Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati <p><em>Lwati: A journal of Contemporary Research</em> is a peer-reviewed Journal. It publishes New Research from every aspect of the Humanities and the Social Sciences.</p> Universal Academic Publishers en-US Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research 1813-2227 <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p> <p>The journal content is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0</p> The imperativeness of culture in upper basic education social studies curriculum development in Nigerian schools https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224178 <p>This paper sought to x-ray the role of culture in Upper Basic Education Social Studies curriculum development in Nigerian schools. The objectives of the research were; to explain the concepts of culture, Social Studies, Curriculum and Curriculum development; the objectives of Social Studies; the components of culture; cultural determinants of social studies curriculum content in Nigerian schools as well as to examine the factors influencing social studies curriculum development which include the learner, the teacher, the society (culture), philosophy of education and psychology of learning. However, the paper revealed that curriculum is the planned skills, attitudes, values and knowledge offered by the learner with an explicit goal of changing his behavior in order to become a functional and active member of the society. It also indicated that a well-coordinated and planned curriculum must be a true reflection of the society's culture where it is expected to function. The paper further revealed that the process of planning and developing a Social Studies curriculum is a strenuous journey for any society and requires a whole-system approach before it can be completed.</p> Lilian Onyinye Ohanyere Christopher C. Ohanyere Copyright (c) 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 19 1 2 24 Assessment of gender and age difference of prospective university students’ attitude towards computer-based testing in the University of Calabar, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224179 <p>This paper reports a study carried out to determine the influence of gender and age difference on prospective university students’ attitude towards Computer-Based Testing (CBT) at the University of Calabar. A sample of 426 prospective tertiary institution candidates who scored 200 and above in the 2021 Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) examination and applied for admission to the University of Calabar was selected through simple random sampling. Data was gathered using an Attitudinal Scale of Candidate on the use of Computer Based Test (ASCCBT) a reliability coefficient which stood at .92%. Research hypothesis relating to the influence of gender and age difference of prospective university students’ attitude towards Computer-Based Testing was analyzed using independent t-test, and One- way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings indicated that gender and age were significant. It was recommended among other things that equal distribution of human and material resources be made available irrespective of gender and age, for effective output during eassessment.</p> Oqua E. Agbo E. Bekorfema Ugbe Copyright (c) 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 19 1 25 33 Rethinking African Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Studio Art: An advocacy for Oberi Okaime script of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224181 <p>African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIKS) constitute all the inventions of African Societies which are independent of western knowledge. These are fundamentally native and aboriginal to a particular African region, society or environment. Much of AIKS abound in various societies in the African Continent. However, most of them are not heard of anymore due, perhaps, to suppression by other cultures – mostly western cultures. Due to this, they are gradually going extinct. Oberi Okaime script of the people of Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria is one such creation from the ingenuity of Africans. This script is undoubtedly, an endangered alphabet. Besides its use for writing, its aesthetic and visual communicative endowments cannot be left to waste. It is on this premise, asides its documentation for posterity, that this paper was set to advocate its use in studio art. The objectives are to reecho the meaning of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and the meaning of Africa Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIKS), to discourse <em>Oberi Okaime </em>Script as an African Indigenous Knowledge Systems; to present some images of the script and advocate for its adaptation to motifs in art forms. The study adopted survey method. Data were gathered from secondary and primary sources. Findings show that <em>Oberi Okaime</em> script can be an effective source of inspiration for all genres of Studio Art.