Musculoskeletal manifestations in diabetic patients at a tertiary center
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem worldwide. Most diabetic patients will develop functional disabilities due to multiple factors, including musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of MSK in diabetic patients and to examine the possible predictors for its development. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study from June 1, 2010, to June 30, 2011, to evaluate MSK manifestations in adult diabetic patients at an outpatient clinic of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Baseline variables were examined to determine predictors for the development of MSK complications. Analyses were carried out using the Statistical Package for Social sciences. Results: We included 252 diabetic patients; 45 (17.9%) had MSK manifestations. Of these 45 patients, 41 (91.1%) had type 2 diabetes. The most common manifestations were carpal tunnel syndrome (n17, 6.7%), shoulder adhesive capsulitis (n17, 6.7%), and diabetic amyotrophy (n12, 4.8%). A significant association was found between the development of MSK manifestations and manual labor, overweight, and vascular complications. On logistic regression analysis, the presence of vascular complications in general (B-coefficient1.27, odds ratio3.57, PB0.05, 95% confidence interval1.319.78), and retinopathy in particular (B-coefficient1.17, odds ratio3.21, PB0.05, 95% confidence interval1.477.02) can predict the development of MSK manifestations in about 82% of the cases. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal manifestations are under recognized in adult diabetic patients, occurring in 18% of the cases. Physicians should consider examining the periarticular region of the joints in the hands and shoulders whenever a diabetic patient presents with MSK symptoms.
Keywords: arthritis; diabetes mellitus; manifestations; musculoskeletal; rheumatological