Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">LWATI is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal which reviews and publishes critical scholarly essays in all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Education, Development, Health and Gender Studies. It is a Pan-African journal that situates Africa at its core. It publishes genuine or original research from anywhere in the globe from African, Africanist scholars and perspectives.</span></p> en-US <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p> <p>The journal content is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0</p> lwatijo@yahoo.com (Francis Ibe Mogu) lwatijo@yahoo.com (Editor) Tue, 09 Apr 2024 17:11:47 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 21st century undergraduate variables and their information search behaviours in the University of Calabar https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268161 <p>The study was design investigate under graduates‟ variables and their information sourcing behaviours in the twenty first century in behaviours in University of Calabar, Calabar Nigeria, for this to be achieved two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Detail literature review was carried on the variables of the study. Survey research design was adopted and the population of the study was 3,321 registered 2019/2020 academic session, who registered as users of University of Calabar library. The sample of 200 respondent drawn through accidental sampling technique was used. The data collection was done using a structuring questionnaire constructed by the researcher tapped „University Under Graduates‟ Information Sourcing Behaviours Questionnaire‟ (UUGISBQ). The instrument was subjected to face validity. One way analysis of variance and independent t test were used to analyzed the data and tested at .05 level of significance after which one of the hypotheses rejected and one retained, the results therefore indicated that; age of under graduates does not significant influence their information sourcing behaviours, there is a significant influence of University under graduates‟ gender on information sourcing behaviours in University of Calabar, Calabar. Based on the findings the following recommendations that, the University administration organize training and retraining programmes for academic staff, more information sourcing channels should be created.</p> Mercy Emmanuel Ugbe, Aniah Bernard Beshigim, Williams Agatha Amba Inyang Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268161 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Globalization and the dynamics of national security in the 21st century https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268163 <p>Globalization and the increasing interconnectivity of the international system has brought about changes in the nature of state relations and newer trends in security threats within the international system. Security threats that hitherto did not exist are now made manifest with the aid of globalization particularly as a result of advancement in information, communication and transportation technologies. Cyber crime, transnational crimes, money laundry, human trafficking, terrorism financing, proliferation of small arms and light weapons amongst several other security threats now characterize the global system. This paper therefore attempts to interrogate globalization as a driver for insecurity. It is the position of this paper that national and international security dynamics have changes because of globalization. It is desk research and relies basically on secondary data. The paper therefore recommends the need for states to adopt security strategies that are in line with global trends so as to address security challenges. It also recommends the application of technology in addressing national security challenges.</p> Sunday Adejoh Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268163 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 High rate of inflation and adult workers' productivity in the Southern senatorial district of Cross River State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268164 <p>This study investigated high rate of inflation and adult workers‘ productivity in Southern senatorial district of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the stated objectives of the study, four research questions and four research hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. The survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 225 was drawn from the population of 2.250 workers using simple random sampling technique. An instrument titled: High rate of inflation and adult workers‘ productivity questionnaire (HRIAWPQ). The hypotheses were analyzed using pearson product moment correlation coefficient and tested at 0.05 level of significance and 223 degrees of freedom. It was discovered that rise of food items, rise of fuel price, rise in transportation and rise in manufacture goods significantly relate to workers‘ productivity. Insecurity in the work place, high inflation rate are powerful factors influencing workers‘ productivity and performance in their workplace. It was recommended among others that the government should reduce the cost of purchasing power of people by regulating market prices to cushion the effect of buying power of the Naira.</p> Esther Bassey Arikpo, Agnes Ingiagar Ulayi, Gabriel Esidene Anipi, Rose Ayiba Ojong Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268164 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Interrogating the role of brand visibility on the survival of private universities in ECOWAS countries https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268165 <p>This study interrogated the role of brand visibility on the survival of private universities in ECOWAS. Stratified Sampling Technique was used to select two branded and visible private universities in Nigeria and two less branded and less visible universities in Benin. The validity of primary data collected through interviews was tested using secondary data collected through content analysis. The gathered data lent significant insight into the benefits of brand visibility programs in university survival. The Nigerian universities that engage in regular brand visibility programs enjoy public recognition, acceptance and increased enrolment; while the Benin comparison universities with low brand visibility activities suffer hostile government policies, low public acceptance and low student enrolment.