Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --><!--[endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify;"><em>Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science</em> (MEJS) is a free access e-journal devoted primarily to the original contributions containing original scientific findings in any of the science fields, having national or international appeal and significance. It is aimed to publish the research output mainly related to earth science, physical sciences, chemical sciences, biological sciences and computational sciences; and focuses on all aspects of geology, chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics and related areas. It publishes original peer-reviewed scientific papers, covering both basic and applied aspects of science including interdisciplinary researches. It will also include short communications, invited review papers, general review articles, book reviews, letters to the editor, comments and critique of published materials, information related to conferences and any other relevant topics. Papers from researchers working in different public and private sector, academic institutions, industries, companies etc., having national/international interest are accepted for publication.</p> en-US <p>The <em>Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science</em> accepts the manuscripts for consideration with the understanding that the manuscript has not been published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Only original articles will be considered for publication if they have been published previously as abstracts, but not if they have been published previously as extended abstract (&gt;1000 words). This applies to both electronic and print versions of the journal. The authors should assign copyright ownership to the Editorial Office of MEJS in the event that the manuscript is accepted for publication in the <em>Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science</em>. All accepted manuscripts must be accompanied by a copyright statement signed by all authors. A copy of the copyright form will be supplied along with the final reviewed version of the manuscript that is sent for final proof- reading. Authors may make multiple copies of the form if necessary and send to the Editorial Office with author’s signature(s) even individually.</p><p>All articles published by Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS) are Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, and anyone can copy, distribute, or reuse articles as long as the author and original source are properly cited. In all these cases for re-use, the authors will be given proper credit to the original publication in MEJS.</p> (Prof. Bheemalingeswara Konka) (Dr. Hagos Weldegabriel) Mon, 16 Aug 2021 01:08:27 +0000 OJS 60 High-resolution Data Based Groundwater Recharge Estimations of Aynalem Well Field <p>Due to the ever-increasing demand for water in Aynalem catchment and its surrounding, there has been an increased pressure on the Aynalem well field putting the sustainability of water supply from the aquifer under continuous threat. Thus, it is vital to understand the water balance of the catchment to ensure sustainable utilization of the groundwater resource. This in turn requires proper quantification of the components of water balance among which recharge estimation is the most important. This paper estimates the groundwater recharge of the Aynalem catchment using high-resolution hydro-meteorological data. Daily precipitation and temperature measurement data for years 2001-2018; groundwater level fluctuation records collected at every 30 minutes; and soil and land use maps were used to make recharge estimations. In the groundwater level fluctuation, three boreholes were monitored, but only two were utilized for the analysis because the third was under operation and does not represent the natural hydrologic condition. Thornthwaite soil moisture balance and groundwater level fluctuation methods were applied to determine the groundwater recharge of the Aynalem catchment. Accordingly, the annual rate of groundwater recharge estimated based on the soil-water balance ranges between 7mm/year and 138.5 mm/year with the weighted average value of 89.04 mm/year. The weighted average value is considered to represent the catchment value because the diverse soil and land use/cover types respond differently to allow the precipitation to recharge the groundwater. On the other hand, the groundwater recharge estimated using the groundwater level fluctuation method showed yearly groundwater recharge of 91 to 93 mm/year. The similarity in the groundwater recharge result obtained from both methods strengthens the acceptability of the estimate. It also points out that the previously reported estimate is much lower (36 to 66 mm/year).