Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati <p><em>Lwati: A journal of Contemporary Research</em> is a peer-reviewed Journal. It publishes New Research from every aspect of the Humanities and the Social Sciences.</p> Universal Academic Publishers en-US Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research 1813-2227 <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p> <p>The journal content is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0</p> Viva voce functions, its dilution, and contribution to the proliferation of predatory universities https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239031 <p>Since the Middle Ages, it has been a custom in universities to examine doctoral candidates orally through a “viva voce”. In this way, the doctoral examination consists of two components: a written thesis and a viva voce. Despite justifiable differences between universities around the world, the practice of the viva voce has changed from time to time. In general, the rigour and impact have diminished to such extent that, there is now an emerging practice of not holding a viva at all. In this paper I focus on the impact that the dilution of the viva can or might have on the selected classical functions of the viva. I also explore the possible link between this dilution and the proliferation of predatory universities. Using a qualitative approach, I conclude that the dilution of the viva voce undermines its classical functions and broadly&nbsp; contributes to the proliferation of predatory universities. I, therefore, recommend African universities that are in the process of establishing doctoral programmes to attach great importance to the viva voce examination.</p> Pie Habimana Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 2 20 Achieving Nigerian educational goals through the Confucian educational philosophy https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239033 <p>The importance of education to the development of any society cannot be gainsaid. However, decades after the inauguration of Nigeria’s National Policy of Education, achieving the required educational goals for the nation’s development, has largely, remained a hard sale. In consequence, the country faces alarming rates of social stability and underdevelopment. In the light of the current clamour of tongues and quest for effective ways of achieving more positive outcomes regarding the nation’s educational goals, this paper critically interrogates the major challenges to the attainment of these goals. As the way forward, it presents the ideals of Confucius’ philosophy of education as a philosophical perspective that could be utilized in transforming Nigeria’s education sector towards a more effective attainment of the nation’s educational goals. The analytic, critical and prescriptive methods of philosophical research are adopted in the paper.</p> Anthony Raphael Etuk Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 22 39 Public Private Partnership (PPP) and collaboration in education: A panacea for sustainable development of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239034 <p>Every country’s development is practically anchored on education and its basic conditions for socio-economic and technological transformation of the nation. This paper examined the extent to which public-private partnership and collaboration in education contributes in the sustainable development of tertiary institutions in the areas such as infrastructural and human development. The paper x-rays the concepts of public private partnership and sustainable development of tertiary institutions, types of public-private partnership. The paper also examine the benefits public-private partnership and collaboration in education, such as cost saving, enhancement of revenue generation and others. It further examines the role of public-private partnership and collaboration in education; it also highlighted the risks associated with public–private partnership in development programmes. The paper further reveals that the attainment of meaningful and sustainable development requires the genuine participation of the public, the organized private sectors, donor agencies, individuals and civil society. Such as loss of control by the public sector where private partners commit more funds to a project than the public sector, there is a likelihood that private partners would seek for more control over how services are provided and priced. It further examined the ten tips for successful public- private partnership in higher institution. The paper recommended among others that public-private partnership should be encouraged for sustainability of our university systems.</p> Agnes Ingiagar Ulayi Esther Bassey Arikpo Godwin Bullem Anthony Catherine Njong Tawo Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 40 52 The making of meaning in Nsibidi visual method of communication in Nigeria: Innovation and development https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239035 <p>This paper looks into the need to give the Nsibidi art Culture of Eastern Nigeria an artistic visual design identity based on their traditional and modern visual communication design approach. There is the need therefore to differentiate between traditional and modern visual communication design experience. The exploratory design analysis which is used is based on the concepts ideas and materials for the old and new methods of the Nsibidi culture. It has been analyzed and synthesized into more dynamic indigenous system of visual communication in Nigeria that will enhance the general development of the society. The analyses of signs, symbols, posters and other art works were carried out based on their artistic, aesthetic and functional design mainly as it concern the Nsibidi visual method of communication design in modern time. The research made an attempt to harmonize the traditional and the modern method with a view to developing a new visual communication method based on their culture and technology in recent time. The Nsibidi had a definite operation way of communication. The culture just like their close neighbor could also reduce these sign and symbols into simple code for confidentiality, security, affection and economic transitions among themselves.