</p> Uche C. Nwokoro Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268165 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Social media literacy and cybercrime: a study of Calabar Metropolis, Cross River, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268178 <p>This research “Social Media Literacy and Cybercrime in Calabar Metropolis Cross River State, Nigeria,” is aimed at assessing the relationship between social media illiteracy and vulnerability of people towards to cyber-related crimes in Calabar metropolis. It is also aimed at finding if residents of the metropolis and the law enforcement agents deploy social media platforms in combating cyber-induced crimes, and to determine whether exposure to social media platforms also leads to cybercrime. The study made use of survey design method, while the researcher adopted the situational crime prevention theory as a theoretical framework. Questionnaire was employed as an instrument for data collection. One hundred thirty respondents were picked through random sampling method, with simple percentage statistics used for data analysis. Findings revealed that social media illiteracy has tremendous impact on cyber-induced crimes particularly in Calabar metropolis and can also be used as a veritable tool to be deployed by the law enforcement agents to monitor and, possibly track down those involved in cybercrime in Calabar metropolis.</p> Charles Utsu Ushie, Richard Nsan Ndoma Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268178 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The role of research in developing countries: a case of Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268180 <p>It is not an overstatement to say that the level of development witnessed in the world today: especially in developing countries is a product of research. In fact, the author is of the opinion that research is "synonymous' to development as it leads to advancement in all facets of life such as education, health, governance, agriculture, infrastructure, building, commerce and industry, transportation, banking and finance, information technology, engineering, security to mention but a few. This paper takes a look at the role of research in development. It is aimed at promoting research in developing countries of the world. A philosophical approach is adopted while gathering data from a pool of literature, personal observation of major trends in Nigeria. The paper examines the level of development in key area of life; as well as highlighting those challenges facing research development using Nigeria as a reference point. Recommendations are made in the paper that could promote research development in young countries of the world. The paper concludes that without thorough research activities, stagnation in national development and human existence is endangered. (</p> Sunday James Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268180 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The role of perceived motivation and workers’ productivity within educational sectors in Cross River State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268182 <p>The thrust of this paper is to unravel the role of perceived motivation and workers’ productivity in educational sectors. By its objectives, It will show the importance of motivation to employees, It will reveal the strategies likely to motivate employees for better work results. To achieve the purpose of this study, one research question was posed, and one null hypothesis was generated. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of seven hundred and ninety two (792) respondents out of eight thousand one hundred and twelve (8112) administrative staff being the population was randomly selected from this study. The selection was done through the stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. The instrument was subjected to face validation. The reliability estimate of the instrument was established using the Cronbach Alpha reliability method. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis was the statistical analysis techniques adopted in the study. The hypothesis was subjected to testing at 0.05 level of significance with relative degrees of freedom. The results of the findings revealed that, there is a positive relationship between medical services as motivational factor and workers’ productivity. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that management of all educational sectors should ensure that they build a healthy public policy, zero bills, subsided medical services as motivational package for efficient and productivity.</p> Glory Emmanuel Edoho, Ojong A, Rose , Fidelis Ashiekong Ukpanukpong, Elizabeth Odije Patrick Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268182 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainable visual arts practice for economic development through a synergetic approach of private and public entities https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268185 <p>Nigeria as a nation is going through economic turmoil with all hope seems lost because of inability to galvanized capacity to harness the potentials of the nation in terms of human and material resources for her prosperity. This calls for a new thinking outside the norm of a product to other significant products. Visual art practice stands out as an economic booster when properly developed and projected as a culture. Examples abound of other cultures to learn from who have developed practices worthy of emulation of which includes France, China, United Kingdom, Italy, Rome, Greece, Egypt and United states among others. They developed workable systems that both public and private entities thrive on. It is important to note that a synergetic approach option is therefore necessary to developing a viable and sustainable art practices to growing economy. Nigeria has a lot to do in not just looking at oil as major source of income but explore the visual art through encouraging competitive art business practices that can rival others. The economic value of visual art in other climes is recognized as a booster to the economy considering a museum such as Louvre that attracts almost 11million visitors yearly. Tourism promotion in a collaborative approach usually birth movements of people in need of new excitements, areas, locations, businesses which are essential to societal developments. What significant roles then do visual art play in human experience? Understanding the significant roles make us to be appreciative of the value to economic development of a nation. It is measured in how we domicile business and practice of visual art in a locality. Another is how human emotional intelligence gives them interpretation beyond the visual and translates into innate meanings. This is a convention that ensures it spread culture beyond national boundaries to international acceptance. The consequence is the development of cultural heritages that stem from capacity to achieve a sustainable art practices based on appreciation of different endowments which interrogate human existence in a bid to project it to others.