</p> Abdelwassie Hussien, Tesfamichael Gebreyohannes, Miruts Hagos, Gebremedhin Berhane, Kassa Amare, Gebremedhin Berhe Zenebe Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Major Sources Controlling Groundwater Chemistry in Kombolcha Plain, Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia <p>The study area, Kombolcha town, forms an important industrial town situated in the Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia. The geology of the area is mainly composed of basalts, rhyolitic ignimbrites, and Quaternary sediments. Hydrogeochemistry and the source of ions in the groundwater of the study area are poorly understood. Therefore, the current study aims to assess the factors and the different hydrochemical processes significantly controlling groundwater quality, source, and chemistry. For this purpose, a total of eighteen groundwater samples were collected using 250 ml sampling bottles at selected points in the dry season (May 2017) and wet season (November 2017). Gibbs diagram, correlation analysis, scatter plots of ionic molar ratio relations, saturation index values (estimated using PHREEQC Interactive 2.8) were used to decipher the hydrogeochemical process. Gibbs diagram shows that the rock-water interaction process is the predominant, Na<sup>+</sup>/Cl<sup>-</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup>/Mg<sup>2+</sup> molar ratio value of all groundwater samples in both seasons reveals that the groundwater chemistry of the area is controlled by silicate minerals weathering. The strong correlation of Ca<sup>2+</sup> with Mg<sup>2+</sup> in the dry season, and Ca<sup>2+</sup> with HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>- </sup>and Na<sup>+ </sup>with HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> in the wet season could also be an indication of silicate weathering and ion exchange processes. The impact of anthropogenic practices on groundwater chemistry is also seen from the strong correlation of Ca<sup>2+ </sup>with Cl<sup>-</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> and F<sup>-</sup>, NO<sub>2</sub><sup>- </sup>with K<sup>+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, and PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3- </sup>, PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> with F<sup>- </sup>, and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>- </sup>with Na<sup>+</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>- </sup>. The negative values of chloro-alkaline indices in both seasons indicate base-exchange reaction where an indirect exchange of Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup> of the water with Na<sup>+</sup> and K<sup>+</sup> of the host rock occurs. Saturation indices results for the wet season show that the groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, aragonite, dolomite, gypsum, and anhydrite. In the dry season, however, some of the waters are oversaturated with respect to calcite and aragonite. To sum up, the groundwater quality of the study area is controlled by geological processes and anthropogenic effects.</p> Berihu Abadi Berhe, Fethangest Woldemariyam Tesema, Gebreslassie Mebrahtu Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Potential of Shallow Groundwater for Household Level Irrigation Practices in Tahtay Koraro Woreda, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia <p>This paper deals with the results of a pilot study conducted to estimate the shallow groundwater resource potential and irrigation capacity at the household level in Tahtay Koraro Woreda, northwestern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. The potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration of the study area are estimated to be 1484 mm/year and 814 mm/year respectively. The runoff is approximately calculated to be 280 mm/year and the annual groundwater recharge is estimated to be 29 mm/year<strong>.</strong> The total annual groundwater abstraction for human, livestock, and irrigation is estimated to be 25 mm/year. It should be noted that the groundwater recharge rate is expected to remain constant while the total annual groundwater discharge is expected to increase from year to year. This relation when projected over a long period may result in a negative groundwater budget which can result in depletion of groundwater (lowering of groundwater levels), reduced baseflow to streams, and deterioration of water quality. &nbsp;The computed values for hydraulic conductivity of the aquifers range from 1.63 m/day to 7.27 m/day with an average value of 4.9 m/day and transmissivity from 48.9 m<sup>2</sup>/day to 218.1 m<sup>2</sup>/day with an average value of 147.14 m<sup>2</sup>/day. The aquifers in the highly weathered basalt and highly weathered siltstone – sandstone intercalation have transmissivity values ranging from 99 m<sup>2</sup>/day to 218.1 m<sup>2</sup>/day with an average value of 157 m<sup>2</sup>/day and are grouped into the moderate potentiality aquifers category. The aquifers in the slightly weathered and fractured metavolcanics grouped under low potentiality based on the lower transmissivity values (&lt;50 m<sup>2</sup>/day). The study area has low to moderate groundwater potentiality, hence, large-scale groundwater pumping is not possible. Therefore, the current activity of using hand dug wells for household-level irrigation is the best way of using groundwater for irrigation and other uses as well. Increasing the depth of the existing hand dug wells that are constructed in highly weathered basalt and highly weathered siltstone – sandstone intercalation can also enhance the yield of the hand dug wells. It is recommended to use water-saving irrigation technologies rather than increasing the number of wells. This will also help in increasing the irrigation area. Groundwater recharge enhancement structures such as trenches, percolation ponds, and check dams be constructed in scientifically selected localities to further enhance the groundwater potential.