Madagascar Conservation & Development <p><em>Madagascar Conservation &amp; Development</em> welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes in the legal status of any species (IUCN, CITES) or land (Protected Areas) existing in Madagascar, public awareness programs, the availability of new educational materials (include the name and address of distributor and cost, if applicable), job announcements (paid or volunteer), and notification of newly published scientific papers, technical reports and academic theses are all appropriate contributions. Readers are also encouraged to alert Madagascar Conservation &amp; Development to pertinent letter-writing campaigns and other activities, which may need the support of the Madagascar Conservation &amp; Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation &amp; Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy. <br>Other websites related to this journal: <a title=" " href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Copyright is owned by Madagascar Wildlife Conservation/JGI Switzerland (Patrick Waeber) (Lucienne Wilmé) Tue, 18 Oct 2022 13:23:29 +0000 OJS 60 CITES must urgently take the steps to save Madagascar’s unique species of rosewood and ebony <p>This contribution is an open letter to all CITES Management and Scientific Authorities, which is signed by all of the co-authors. As CITES convenes its 19th Conference of the Parties in November 2022, some of the largest seizures in history of illegally harvested CITES-listed species are poised to be handed back to the criminals who smuggled them out of Madagascar. Nearly 40,000 rosewood logs were illegally exported from the country in 2014, in clear violation of CITES and national embargos, as explicitly declared in Notices issued by the CITES Secretariat. The logs were seized by Singapore, Kenya, and Sri Lanka, but as a result of both passive and active interference from various Malagasy officials and aggressive use of these countries’ national court and political systems, orders have now been issued for the logs to be returned to the smugglers. Release of this wood would have catastrophic consequences for the future sustainable management of Madagascar’s remaining rosewood and ebony resources. We propose five essential steps that should be taken at the upcoming CITES CoP 19 in Panama to prevent this from happening.</p> Mark A. Roberts, Derek Schuurman, Porter P. Lowry II, A. N. A. Ratsifandrihamanana , S. Rafanomezantsoa , Patrick O. Waeber, Lucienne Wilmé Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Aperçu sur la fragmentation de la forêt naturelle dans la Réserve Spéciale d’Ambohitantely et ses alentours entre 1949 et 2017, Hautes Terres Centrales <p>Cette étude vise à caractériser la dynamique de la couverture forestière et la fragmentation de la forêt naturelle de la Réserve Spéciale d’Ambohitantely et&nbsp; les zones périphériques dans un rayon de 10 km de la limite de l’aire protégée entre 1949 et 2017. Au total, cinq images satellitaires pour les années&nbsp; 1989, 1995, 2002, 2010 et 2017, et 59 clichés de photographies aériennes prises en 1949 ont été utilisées. La télédétection et le système d’information&nbsp; géographique ont été utilisés pour la cartographie de l’occupation du sol pour les six périodes d’études, ainsi que pour l’analyse de la dynamique de la&nbsp; couverture forestière et l’estimation de la perte de surface forestière. Six métriques disponibles sur le logiciel FRAGSTATS ont été sélectionnées pour&nbsp; l’analyse de la fragmentation à l’échelle du paysage à savoir, le nombre de parcelles (NP), la densité de parcelles (PD), la variabilité de la taille des parcelles&nbsp; (AREA_SD), l’indice de la dimension fractale (FRAC_MN), l’indice de contiguïté (CONTIG_MN) et l’indice d’agrégation (AI). Après une classification&nbsp; supervisée, les classes d’occupation du sol ont été reclassées en forêt ou non-forêt. La dynamique de la couverture forestière dans la zone étudiée a&nbsp; montré qu’une vaste zone forestière a été convertie en zone non forestière. L’estimation de la perte de forêt indique que le taux annuel dans la réserve&nbsp; varie, et la plus importante estimée à 586,4 ha soit 4,05% par an a été enregistrée entre 1995 et 2002, et la plus faible est de 473,4 ha soit 0,41% par an,&nbsp; entre 1949 et 1989. Les résultats ont montré la diminution du nombre de fragments ainsi que la densité des fragments depuis 1989 à 2017, ce qui&nbsp; indique la disparition de fragments forestiers. En parallèle, la réduction de l’indice de la dimension fractale et de la variabilité de la taille des parcelles&nbsp; révèlent la simplification de la forme des fragments et la faible diversification de la superficie des différents fragments. L’augmentation de l’indice&nbsp; d’agrégation contre la diminution de l’indice de contiguïté confirme l’isolement des fragments.