Assessment of Corrosion and Scale forming Potential of Groundwater Resources: Case Study of Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia
Almost 100% of the water supply of Dire Dawa City is from groundwater (including boreholes, dug wells, and springs). Recently, groundwater cause corrosion and scale problems to water distribution systems due to its content of dissolved ions that can cause public health and economic issues. The present paper investigates the corrosion and scale-forming potential of the groundwater in the city and visualizes it with mapping. Spectrophotometer, EDTA/Acid titration with calculation methods were used for water quality parameters analysis. GW Chart Calibration plot applied for the Piper diagram to categorizes the water types. Langelier saturation (LSI), Ryznar (RSI), aggressive (AI), Puckorius Scale (PSI), and Larson-Skold (LRI) indices were manipulated with Excel ® and visualized their spatial distribution using ArcGIS 10®. The mean values of LSI, RSI, PSI, AI, and LRI obtained were 0.29 ± 0.28, 6.4 ± 0.5, 5.10 ± 0.48, 12.20 ± 0.24, and 1.4±1.57 respectively. LSI and RSI results indicate moderate to low scale-forming tendency of groundwater in most parts except the northeastern part with corrosive groundwater. Based on the AI value, the groundwater ranges low corrosion in almost all zones except the edge of the northeast and northwest region. PSI indicated the water tends to form salt-scale at a medium rate. The LSI results showed that chloride and sulphate are unlikely to interfere with the formation of protecting film except in northwestern and northeastern regions where localized corrosion might occur. In conclusion, in almost all distribution system of the city is affected by calcium carbonate scale formation. The groundwater in the northwest and northeast resulted in localized corrosion because of relatively high contents of chlorides and sulphates.
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