Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati <p><em>Lwati: A journal of Contemporary Research</em> is a peer-reviewed Journal. It publishes New Research from every aspect of the Humanities and the Social Sciences.</p> Universal Academic Publishers en-US Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research 1813-2227 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Moral Values and Self-Efficacy of Senior Secondary School Students in Cross River State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210127 <p>The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of sound orientation to moral values on the self- efficacy of senior secondary School Students in Cross River State, Nigeria, in terms of their social self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, language self-efficacy and moral self- efficacy to wit. Ex-post facto design was employed in the study. The sample comprised of 1,543 students randomly drawn from 47 public schools in Cross River State. The questionnaire used for data collection was designed by the researchers and was titled Moral Value Orientation and Self-efficacy Questionnaire (MVOASEQ). To ascertain the validity of the instrument, four research experts in Educational Psychology and in measurement and evaluation were contacted while the reliability of the instrument was ascertained using Cronbach Alpha reliability method. One Way Analysis of Variance was used to analyze data collected from 1,529 subjects, tested at .05 level of significance. The results revealed a significant influence of moral value orientation on social self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, language self-efficacy, moral self-efficacy and overall self-efficacy. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Parents, teachers, school administrators and curriculum planners, should as a matter of fact, emphasize moral education in the school curriculum, educate students on respect for elders and the dangers of protecting friends who commit crimes.<br><br></p> Ndifon Bekomson Achi Bekom Abang Kinsley Agbo Ntamu Blessing Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 1 14 Examination and Monitoring of Staff Commitment as a Tool for Appraising Performance in the Nigerian Banking Industry https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210128 <p>Management nowadays seems to lay more emphasis on monitoring activities in their workplaces. For banks, no doubt, these workplace monitoring efforts provide for adequate security, but its effective use by management as a strategy of performance appraisal, especially for staff promotional cases is still much desired. The paper therefore examined the relationship between constantly staff re-examination and monitoring and employees’ promotional opportunity with a view to enhance performance at workplaces. Data were collected through questionnaires administered on 74 staff members of selected banks located in the popular cosmopolitan city of Ota near Lagos using both convenience and multi-stage sampling methods. Frequency counts, simple percentages and regression analysis were employed to analyse the data collected. Results showed that 70.3% of the respondents agreed that feedback from monitoring records may greatly influence promotion decisions. However, regression results (R = 0.125, R2 = 0.016, p value 0.288) revealed that there is a very low positive&nbsp; insignificant correlation between staff monitoring and promotional opportunities for employees in the banks, with staff monitoring having only 1.6% predictive effect on promotion decisions. This implies that feedback got from monitoring activities in the workplace was not used to make important decisions that affect employee promotional opportunity. The study concluded that despite staff general awareness of its adoption, the potentials of workplace monitoring as a strategic tool of staff performance appraisal are not yet defined and fully&nbsp; realised. Management should therefore intensify efforts in this direction. Also, workplace monitoring should continue to take cognisance of employees’ privacy while engaging more seamless procedures through the use of latest technological instruments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Employees, Workplace Monitoring, Staff Commitment,, Performance Appraisal, Banking Industry. </p> T.O. Fakokunde R.M. Mugri Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 15 38 Wildlife Conservation as a Mitigating Factor to Food Security in a Distressed Economy https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210129 <p>The study was aimed at determining the role of wildlife conservation as a mitigator to food security in a distressed economy like Nigeria. The population for the study was 423, comprising 400 farmers (registered hunters) and 23 extension agents. No sampling was made since the population was manageable. A 54-item structured questionnaire was developed to collect data from the respondents. The data collected were analysed using mean and t-test statistic at the probability of 0.05 level of significance. Results showed among others, that controlled hunting, refuge establishment, predator control, artificial stocking, among others were the sustainable practices for wildlife conservation</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Wildlife, wildlife resource, conservation practices, food insecurity, distressed economy</p> Godwin E. Eze Cajethan U. Ugwuoke Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 35 54 The Impact of Internal Boundaries and Ethnic Conflicts on Nation Building in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210130 <p>This work “The Impact of Internal Boundaries and Ethnic Conflicts on Nation Building in Nigeria” examined the phenomenon of internal boundaries and ethnic conflicts or rivalries in post-colonial Nigeria and their impacts on nation building, national integration and socio economic development of Nigeria. It also examined the resurgences of internal boundary conflicts as a phenomenon which has bedevilled post-colonial Nigeria. The objective is to highlight the fact that internal boundaries and ethnic conflicts or relations in the country have essentially impacted negatively on the Nigerian nation building and developmental process. In fact, evidence shows that Nigeria’s experiment with federalism has compromised national unity, nation building, national integration, political stability and development. The work obtained data majorly from secondary source. It submits that boundaries and ethnicity can be utilized to promote harmony and peaceful co-existence. To this effect, the work recommends the policy of inclusion, equity and justice.