</p> Godwin Ogbu Uka Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 54 71 Environmental communication and visual pollution: Its philosophical and psychological impact https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239037 <p>This research examines the relationships between the environment, visual communication as a resource and their significance to the aesthetics of the people. The research will look into the psychology and philosophy effect. Visual pollution on humans can be manifested in two forms which have been already recognized:- direct, the effects being psychological and physiological; - indirect, the effects being various, from road accidents caused by distraction, to the economic decline of a community. Environmental design professional/students should work and educate cultural planners, city planners, architects and engineers to enhance the visual aesthetic qualities of the built environment in some Nigerian cities. Visual Arts research provides a forum for historical, critical, cultural, psychological, educational and conception research in visual arts and aesthetic education</p> Godwin O. Uka Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 73 87 Nigeria’s foreign policy and Afrocentrism: A critical analysis https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239038 <p>The paper examined the policy of Afrocentrism against the background of its condemnation as not promotion Nigerians national interest. The objective of the investigation was to ascertain the veracity or otherwise, of the claim, and make appropriate recommendation. The work made use of secondary source and the linkage theoretical framework. Findings show that Afrocentrism is still very much relevant in its essentials. However, the abysmally deplorable internal conditions which contradict Nigeria’s gallant external engagement had disappointed both Nigerians and the international community, and cast aspersion on her foreign policy, generally. The neglect of the domestic environment, which formed the basis for assessment of Nigeria’s foreign policy, had projected the country as a bad influence on the continent. The resultant credibility gap is at the root of the disrespect and disdain with which Nigeria is treated. It was concluded that the challenges of the domestic environment must be addressed to give effect and credibility to Afrocentrism. Hence, the recommendation, amongst other options, the reform of the Nigerian State.</p> Boypa O. Egbe Rita Ukongzi Ushie Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 89 109 “They are demonstrating against SAP” – Abbreviations and social identity construction in select Nigerian novels https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239040 <p>Scholarship on the Nigerian novel has shown the exquisite interplay between linguistic choices and social reality. Although extant studies on the use of language in the Nigerian novel, critics have paid negligible attention to how abbreviations are employed by Nigerian novelists to explore social reality in their writings. In attempt to fill this gap, we explain the mutually reinforcing medley between language and social reality with the aim of accounting for how Nigerian novelists employ abbreviations to construct and reconstruct social identities. Employing the analytical methods of critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper studies the use of abbreviations in four purposively selected novels, namely, <em>Waiting for an Angel, Love My Planet, Under the Brown Rusted Roofs and Arrow of Rain</em> in order to show how abbreviations are deployed as linguistic techniques in the expression of social identity. Through critical textual analysis, this study contributes to extant scholarship on the interface between language and literature and between language use and meaning-figuration.</p> Esther Igwenyi Florence Iwu Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 111 124 Turn-taking and honorifics as politeness strategy in communication: The case of parliamentary discourse https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239042 <p>People take turns when they communicate in whatever setting except perhaps in heated arguments. Two participants of an exchange must however use language while they observe turns. If the use of turns fails, then, the role of language as maintaining social relatiousing Bronships fails as well. This study, wn and Levinson‟s (1978, 1987) Face theory, explores the extent to which face saving/threatening acts can make or mar a conversation; the degree to which turns can be maximized in parliamentary discourse, and the use of honorifics on the Floor of the House of Assembly as a politeness strategy. To access data for this discussion, the researcher had to attend some sessions held by the legislators at the Plateau State House of Assembly.</p> Keziah Jonah Pam Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 125 136 Women as gods, men as priests and girls as carriers in Razinat Mohammed’s <i>Habiba</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239043 <p>The concept of gender inequality and exploitation of the sexes has been a recurrent and ongoing issue in the literary space. The woman and the girl child are often seen as the peripheral and the exploited ‘Others‘. This paper is a deconstruction of the notion of patriarchal dominance and exploitation of the girl child and women in genral in the Northern Nigerian Muslim society. The man has often been seen in feminist discourse as the impediment for the female‘s economic, educational and political growth. Through a close reading of Mohammed‘s <em>Habiba</em>, the paper deconstructs the above issue by revealing that it is the man that is actually impeded. He is only a priest in the shrine of the women as gods in his life. The women are portrayed as the exploiters of the girl child. The significance of this paper lies in the fact that the general notion in feminist literary discourse is often the exploitation of the females by the men for their economic, political and educational advancement when in reality the opposite is the case as seen in this text. Through the utilization of deconstruction and content analysis research methodology, the paper comes out with the findings that the problem of the girl child is caused by women. The girl child is made a sacrifice by the gods- the older women and the man is merely a priest who executes orders given to him by the gods. The paper further finds out that any resistance by the priest in carrying out the order of the gods spells doom for him.