</p> John Oyedemi Joshua, Moses Sekuk Zumnan Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268185 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Resilience and empowerment narratives of women entrepreneurs in Ipetu-Ijesha https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268186 <p>This paper explored the resilience and empowerment narratives of women entrepreneurs in small scale businesses in Ipetu Ijesha, a southwest community in Nigeria with a view to examine the strength and determination exhibited by these women as they confront various challenges while striving for a better future.An in depth qualitative interviews were used through semi structured interviews on women who have thrived in the same business for over 15 yearsand content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The findings revealed that the participants' perceptions of empowerment varied, encompassing financial independence, stability, freedom, and the ability to make choices for oneself. Each woman's journey towards empowerment was unique, involving the negotiation of societal norms, surmounting barriers, and confronting systemic inequalities and access to emotional support was identified as a crucial element in their empowerment journey.These women, as agents of change, shaped their destinies, overcame adversity, and contributed to the betterment of their communities.</p> Olukemi Aluko, Hammed Adefeso, Ayodeji Temitope Oyekunle Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268186 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The shadows of cross-border legal practice in the East African Community https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268187 <p>The Treaty establishing the East African Community (EAC) and the Common Market Protocol advocates for the cross-border legal practice in the EAC. To effectively implement cross-border legal practice, other legal instruments were needed at the EAC level. It has been more than a decade since such instruments were drafted but not adopted. In addition, the Partner States needed to adopt laws that favor cross-border legal practice. So far, some Partner States have tried to do so, while others have not. Such disparities are the subject of this paper which, after taking stock of the status and obstacles to cross-border legal practice in the EAC, formulates recommendations to make cross-border legal practice a reality in the EAC</p> Pie Habimana Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268187 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Lexis and style in Tanure Ojaide’s <i>Delta Blues and Home Songs</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268188 <p>This paper, lexis and style in Tanure Ojaide‟s<em> Delta Blues and Home Songs</em>, examined how meaning is negotiated through the use of cohesive devices and other stylistic features in the text. Previous studies have concentrated on phoric relations in the text as well as on the text‟s treatment of environmental issues without much attention paid to how cohesive devices coalesce in the text to produce meaning. Data for the study comprised five poems purposively selected from Ojaide‟s<em> Delta Blues and Home Songs</em>. Also, the study undertook a qualitative research procedure. Equally, since the paper focused attention on the use of language (lexical choices) to address social situations, the theoretical base adopted was Halliday and Hasan‟s (1976) Cohesion Theory. The research discovered that style and meaning are inseparably linked. This was revealed through the assessment of the author‟s deployment of cohesive devices like reiteration, synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy as well as the stylistic features of hypotaxis and parataxis. The paper was concluded with the notion that by the author‟s placement of cohesive and stylistic features in the foreground, meaning in the text became more pronounced and clearly underlined.</p> Jackson Archibong Etuk, Vero Ekpris Urujzian Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268188 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A critical exploration of Soyinka’s “metamorphosisation” of corruption in <i>Interventions I, II and IV</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268189 <p>Critics use several avenues to describe and decry the deplorable socio<br>political situations in the twenty first century Nigerian nation. Amongst these critics, Wole Soyinka plays a prominent role. In the past, several researchers had analysed Soyinka‟s literary and non literary works using different theoretical perspectives such as pragmatics, stylistics and critical discourse analysis. However, Soyinka‟s pictorial depiction of the “metamorphosisation” of corruption in the Nigerian nation, hence its Nigerianness, using the <em>Interventions</em> has not received much critical attention. This study, therefore, adopts Critical Metaphor Analysis and Cognitive Semantics as the theoretical framework in identifying, interpreting and explaining how corruption has “metamorphosed” in a manner that is uniquely Nigerian in Interventions I, II and IV with a view to showing how metaphors are domesticated to suit different societies. Soyinka‟s<em> Interventions I, II and IV</em> constitute the source of data, and are purposively chosen for their content on the “metamorphism” of the societal canker corruption. Metaphor exploration of Soyinka‟s language use helps us assess the world in a way which may vary from the way we typically perceive it, and consequently, offers various new interpretations.</p> Idara Esimaje Thomas Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268189 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 “Only the fool points at his origins with his left hand”:Edward Kamau Brathwaite’s celebration of his authentic origin https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268190 <p>Black Africans in the diaspora faced the problem of being transplanted from Africa to the New World during the Transatlantic Slave Trade developed a lot of psychological problems. One such problem is that they feel a sense of disconnection between their existence in the New World and their primary home in Africa. Caribbean writers expose the people's sense of rootlessness and the need for the search for the authentic self. Through Historical Criticism and Post Structuralism, this study exposes the assertion of the tragic or fragmented self of the people ending in restlessness and sorrow; Edward Kamau Brathwaite's quest for his root in Africa is encapsulated in his attainment and participation in African traditional worship; his communion with his ancestors and celebration of the new dawn of his authentic origin; his return to the Caribbean and the message he sent across by incorporating African language into poetry. It aims at highlighting the need to rediscover the truth of one's being and rehabilitation of one's culture to re establish one's dignity.