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Internal Boundaries, Ethnic Conflicts, Nigeria</p> Ibiang O. Okoi Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 55 73 The use of Metaphors and Similes in a Political Discourse in Ghana https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210131 <p>In this study, we have argued that the use of metaphors and similes is a subtle means by which citizens expose politicians and question their competence in handling national issues. They also serve as a means of minimizing direct vilification of politicians in the political space of Ghana. Using Conceptual Metaphor Theory, data collected from purposively selected and transcribed radio recordings as well as online commentaries, were critically analysed. The analysis reveals that citizens use these devices to surreptitiously expose the manner in which politicians run the country. This study has implication for the relationship between political communication and society.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Emmanuel Amo Ofori Charlotte Ogbedee Laryea Benjamin Kubi Vera Yayrah Fiawornu Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 74 95 The Discursive Construction of Gender Identity in Sefi Atta’s <i>Everything Good Will Come</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210132 <p>Several studies in language and gender have asserted that language is not mere words, but a system of cultural values, lifestyle, perception and a world view which assigns roles and identities to people in the society. This paper, entitled “The discursive construction of gender identity in Sefi Atta’s Everything good will come”, seeks to explicate how the above acclaimed functional impact of language in society, is reflected in the novel. Privileging the social constructionist theory, this paper reveals that gender identity is not equated with sexual identity since the two belong to two separate systems: the former social, and the latter biological. The study shows that sexual identity as well as gender bonding is binary as it has been differentiated into male and female sub-cultural groups, whereas gender identity is multiplex as it can assume diverse/varied forms depending on the sociological and physiological factors that influence and impact upon it. The study further reveals that the talk-style, actions, reactions, interaction, exposure, education and experiences of individual males and females influence and impact upon their individual gender identities. This study submits that gender identity is not static or fixed, but flexible, changing and diverse as constructed in interaction. Put differently, language (talk-style) influences and impacts upon gender identity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asa John Ghevolor Magor Ellah Stephen Oko Ushie Godwin Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 96 110 Discourses of Shekau’s Illusivenes and Boko Haram Leadership as a Semiosis https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210133 <p>The Boko Haram sect has constituted a serious menace not only to the Nigerian society, but to the entire West African sub-region. The leadership of the organization ranging from the late Mohammed Yusuf to the “late” Abubakar Shekau has proved to be highly illusive to the Nigerian security network. While it has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the founder of the Boko Haram sect, Mohammed Yusuf had been captured and killed by the Nigerian security agencies, the second in command who later took over the mantle of leadership from Yusuf has been presented by the media as an immortal being. Even though there is available evidence to prove that Shekau was arrested in the past and killed, the media both foreign and local have continuously presented Shekau as still living. In this paper, the study demonstrates through semiotic construct the available evidence that point to the demise of Abubakar Shekau. The persistent use of the name “Shekau” has become a metaphor for illusiveness and immortality. Through the process of semiosis the paper juxtaposes the living-dead bodies of Shekau and questions the continuous use of the name to prove the immortality of the character of the Boko Haram leadership. Data for the analysis were elicited from print media reports on the activities of the Boko Haram sect. The analysis reveals that the name Shekau remains a source of strength to the members of the sect. It also points to the fact that there seems to be information which the media is hiding from the masses with the continuous use of the name “Shekau” in their reportage. The study opines that if the war against the Boko Haram sect must be won, then there is the need for effective collaboration between media practitioners, security agencies and the populace.<br><br></p> Matthew Abua Ebim Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 111 126 The Role of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Facilitating Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) Exploitation and Economic Growth in Cross River State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210134 <p>Exploitation of forest resources is one of the main stay of economic livelihood in Nigeria in general and Cross River State (CRS) in particular. However, due to the increasing rate of deforestation and the campaign against logging and other forms of depletion of timber resources, what is left in the forests are largely the non-timber forest products (NTFPs). This study has, thus, focused on the exploitation of non-timber forest-products as a form of income by micro and small enterprises in CRS. Multistage sampling techniques and structured questionnaires were used to obtain a cross sectional data on the socioeconomic characteristics, the different types of NTFPs, their uses and the returns from NTFPs trade to households in 5 (Five) LGAs of the State. In all, 500 (Five Hundred) questionnaires were administered and 482 (Four Hundred and Eighty-Two) were returned. Out of these, 22 (Twenty-Two) were mutilated beyond use, while 460 (Four Hundred and Sixty) were found okay and used for analysis. The study revealed that 290 out of 460, representing 63.04% are engaged in exploitation and trading in NTFPs on full time basis. Almost 95% the respondents reside in the study area and more than 78% of them had at least primary education. Of the different types of NTFPs in the study area, thatch/bamboo has the highest prevalence usage due to its high demand for building construction and sundry purposes. These products also have highest average gross margin of N390,000 per year to an average household in the study area. This is followed closely by fruits with N370,000 per year of average gross margin to a household. This study has brought to light some facts on NTFP contribution to the enhancement of livelihoods in the study area. The results show that while initially a support to other livelihood activities, NTFP extraction is rapidly becoming a mainstream income source. If reproduction enhancement and