</p> Ene Edem Ekpo Jayne Owan Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 138 159 Environmentalism and African literature: A study of Shimmer Chinodya’s <i>Dew In The Morning</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239044 <p>The study sets out to investigate environmentalism and African literature with reference to Shimmer Chinodya‟s <em>Dew in the Morning</em>. The novelist uses the medium of his writing to delineate the connection between literature and the erratic visible environment. He writes with much candor about the events in his milieu and brings into prominence an earth-centred narrative, his novel depicts the trademark of a writer with his own style and content thereby carving a niche for himself in the canon of African literature. He shows that nature can be preserved or ravaged by humans in their quest to make life meaningful and comfortable for themselves. Man manipulates his physical environment to optimize his life so as to achieve a high level of sustenance. Chinodya reveals that in man‟s search for a tenable means of livelihood, the atmosphere is devastated which leads to pollution, diseases, overcrowding, death among others. With the new developments, certain cultural practices have to give way in order to take in the realities of the modern time. His content reflects the African landscape and social identity. This study will be situated using eco-criticism as the theoretical framework to the study of literature.</p> Dibugo Ann Oguamanam Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 160 170 Landscape as metaphor of history in time and space in Derek Walcott’s poetry https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239045 <p>The history and culture of the Caribbean are inextricably linked to landscape. Memories of Caribbean history as a kind of Caribbean consciousness is developed through discourse in which “imagined geographies” deplore a sense of a connect between regional and temporal space, with a sense of the sublimity of the cultures. The context of landscape in Caribbean discourse created an aesthetic that initiated a seamless unity between society, history and culture. The vision of the New World as perpetually tied to historical times is the concern of Derek Walcott and other Caribbean writers. The idea that the landscape has mythical presence, historical associations and elemental connotations which became part of the Caribbean consciousness, and the bases for the definition of the Caribbean man is the idea captured by Derek Walcott, Kamau Brathwaite, etc. Landscape in this work connotes the cultural, psychological and socio-political and historical elements. This affirmative vision of the landscape imbued with history; the sense of that feeling for the land, and a responsiveness to its history can be a meaningful way of rooting oneself, and of acquiring an identity. Derek Walcott comes to terms with this issue of history and memory of the ancestral past in Caribbean historiography. This sense of history in the Caribbean world-view of Walcott‟s poetic universe emphasizes exploration of the self and landscape, especially in his earliest collection – juvenilia - of 25<em> Poems</em> (1948). This visionary inquest in Derek Walcott‟s select poems is what this paper sets to interrogate. This study adopts the Eco-critical theory in the analysis of the studied poems. This theory establishes the relationship between the environment and man and the connect between the socio-cultural in a literary text.</p> Effumbe Kachua Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 171 184 Social hysteria, moral panic and the (dys)functional order of postmodernity in Amma Darko’s<i> Faceless</i> and Bolaji Abdullahi’s <i>Sweet Sixteen</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239054 <p>Amma Darko‟s <em>Faceless</em> and Bolaji Abdullahi‟s <em>Sweet Sixtee</em>n creatively interface a dialogue that centres on the prevalent social order, charts the course for salvaging the disoriented mass from the present socio-cultural pervasion. The two novels are read critically and inter-textually towards discerning the complex socio-cultural dynamics of postmodern society that seem adrift on the cleavages of moral precipice. The thrust of this paper hinges on the strategies of representation by which writers serve as chroniclers of the state of the world, sensitisers of humanity, and as advocates for the vulnerable, with particular interest on the girl child and the younger generations. Darko‟s major characters portray the grim picture of the present social order, just as Abdullahi‟s story projects pedagogically, the propositions towards arresting the prevalent situation and healing society of its falling ethical foundation. A combination of the two creative scenarios constitutes veritable platform for dialogue, for synergising discourse of value re-engineering, socio-economic justice and of moral repair. The analytical thrust of this paper is therefore guided by postmodernism as theoretical tool suitable for interrogating the complex cleavages of contemporary socio-cultural experience.