</p> Clement Etim Ekong Itoro Domobongse Ekong Copyright (c) 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 19 1 35 52 <i>Nwommo</i> Traditional Art of The Ibibio People: A case of exhibition of the rejected https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224183 <p>Ibibio traditional art exhibition is a permanent display in a building called Nwommo (Warrior Shrine). It has a chief priest as the custodian and curator. On display are various sizes of ceramics pots for storage and mixture of herbal medicinal concoctions. The exhibition huts also have numerous sculptures, masks, wall paintings, graphics symbols and textiles loins, wrappers for theatrical spectacle, hunting expedition and body adornment respectively. However, these traditional exhibitions are viewed as scary, diabolic and fetish. Therefore, they are rejected within Ibibio societies and beyond. They are seen except for the initiates as non-conforming to acceptable values. This paper, attempts to use the example of exhibition of the rejected, a non-conformist group in France to discuss the impact of traditional art exhibition as found amongst Nwommo permanent display. The objectives were to discuss the materials and production of Ibibio traditional art; the influence of Nwommo traditional art on contemporary art and; position Nwommo traditional art as exhibition of the rejected. The method used was unstructured interview and reviews from related literatures. Findings reveal significant activities of administration, religion, communication, preservation, entertainment and aesthetics in Nwommo Ibibio traditional art. The inference drawn from the study on the exhibition of the rejected is that of allowing for unconventional creative outlet as a means of reforms within a given society. The paper recommends restructurings through original works of traditional art as against rejection. The Ibibio traditional art exhibitions are avant-garde resources, reminiscent of the socio- economic and socio - political standards of the society.</p> Ekaete Emeka Ogbonna Clement Etim Ekong Copyright (c) 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 19 1 53 67 Graphology as style in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s <i>The thing around your neck</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224185 <p>This paper “Graphology as Style in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie‟s The Thing Around Your Neck”, critically examines of the language of Adichie with the aim of exploring the stylistic devices through graphology assembled by the author in the encoding of the message of the text. Based on the Systemic Functional Grammar of M. A. K. Halliday, as well as on the general principles of stylistics, the study is undertaken at the level of graphology, to account for certain features in the author‟s language and why they have been utilised. The study discovers that the author makes choices of graphological variables such as italicisation, capitalisation, text incorporation, paragraphing and breakage of points and punctuations from the vast resources of language in order to relay her message in the most appropriate manner and to create an impression on her readers. The major thrust and finding is that the author makes some deliberate deviations from the conventions of language in order to vividly portray the experiences of her characters who are mainly Africans. Also, the author utilises her language configuration to give prominence to the cultural and linguistic background of the Igbo people and Africa in general.</p> Yusuf Tsojon Ishaya Michael Gunn Copyright (c) 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 19 1 69 86 The expressive theory of art and autbiography in literary criticism: Re-reading Francis Selormey’s <i>The Narrow Path </i>and Camara Laye’s <i>The African Child</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224188 <p>The Expressive Theory is the anchor and leverage point of autobiography, a non-fictional presentation of the author by himself. This paper examines the autobiography of Camara Laye‟s <em>The African Child</em> and Francis Selormey‟s <em>The Narrow Path</em>. Each of them represents the experiences of the author as a growing child. It is the picture of the author as a growing child written by the author himself. It is the capturing of the memories of the growing child vividly remembered and chronicled as a work of art. While Laye presents romanticized experiences of his childhood, having grown up in an all-loving environment, surrounded by beauty and care with little or no hardship, except the torture experienced in school as a pupil in the primary school, Kofi presents a somewhat realistic picture of a harsh and struggling home where peace and comfort are the products of self indulgence and diligence, skill and favour, industry and self reliance and dependence. Childhood nuances and juvenile delinquency of pilfering, gambling and stubbornness are included. The language of literature, its milieu and domain in general are also examined in this study.</p> Kalu Obasi Kalu Copyright (c) 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 19 1 88 112 Social realism in the poetry of Philip Obioma Chinedu Umeh and sly –Cheney Coker https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224193 <p>Literature is a product of the society and the writers as watchdogs of their various societies recreate and expose the ills engulfing them. The paper focuses on social realism on the selected poems of Philip Obioma Chinedu Umeh and Sly Cheney Coker espousing how they have used their poetics in elucidating the relationships existing between the privilege few and the unprivileged majority in the society. This paper adopts Marxism as the basic theoretical underpinning. It has also been observed that the poetry of these writers acts as a driving force in exposing what Charles Bressler describes elsewhere as the “dominant class”. Social realism in this context is a realistic depiction in art of contemporary life, as a means of socio-political comment. It is also viewed as an artistic creation of the life of the common man in relation to that of the bourgeoisies. The poetry of Umeh and Coker is one area of research that have not received enough critical attention in spite of the visible predatory bites of their poems, especially in demystifying and reforming the ambiguous vacuum created in the society by this insatiable lust for the country’s national cake and complacency of the leaders toward the inadequacies of the led.