The Potential of in situ Rain Water Harvesting for Water Resources Conservation on Malaria Transmission in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
AbstractThe role of in situ rain water harvesting (RWH) in water resources conservation is well recognized in semiarid areas, such as the highlands of northern Ethiopia. However, in fringe areas of malaria endemicity, the potential impact of such schemes on vector populations and malaria transmission is not well documented. We therefore investigated the impact of such environmental interventions on Anopheles vector breeding and malaria burden, in a cross sectional survey undertaken in March/April 2005 in 4 villages in northwestern (3 in Hadegti and Hibret subdistricts; (s.d) 1800masl.) and central (Endachewa s.d.; 2050masl) zones of Tigray, in northern Ethiopia, where large scale construction of half-moon ponds (HMP) and ditches was in progress. A total of 990 blood slides taken from under 10 children revealed 268 infections of which 90.7% were P. falciparum, 7.5% P. vivax and 1.9% mixed. All of these were from Hadegti and Hibret s.d. where HMPs predominated, revealing a slide positivity rate of 35.6% (range 30.7 – 41.7%) and 3.6%, respectively. The majority (>77%) of the malaria positive cases resided in households located within 750 meters of the RWH structures, indicating that proximity to mosquito breeding sites was an important determinant of malaria in the villages. Over 33.8 % of the aquatic habitats in these villages were colonized by Anopheles aquatic stages, of which all were identified morphologically as An. gambiae sensu lato (presumably An. arabiensis). HMPs were found to be more productive than the smaller ditches, where water stayed longer for the aquatic stages to reach maturity to the adult mosquito. Hence, such environmental interventions require due consideration and need to be integrated with appropriate malaria control strategies. Key words: In situ Rain water harvesting, Malaria, Anopheles arabiensis, Tigray, Ethiopia.
The Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science accepts the manuscripts for consideration with the understanding that the manuscript has not been published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Only original articles will be considered for publication if they have been published previously as abstracts, but not if they have been published previously as extended abstract (>1000 words). This applies to both electronic and print versions of the journal. The authors should assign copyright ownership to the Editorial Office of MEJS in the event that the manuscript is accepted for publication in the Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science. All accepted manuscripts must be accompanied by a copyright statement signed by all authors. A copy of the copyright form will be supplied along with the final reviewed version of the manuscript that is sent for final proof- reading. Authors may make multiple copies of the form if necessary and send to the Editorial Office with author’s signature(s) even individually.
All articles published by Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS) are Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0). Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, and anyone can copy, distribute, or reuse articles as long as the author and original source are properly cited. In all these cases for re-use, the authors will be given proper credit to the original publication in MEJS.