</p> David Ekanem Udoinwang Kufre Aniefiok Akpan Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 185 200 The journey motif in Chimamanda Ngozie Adichie’s <i>Purple Hibiscus</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239056 <p>In her debut novel, Purple Hibiscus, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie concerns herself with the theme of patriarchy and its attendant evils of oppression, intimidation, domestic violence and the repression of the individualistic spirit of agency. This paper argues that Adichie‟s narrative, which is essentially the experiences and growth of two adolescent children of a typically bourgeois family, is structured around a series of journeys, and that these journeys, besides being the basis for narrative development, provide the youthful protagonists with an alternative worldview, an awareness of the intrigues and intricacies of human society outside and beyond their wealthy but closeted family home, as well as the impetus for a more assertive agency that ultimately<br>negates the institution of patriarchy.</p> Etta Julius Ndifon Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 201 220 An innocent girl child archetype in Adimora-Ezeigbo’s select fiction https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239058 <p>The African Society is replete with girl-children that are seemingly adherent to keeping their parents‟ instruction and cultural norms. The essence of grooming such innocent girl children that exhibit cultural nuances with the acceptable beliefs and norms is, to have a near perfect posterity that would take over the affairs of the state from the older generations. This paper investigates the innocent girl-child archetype as the stage of life where she operates in the state of purity and innocence of a new life that is devoid of contamination.<br>The study employs Carl Jung‟s Archetypal Theory, which describes archetypes in fiction as that controlled by the individual personal experiences that are deeper and more universal; a repository of repressed innate materials, inherited thoughts and feelings that reside in the impersonal and collective unconscious. Purposively selected fictional works of Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo are used for the study. Issues related to the innocent girl-child are subjected to critical textual analysis.<br>Findings reveal that the innocent females have the potentials of delivering their parents, culture and society from their predicaments. The innocent girl-child if she is adequately guided by the family and adults group residing in the society is susceptible to taking care of her parents more. Adimora-Ezeigbo represents the girl-child in her sense of innocence with a burden of the adults who are held spell-bound by the usual insight and incredible wisdom exhibited by her. The innocent girlchild is highly endowed with spiritual and physical powers that could weld the family and society together with sustainability and proper achievement. Besides, the innocent girl-child archetype enforces the right conscience, her in-born innocence trait, to curb out the spirit of lying in other children in her family and environment; a habit they acquire during the period such children get trapped in the bad gangs and cults found everywhere in different societies.</p> Grace Itoro Ibanga Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 221 244 Ideological dialectics in political engagement of Nigerian newer dramas: An analysis of Soji Cole’s <i>Embers</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239060 <p>The contemporary Nigerian socio-political situation has created an imbalance where the ruling class oppresses and suppresses the masses. Similarly, the bourgeoisie stifles the proletariat by creating unequal distribution of opportunities for the creation of wealth against the proletariat. Nigerian Playwrights have engaged profoundly the foregoing socio-political situation, by using drama as a means of communication. This research undertakes a comparative study of the political engagement in Soji Cole's newer play, <em>Embers</em>. It examines the ideological dialectics in Cole's Embers against the dramaturgic postulations of the first and second generations of Nigeria playwrights. Using the theoretical frameworks of Conflict Perspective, the study employs the summative content analysis of the selected text to gather relevant qualitative data. The study discovers in Cole's Embers, that the newer playwrights have become less ideologically inclined in political engagement, as they portray the proletariat as being more confrontational, angrier, more emotional and far more rebellious against inept leadership. As such, they earnestly yearn for a change for better leadership and are ready to destroy the current chaotic system in a hasty desire to achieve their rebellious but patriotic desires. Against this backdrop, it is recommended that politicians should guide against tendencies capable of making them fail the people. The masses should not only clamour for responsible and responsive leaders, they should act decisively through the polls by voting for politicians who are genuinely concerned about their plight.</p> Adewole Kehinde Balogun Olaide Taofiq Nasir Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 245 266 Subtitling as a tool for communication in Yoruba video-films https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239063 <p>One of the purposes of<em> subtitling</em> is to provide effective communication in a desired language. As subtitles are made to convey storyline and dialogue of a film to the (native and non-native) audience, it is crucial to understand that a filmmaker who truly desires to globalize the local and localize the global would engage the use of <em>subtitles</em> to achieve his vision. This paper seeks to pinpoint the essence of <em>subtitling</em> as a communication medium in Yoruba video-films. While developing a conceptual understanding of 'language', cultural elements that aid effective communication is also analyzed as well as identifying the distinguishing feature between the dual concepts of translation and transliteration.</p> Taofiq O. Nasir Oreofe A. Williams Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 268 278 Art therapy as a healing concept for the mentally challenged: Artistic approach https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/239067 <p>No abstract</p> G. O. Uka Ogbu E. O. Uka Copyright (c) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 19 4 280 289