</p> Odey Josephat Adoga Fidelis U. Utsu Copyright (c) 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 19 1 113 119 Istoricizing and conceptualizing Albert Camus's dual perception of women in <i>L'étranger and le Malentendu</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224208 <p>Several studies have been published on the recurring themes of death, revolt, and the absurdity of life in Albert Camus's literary works. These works mostly refer to ambiguity or contradiction regarding some of his ideologies of life. Camus’s recognition of life’s limitations while celebrating it to its fullness and his ambiguous attitudes towards the concept of death comes to mind. But little literature has been recorded of his mindset towards women. This study explores the evolution of Camus's multiple notions about women. It is an attempt to evaluate the ambiguity of perception inherent in his literary creation regarding his relationship with women. Camus's opus indicates that loving" at a distance" offers some advantages to men in pursuit of idealistic goals in life. An affirmation of the above statement is the blend of allegiance and disconnection which characterized Camus's relationship with his mother. Using Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic theory, the study posits that the disorienting or fluctuating limits in Camus’s characters manifested through Meurseult and Jan, demonstrates lingering challenges of human existence and a critical post-modern account of the absurdity of human condition. The study maintains that Camus's loyalty and detachment from women can be regarded as the paradigm of the rapport between man and society. This study's endgame is to, first, expose new perspective in Camus’s works, and then fill in the lacuna as well as to indicate a field of research of broader value in French literature.</p> Peter Akongfeh Agwu Tolbert Cerdue Abutu Copyright (c) 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 19 1 120 137 Science and the environment: The Kuhnian paradigm and the challenge of the ordinary people https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224215 <p>Across the nations of the world, serious attention is now being paid to the environment because of the increase in environmental disasters. Most of these disasters are not natural but as a consequence of the activities of human beings and their science including their technological apparatuses and deployments. Issues such as global warming, climate change, flooding, desertification, air, water and land pollutions, deforestation, wild fires among so many debilitating issues that affect the environment today have become a source of concern to world leaders, environmentalists, philosophers and other concerned individuals. But the question is; what is the cause of the increase in environmental disasters? Is anything being done to change the narrative? Are the „ordinary people‟ aware of the impact of their use and enjoyment of science and technology on the environment? Who takes the lead in shifting the paradigm? Thomas Kuhn had opined in his magnus-opus – The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, that every paradigm has relevance in the age to which it is accepted and practiced by the scientific community. But a time will come when anomalies would begin to be noticed in accepted paradigms. These anomalies will lead to crisis that will finally lead to a shift in paradigm thus heralding a scientific revolution. A shift in paradigm means a deliberate departure from the old way of doing things in other to face new challenges that may have been caused by the former way things were done. Using the analytic and critical methods, this paper attempts to situate the impact of science and technology and the activities of the ordinary people on the environment. The Kuhnian notion of „paradigm shift‟ shall be adopted as a framework to establish a workable panacea to change the narrative. The idea is to canvas for a paradigm shift in the management of the environment by co-opting „ordinary people‟ to participate in shifting the environmental paradigm of this age.&nbsp;</p> Samuel Otu Ishaya Copyright (c) 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 19 1 139 154 An exposition of the cognitive problems in Rescher‟s Coherentist truth criteriology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224219 <p>Perhaps the most influential proposals in the recent literature on the problem of truth in epistemology is Rescher‟s version of the coherence theory of truth. Daring to save the theory from sinking under the weights of traditional criticisms, Rescher adopts an approach that differs significantly from the traditional method to re-present the theory. Primary in this is his departure from the traditional definitional emphasis to the criterial route in determining truth under coherence considerations. To further validate his theory, he ingeniously advances the process of validating coherence on pragmatic grounds. Adopting the expository, analytic and critical approaches of study, this paper takes a critical look at Rescher‟s rebranded coherence theory of truth. It concludes with the view that, though Rescher‟s theory exhibits some epistemic merits, yet due to certain inherent cognitive problems, it does not meet the demands of rational success either in justifying the coherence theory or resolving the problem of truth in epistemology.