</p> <p><br>This study aims to characterize the dynamics of forest cover and fragmentation of the natural forest of the Ambohitantely Special Reserve between 1949&nbsp; and 2017 and within a radius of 10 km of the boundary limit. Five different periods of satellite images were employed, specifically the years 1989, 1995,&nbsp; 2002, 2010, and 2017, as well as aerial photographs taken in 1949. Remote sensing and geographic information systems were used for land cover mapping for the six study periods, as well as for analyzing forest cover dynamics and estimating forest cover loss. Using the software FRAGSTATS, six&nbsp; different metrics were selected for the analysis of forest fragmentation at the landscape level: number of patches (NP), patch density (PD), patch size&nbsp; standard deviation (AREA_SD), mean patch fractal dimension (FRAC_MN), contiguity index (CONTIG_MN), and aggregation index (AI). Following a supervised classification, land cover classes were reclassified as forest or non-forest. The dynamics of forest cover at the site and over the study period&nbsp; indicated that considerable zones of forest were transformed to non-forested areas. The estimate of forest loss indicates that the annual rate in the&nbsp; reserve varies, and the largest estimated at 586.4 ha or 4.05% per year was recorded between 1995 and 2002, and the lowest is 473.4 ha or 0.41% between 1949 and 1989. The results indicate a decrease in the number of fragments as well as the density of fragments from 1989 to 2017 associated&nbsp; with the disappearance of forest. In parallel, the reduction of the mean patch fractal dimension and variability of the patch size denotes the simplification&nbsp; of the fragments’ shapes and the slight diversification of the areas of the different fragments. An increase in the aggregation index as compared to a&nbsp; decrease in the contiguity index confirms the isolation of the fragments.&nbsp;</p> Herivololona Mbola Rakotondratsimba, Steven M. Goodman Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 14 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Preliminary survey of the threatened carnivores in the Daraina Loky-Manambato Protected Area, Madagascar <p>Madagascar’s protected areas safeguard numerous threatened endemic plant and animal species, including Euplerid carnivores, considered to be the&nbsp; most threatened yet understudied group of carnivores globally. The Loky-Manambato Protected Area (PA) in northern Madagascar encompasses a&nbsp; unique transitional forest ecosystem that is under pressure from forest loss and fragmentation. We provide the first photographic survey of Madagascar’s&nbsp; carnivore community occupying this region with the aim of documenting carnivore species richness, relative activity (Trap Success), and&nbsp; spatial distribution (Naïve occupancy) across the landscape. To do this, we used 60 motion-activated cameras to survey along established trails in three&nbsp; forest patches across the Loky-Manambato PA: Antsahabe, Bekaraoka, and Antsaharaingy. We surveyed each forest for two weeks in September and&nbsp; October 2018. We collected 498 independent captures of fauna across the landscape, including five of the six endemic carnivores known to occupy&nbsp; eastern Madagascar: Galidia elegans, Galidictis fasciata, Eupleres goudotii, Fossa fossana, and Cryptoprocta ferox. We found F. fossana and G. elegans to&nbsp; be the most active and widely distributed carnivores, while C. ferox, G. fasciata and E. goudotii were the least. Additionally, we documented the presence&nbsp; of two invasive carnivores: Canis familiaris and Felis catus. These findings extended the northern-most known range of Galidictis fasciata (Antsahabe) and&nbsp; Fossa fossana (Bekaraoka) into the Loky-Manambato PA. Forest size was not a good predictor of activity or occurrence as the largest forest patch in&nbsp; Bekaraoka had the fewest captures of all carnivores. Our findings highlight some of the biodiversity within the Loky-Manambato PA and the need for&nbsp; effective management across this unique transitional forest ecosystem.