</p> Leonard Obina Onwuegbuche, Evelyn Nwachukwu Urama Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268190 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The subaltern can speak: interrogating narratives of exploitation in Kaine Agary’s <i>Yellow Yellow</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268236 <p>Imperial incursion into most countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and so on have been contextualized, re contextualized, and aggregated in strongly evocative linguistic terms. Arising from that background are such terms as “subaltern”, “postcolonial”, and so on. Many disciplines have appropriated this omnibus structure in their advancement of knowledge. Literary studies draws from this composite structure in its mediation on this existential condition. This is where subaltern literature comes into play. Subaltern literature has consistently portrayed colonial encounter or the aftermath of colonial encounter. It is categorized as postcolonial literature. It often speaks back to the former colonial masters; although Spivak in her seminal essay posits that the subaltern cannot speak. Her assertion is predicated on many stifling conditions the subaltern face. Mindful of Spivak‟s position, this paper argues that the subaltern can speak, irrespective of how they speak and when they speak. In the current study, they speak of multiple exploitation of: the colonial / postcolonial space, the subaltern population, and ultimately the women subaltern. This study, through the postcolonial theory, interrogates the different shades of exploitation represented in Kaine Agary‟s <em>Yellow Yellow</em>. The discovery is that both women and the environment in the text are victims of exploitative colonial, postcolonial and patriarchal structures.</p> Hani Hani Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268236 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Villecruelle d’Eza Boto : Mongo Beti, negritude et responsabilite. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268237 <p>The name of Alexandre Biyidi Awala, the famous Camerounian dissident writer and activist, better known by his pseudonym of Mongo Beti needs no further introduction in the annals of African literature of French expression. So much has been said and written about his very first novel titled <em>Ville Cruelle</em> (Cruel town), the only novel he used the pseudonym of Eza Boto. The most common narrative that critics prefer to launder about the work, is the fact that the novel took the decolonisation struggle head on, at a time when more elderly intellectuals like Camara Laye preferred to either be diplomatic, or ignored the leprous subject of the evils of colonialism in Africa. The gap in knowledge about this novel, which has often been overlooked by scholars and critics alike, and which this paper seeks to close, is the fact of the collaboration between the African traditional /cultural system and the colonial machine to monetise and commercialise Africa’s socio cultural norms and values, thereby imposing the gerontocracy of the elders for the purpose of economic exploitation. Using the socio historical approach, this paper explores how this gerontocracy worked as a tool of economic exploitation of African youths by exploitative elders in the name of the colonial system.</p> Mercy Eghonghon Odudigbo Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268237 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of local content programming and cultural imperialism in Nigerian broadcast media. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268238 <p>This paper investigated the local content programming and cultural imperialism in the Nigerian broadcast media with a view to determining the extent to which cultural imperialism influences radio and television stations in Nigeria local content programming and the impact of their programmes on the indigenous culture. The theories of cultural imperialism and cultivation Analysis were employed to underpin or support the study. A survey method was used to gather data for the study. Based on the empirical data obtained, it was revealed that broadcast stations in Nigeria are involved in local content programming but the extent is not significant as foreign programmes still take the lead in our broadcast stations. Even most of the programmes that are regarded as indigenous in our broadcast stations, are in most case, dominated by the content of foreign materials. This to a large extent has contributed to cultural imperialism as our indigenous programmes are in most cases relegated to the background even by the indigenous viewers. Findings also revealed that the reasons for this horrible and hideous situation is lack of finance for local programming, lack of digitalized equipment which constitutes poor quality programming and lack of austere monitoring by the NBC. The study concludes that broadcast media in Nigeria is still infantile as well as juvenile in terms of local content programming, thereby opening wider fissure for foreign programmes to fill in. The study recommends that the broadcast media in Nigeria should come back to the drawing board and pay keen attention to local programming as this is the only way our core values as a people and nation can be promoted. NBC must not relent in ensuring compliance and sanctioning violators of the local content provisions.</p> Nicholas Omuon Egere, Charles Utsu Ushie, Charles Utsu Ushie Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268238 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Personality traits and substance use as predictors of reckless driving among commercial tricyclists in Biu, Borno State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268239 <p>The rate of reckless driving among commercial transport workers in Nigeria is gradually assuming a frightening proportion. However, despite its associated psychosocial and economic consequences, there is still paucity of research, especially among tricyclists, which paradoxically forms a significant mode of intra city transportation in most parts of northern Nigeria. This study examined personality traits and substance use as predictors of reckless driving among commercial tricyclists in Biu, Borno state. To achieve its objectives, 150 eligible commercial tricyclists conveniently sampled in a cross sectional survey were assessed with standardized instruments measuring big five personality traits, drug use and reckless driving at Kuros and Mandabula parks within Biu. Result did not indicate significant influence of personality traits on reckless driving. However, participants’ reported substance use emerged as a significant risk factor to reckless driving. These findings implicate drug use as a major risk factor to the increasing rate of reckless driving in Biu and thus recommend stakeholder’s efforts on regular drug check and treatment as a way to manage intra town reckless driving and its potential consequences in Biu and beyond.</p> Tersoo Paul Shaapera, Hauwa Mary Aigboje , Fredrick Sonter Anongo Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/lwati/article/view/268239 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000