</p> Anthony Raphael Etuk Copyright (c) 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 19 1 155 173 Revisiting Averroes’ influence on Western philosophy https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224221 <p>Better known as Averroes, Ibn Rushd remains one of the greatest Islamic philosophical geniuses of all times. The unparalleled inventiveness of his mind and the ―audacity‖ of his methods are evident in many of his innovative philosophical activities, which tremendous stirred the minds of his contemporaries in the Middle Ages. Perhaps only a few would deny the far-reaching impacts of his profound philosophical activities and ideas on Western philosophy. Prominent among these are his unique status as a paramount guide to Aristotle, based on his influential and massive commentaries on Aristotle, and his strong arguments for the compatibility of philosophy with religion. These and more, have since established the depth of his ideas and his lasting relevance in Western philosophy history. This paper undertakes an exposition of his philosophical activities, to identify the impacts of his enduring legacies on Western philosophy. The expository and hermeneutical methods of analysis are adopted.</p> Anthony Raphael Etuk Copyright (c) 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 19 1 174 194 ICT infrastructure and adoption of strategic procurement performance metrics in the Kakamega County Government, Kenya https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224223 <p>Effective performance measurement in public procurement (PP) is the only avenue through which evidence-based improvement can be injected into the process. The over reliance of county governments on activitybased performance metrics has not only masked poor PP performance, but also hindered continuous improvement of the process. This study sought to determine the effect of ICT infrastructure on adoption of strategic procurement performance metrics (SPPM) in county governments, a case of Kakamega county government. This was achieved through the lenses of institutional theory and public sector scorecard model. A mixed method approach anchored on case study design was used to collect data from the Kakamega County Government. Inferential analysis was done using content analysis and ordinal logistic regression. The study revealed that procurement automation was unrelated (0.235 Wald χ <sup>2</sup> (1) = 0.37, p=0.543) with adoption of SPPM. However, both procurement database (0.859 Wald χ<sup>2</sup> (1) =9.608, p&lt;0.05) and procurement data sharing (1.19 Wald χ<sup>2</sup> (1) =7.094, p&lt;0.05) were found to be significantly related with adoption of SPPM in county governments. The study concluded that functional ICT infrastructure within county governments is a prerequisite for effective adoption of SPPM. Basing on these findings, the study recommended that county governments should invest in developing a functional ICT infrastructure to improve the technical capacity of adopting strategic procurement performance metrics.</p> Kennedy Otemba Odongo Isaac Kazungu Copyright (c) 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 19 1 196 214 Creativity and innovation as ways of enhancing socio-political, and economic development of some Nigerian sectors https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224224 <p>Creativity is associated with generation of ideas, innovations and solving of many human problems. It is chiefly associated with the arts and human society. It is believed to have aided in revolutionizing of many modern cities we have today. In Nigeria, creativity is viewed by many as a thing for the artists, thereby ignoring its vast potentials that could be deployed to solve problems in other human fields such as medicine, food and nutrition, education, law, etc. This study focuses on assessing the possibilities of creativity and innovation as vehicles for solving myriad of problems in Nigeria such as corruption, ethnicity,underdevelopment, etc, using a quadrat diagram developed from Getlein (2008). The research method to be applied is descriptive research design and literature review. The findings of this study will reveal that creativity can be applied by artists, doctors, politicians, teachers, and in their various endeavours, to fast-track socio-political, and economic development of Nigeria.</p> Godwin Ogbu Uka Oswald Chidiebere Onwuekwe Nelson Chibuso Asogwa Copyright (c) 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 19 1 215 228 Religious intolerance and the quest for progressive change in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/224225 <p>The clamour for change in Nigeria‟s socio-political terrain in contemporary times is a strong attestation to the fact that this country is embroiled in acute social, political and economic quagmire. One of the issues serving as obstacle to Nigeria‟s progress as a pluralistic polity is intolerance. There are various categories of intolerance in Nigeria. They include religious, ethnic, political, and gender intolerance, among others. More acute is religious intolerance because the metaphysical nature of religion makes it to be easily manipulated and dragged into other issues of public life. Therefore, this study investigates religious intolerance with a view to underscore how it has encumbered progressive change in Nigeria. Historical, critical, analytical and constructive methods of research were adopted for this study. Leaning on the theory of religious relativism, this paper ascertained that the issue of religious intolerance has indeed encumbered Nigeria‟s effort towards positive change and development in the areas of security and social stability, economic prosperity, democratic transformation and consolidation, integration of values and national unity. The authors submit that for Nigerians to experience progressive change in public life, religious adherents across religious divides must demonstrate genuine attitude of tolerance towards believers of other faith traditions in the country.</p> Ewere Nelson Atoi Yakubu Kume Babale Copyright (c) 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 19 1 230 250