conservation of use are not factored into the extraction of these products now, a situation could well arise in the future where these resources could become less available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ignatius Ahmed Atsu Francis Okpiliya Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 127 146 The Role of Female Enterprneurship Skills Development in the Eradication of Household Poverty in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210135 <p>This study examines the role of female enterpreneurship skills development and their participation in micro-scheme enterprises in the reduction and eradication of household poverty in Nigeia. Sixty female entrepreneurs were randomly selected from three purposively chosen micro-schemes enterprises operating at the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA), which include: trading, fashion designing and hair dressing. The data was analysed using descriptive and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty measure. Results showed that majority (75%) of female entrepreneurs in the study area are traders who participate in catering for the welfare of their families. Results further reveal that female entrepreneurs only contribute 25.88% to household income with higher contribution (33.71%) from female entrepreneurs whose main occupations revolve around micro-schemes enterprises. The aged and primary school leavers had the highest percentage contributions to their household income which is an indication that micro-enterprises have great potentials to increase household income of the vulnerable group. About 68.09% of the female entrepreneurs were living in poor households meaning that most of them are necessity entrepreneurs Female entrepreneurs contributed to household poverty reduction by 19.08% with higher&nbsp; contributions (23.09% and 40%) respectively from households whose main occupation is micro-enterprises and young female&nbsp; entrepreneurs. Also poverty reduction was highest for households with smallest household size (44.45%) and tertiary level of education (22.3%) while there was no reduction in poverty for households with primary level of education. Hence, more empowerment programmes should be organised by government to alleviate poverty of female entrepreneurs, so as to increase their contributions to household income and reduce household poverty.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Micro-Schenes Enterprise, Female Enterpreneurship Shills, Participation in Household Poverty</p> Roseline J. Kolawole Tope O. Fakokunde Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 147 165 The Historical Era of Providential Preparation of the World for Christ and the Church https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210137 <p>This work argues that Christianity was born into a world where religion was fully tolerated in the Greco-Roman world. On the other hand the Jews, the Greeks and the Romans made so many oblivious preparations which enhanced the growth and development of Christianity. Although on a superficial glance the Roman Empire may seem the greatest enemy of the early Christianity, and at times a bitter persecutor, yet it was in many ways the greatest preparation and in some ways the best ally of Christianity. God so designed the coming of Jesus Christ completely or in a perfect way that the small width time slot in which He came to this world was perfectly the most possible time for His coming to the world. Saint Paul called attention in Galatians chapter 4 verses 4 to the historic era of timely preparation that go before the advent of Jesus Christ to earth in human form: “But as soon as the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his son, born of women, born under the law”. When the Lord Jesus came, he declared “in Matthew 16:18: I will build my Church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it”. This work adopted qualitative research approach with focus on historical and content analysis as a method. This shows that God in his infinite wisdom and sovereignty designed according to a plan to build the Church just at the very peculiar or suitable period in history. This work has shown how the Jews, the Greek and the Roman contributions helped in conveying historical development to the juncture where Jesus Christ could produce the highest or greatest significant or strong influence on history in such a way that not capable of being done or achieved previous to or since the period of his birth.</p> E. O. Ekpenyong Enebieni E. Eko Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 166 183 The value of the church history https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/210138 <p>Inquisitiveness or a strong desire to know or asking too many questions and trying to find out about the past has long depicted or portrayed man, starting with Nabonidus, who lived sixth century before Christ in Babylon, to the contemporary historian and archaeologist. Christianity earnestly speaking, is basically or fundamentally a historical religion. Church history is matter of profound interest to the Christian who desires to be enlightened concerning his spiritual ancestry, to emulate the good examples of the past, and to avoid errors that the Church has frequently made. The importance of the study of history cannot be over-emphasized as each generation is of necessity to or must know with regard to people, events, and notions of previous generations suitable or with the intention to produce wise choices or judgment in the present. There is great value in the study of church history. This is why the ancient historians had a great deal of greater accurate perception or worth recognition of a treatise on teaching or instructive to teach, practical or realistic, and moral and ethical values of church history than a lot of contemporary historians have. The people or historians who are aware of the values to be attained or obtained in the activity of learning the church history has influential way of making them to learn this specific area of history of human. This work adopted qualitative research approach with focus on historical and content analysis as a method. This work have shown that, the prime value of church history is that “it links the past factual data of the church gospel with the future proclamation and application of that gospel in a present synthesis that creates understanding of our great heritage and inspiration for its further proclamation and application. It has also shown that studying Christian heritage dispels the sense of loneliness and isolation in an era that stresses the peripheral and sensational and also guides in “the correction of existing evils within the church.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E.O. Ekpenyong Enebieni E. Eko Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 18 2 184 197