of congenital heart disease (83.6%) and acquired heart disease (16.4%) among children with cardiac disease in southern Nigeria. Extracardiac anomalies were also associated with these trends.