</p> <p>Les aires protégées de Madagascar protègent de nombreuses espèces végétales et animales endémiques menacées, y compris les carnivores&nbsp; eupléridés. Les carnivores eupléridés sont considérés comme l'un des groupes de carnivores les plus menacés mais les moins étudiés au monde. L'aire&nbsp; protégée (PA) de LokyManambato dans le nord de Madagascar englobe un écosystème forestier de transition unique qui subit la pression de la perte et&nbsp; de la fragmentation des forêts. Nous fournissons la première étude photographique de la communauté de carnivores de Madagascar occupant cette&nbsp; région dans le but de documenter la richesse en espèces de carnivores, l'activité relative (Trap Success) et la distribution spatiale (Naïve occupancy) à&nbsp; travers le paysage. Pour ce faire, nous avons utilisé 60 caméras activées par le mouvement pour surveiller le long des sentiers établis dans trois parcelles&nbsp; forestières à travers l’AP Loky-Manambato : Antsahabe, Bekaraoka et Antsaharaingy. Nous avons étudié chaque forêt pendant deux semaines en&nbsp; septembre et octobre 2018. Nous avons procédé à 498 captures indépendantes de la faune à travers le paysage, incluant cinq des six carnivores&nbsp; endémiques connus pour habiter l'Est de Madagascar : Galidia elegans, Galidictis fasciata, Eupleres goudotii, Fossa fossana et Cryptoprocta ferox. Nous&nbsp; avons constaté que F. fossana et G. elegans étaient les carnivores les plus actifs et les plus largement distribués, tandis que C. ferox, G. fasciata et E.&nbsp; goudotii étaient les moins nombreux. De plus, nous avons documenté la présence de deux carnivores envahissants : Canis familiaris et Felis catus. Ces&nbsp; découvertes ont étendu l'aire de répartition la plus septentrionale connue de Galidictis fasciata (Antsahabe) et de Fossa fossana (Bekaraoka) dans l’AP&nbsp; Loky-Manambato. La taille de la forêt n'était pas un bon prédicteur de l'activité ou de l'occurrence car la plus grande parcelle forestière de Bekaraoka&nbsp; avait la moindre présence de tous les carnivores. Nos résultats mettent en évidence une partie de la biodiversité au sein de Loky-Manambato PA et la&nbsp; nécessité d'une gestion efficace dans cet écosystème forestier de transition unique.&nbsp;</p> Patrick H. Ross, Brandon Semel, Giovanni Walters, Erin M. Wampole, Amidou Souleimany, Zach J. Farris Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 14 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Clarification on protected area management efforts in Madagascar during periods of heightened uncertainty and instability <p>In early May 2022, Eklund and colleagues published an article in Nature Sustainability in which they attempted to demonstrate that the early 2020&nbsp; lockdown imposed in Madagascar by the emerging COVID-19 pandemic had a direct impact on Protected Areas (PAs), with an increase in the number of&nbsp; fires, which then stabilized once the lockdown was over. The authors, undoubtedly in good faith but based on an incomplete understanding of the&nbsp; situation on the ground, were attempting to draw the attention of the international community and donors to the need to maintain and strengthen PA&nbsp; management efforts. Their contribution, while highlighting a real and urgent need, does not, however, do justice to Madagascar’s PA managers, who, in&nbsp; collaboration with the populations living in the vicinity of parks and reserves, maintained and in some instances increased efforts to ensure the integrity&nbsp; of parks and reserves during the COVID-19 period. Following the publication of this paper, we contacted the authors as well as the editors of Nature&nbsp; Sustainability in a collegial effort to draw their attention to the errors identified in the analysis and to point out how this led to a misinterpretation of what&nbsp; actually transpired during the lockdown. We submitted a carefully worded and argued rebuttal for possible publication in Nature Sustainability,&nbsp; which we regarded as justified given the nature and significance of the considerations we had carefully presented. Unfortunately, after several exchanges&nbsp; with the editor and indirectly with the authors, during which we made an honest and concerted effort to explain the problems identified and&nbsp; their reputational implications for PA managers in Madagascar, the journal ultimately declined to publish our response, to our considerable surprise. In&nbsp; order to ensure that these issues are shared with the diverse stakeholder groups involved in conservation and PA management, in Madagascar and&nbsp; elsewhere, we feel that it is our duty to draw attention to their potential consequences, rather than adopting the questionable strategy of sitting back&nbsp; and hoping they will somehow self-correct themselves (see Vazire 2019).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Début mai 2022, Eklund et ses collègues publiaient un article dans Nature Sustainability dans lequel ils ont tenté de démontrer que le confinement de&nbsp; début 2020 imposé à Madagascar par la pandémie naissante du COVID-19 a eu un impact direct sur les aires protégées (AP) avec une augmentation du&nbsp; nombre de feux qui s’est stabilisée dès la fin du confinement. Les auteurs, certainement de bonne foi mais sur la base d’une compréhension incomplète&nbsp; de la situation sur le terrain, tentaient d’attirer l’attention de la communauté internationale et des bailleurs sur la nécessité de maintenir et renforcer les&nbsp; efforts de gestion dans les AP. Leur contribution, même si elle souligne un besoin réel et urgent ne fait en revanche pas justice aux gestionnaires des AP&nbsp; qui, en collaboration avec les populations riveraines des AP, ont maintenu, parfois accru leurs efforts pour maintenir l’intégrité des AP pendant la période&nbsp; COVID-19. Suite à la publication de l’article, nous avons contacté les auteurs ainsi que les éditeurs de Nature Sustainability dans un effort collégial pour&nbsp; attirer leur attention sur les erreurs identifiées dans leur analyse et pour souligner la msure dans laquelle elles ont mené à une interprétation totalement&nbsp; erronée de la situation qui prévalait pendant le confinement. Nous avons soumis une réfutation soigneusement formulée et argumentée à Nature&nbsp; Sustainability que nous estimions largement justifiée compte tenu de la nature et de l’importance des considérations présentées, mais après plusieurs&nbsp; échanges avec le rédacteur en chef et indirectement avec les auteurs au cours desquels nous présentions de manière honnête et concertée les&nbsp; problèmes que nous avions identifiés avec leurs les implications sur la réputation des gestionnaires des AP à Madagascar, le journal a finalement refusé&nbsp; de publier notre réponse, à notre grand étonnement. Pour nous assurer que ces questions soient partagées avec tous les acteurs et parties prenantes&nbsp; impliqués dans la conservation et la gestion des AP, à Madagascar et ailleurs, nous estimons qu’il est de notre devoir d’attirer l’attention sur les problèmes&nbsp; que nous avons identifiés ainsi que sur leurs conséquences éventuelles plutôt que d’attendre que les problèmes se règlent d’eux-mêmes (voir&nbsp; Vazire 2019)&nbsp;</p> F. Ollier D. Andrianambinina, Patrick O. Waeber, Derek Schuurman, Porter P. Lowry, Lucienne Wilmé Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 14 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Insights from practitioners in Madagascar to inform more effective international conservation funding <p>Bending the curve on biodiversity loss will require increased conservation funding and a wiser resource allocation. Local conservation practitioner&nbsp; expertise will be vital in decision-making processes related to funding. Yet, the integration of their insights into funder priorities and strategies is often&nbsp; insufficient, particularly in countries where international funding comprises the bulk of support for conservation. More generally, the role of funding&nbsp; remains under-analyzed in conservation and opportunities for funder-practitioner dialogue at a broad strategic level are limited. We seek to address&nbsp; these critical gaps by presenting results from a participatory workshop of conservation practitioners in Madagascar, one of the world’s biodiversity&nbsp; hotspots. Five major areas of need emerged, and these challenges need to be addressed if we are to see long-term solutions to the biodiversity crisis: (1)&nbsp; strengthen law and policy implementation; (2) ensure sustainability of funding; (3) improve coherence and coordination within and beyond the&nbsp; conservation sector; (4) support self-strengthening of local communities; and (5) invest in capacity development. This article elaborates on these thematic&nbsp; areas and their implications for international donors in Madagascar and beyond. Our approach demonstrates a way for amplifying in-country&nbsp; practitioner voices in a collaborative way and highlights the need for their inclusion at all stages of conservation program development so that funding&nbsp; priorities better reflect local needs and aspirations while enhancing prospects for enduring conservation outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Johanna Eklund, Jennifer Zavaleta Cheek, Luciano Andriamaro, Tsiorisoa Mihanta Bakoliarimisa, Christina Galitsky, Ony Rabearivololona, Domoina J. Rakotobe, Harifidy O. Ralison, Lalatiana Odile Randriamiharisoa, Joe Rasamoelinarivo, David Rasolofoson, Joelisoa Ratsirarson, Andriamandimbisoa Razafimpahanana, Eric Marcel Temba, Aili Pyhälä, Daniel C. Miller Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 14 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Addenda à l’article Revue des textes fonciers et forestiers pour la mise en œuvre de la restauration des paysages forestiers à Madagascar <p>No Abstract.</p> Herimino Manoa Rajaonarivelo, O. Sarobidy Rakotonarivo, Stefana Raharijaona, Eric Raparison, Mirindra Rakotoarisoa, Neal Hockley Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 14 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Time to adjust our lenses? <p>No Abstract</p> Derek Schuurman Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 14 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000