</p> Ermias Hagos, Amare Girmay, Tesfamichael Gebreyohannes Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Quantitative Geomorphological Parameters Analysis for the Aynalem- Illala Streams, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia <p>Morphometric analysis is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the surface, shape, and dimension of landforms. The objective of this study is to characterize the Aynalem and Illala streams using the morphometric parameter. The topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000 taken from the Ethiopian National Mapping Agency was used to characterize the linear and areal aspects. ASTER Digital Elevation Model with 10m resolution was used to characterize the relief aspect. The Arc GIS 10.4.1 was used during the morphometric analysis. The analysis result of the streams is summarized based on the linear, areal, and relief aspects. The area is characterized by a dendritic drainage pattern which is characteristics of massive hard rock terrain. The Aynalem and Illala streams are 4th and 5th order streams. Considering the number of streams in the Aynalem (75.81%) and Illala (74.66%) is composed of first-order streams that indicate a flashy flood and the mean bifurcation value of Aynalem (6.8) and Illala (4.7) shows that the Aynalem area is more structurally affected than Illala but both show less stream integration. The analysis of areal aspects such as elongation ratio, circularity ratio, and form factor has indicated that both streams are characterized as elongated streams, this implies that both streams are flowing in heterogeneous rock material, presences of structural effect, and slow runoff discharge.&nbsp; The other areal aspect such as drainage density, stream frequency, infiltration number, and length of overland flow all show smaller values in both streams. This implies that the streams are characterized by a relatively permeable rock material with a higher infiltration capacity. The relief aspect of the Aynalem and Illala was also analyzed using basin relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, hypsometric curves, and Hypsometric integral. The streams are characterized by a lower relief ratio and ruggedness number which implies a relatively flat slope and lower relief. The hypsometric curves and the Hypsometric Integral of the streams indicate that the Aynalem and Illala are at the maturity stage. This shows the area is characterized by higher erosion but less affected by recent structures. Based on the morphometric parameter analysis result it is possible to conclude that the stream development is dependent on the topography and geology of the study area and both streams show similar morphometric character.</p> Fethangest Woldemariyam Tesema, Gebrerufael Hailu Kahsay, Berihu Abadi Berhe Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical Groundwater Flow Modeling of Dijil River Catchment, Debre Markos Area, Ethiopia <p>Dijil River catchment is a sub-catchment of the Abay drainage basin and covers 138.28 km<sup>2</sup>. This paper presents numerical groundwater flow modeling at steady-state conditions, in a single-layer aquifer system under different stress or scenarios. A numerical groundwater flow models represent the simplification of complex natural systems, different parameters were assembled into a conceptual model to represent the complex natural system in a simplified form. The conceptual model was input into the numeric model to examine the system response. Based on geologic and hydrogeological information, confined subsurface flow condition was considered and simulated using MODFLOW 2000. The model calibration accounts matching of 24 observation points with the simulated head with a permissible residual head of ±10m. The sensitivity of the major parameters of the model was identified during the calibration process. According to the simulated water budget in the model, the simulated inflow is found to be 1.2791870E+05 m<sup>3</sup>/day which is nearly equal to the simulated outflow of 1.2791755E+05 m<sup>3</sup>/day with the difference being only 1.1484375E+00 m<sup>3</sup>/day. Water budget analysis reveals that outflow from river leakage accounts for 92.8 % of the total outflow and 14.1 % of the total inflow comes from the river leakage in the study area. Three scenarios of increased withdrawals and one scenario of altered recharge were used to study the system response. Accordingly, an increase in well withdrawal in scenario-I (existing wells pump simultaneously), scenario-II (existing drilled wells yield withdrawal increased by 30%), and scenario-III (additional eight wells having expected yield of 30 l/s drill and pump) resulted in an average decline of the steady-state water level by 1.06m, 1.68m, and 4.46m, respectively. They also caused the steady-state stream leakage to be reduced by about 2.93%, 4.58%, and 11.23%, and subsurface outflow by 9.41%, 14.67%, and 37.86%, respectively. A decrease in recharge by 25% and 50% results in a decrease of the head by 6.1m and 13.4m respectively, and a stream leakage decrease by 20.3%, and 40.3% respectively as compared to the simulated steady-state value. Therefore, adequate groundwater level monitoring wells should be placed in the catchment to control the total abstraction rates from the aquifer and fluctuations in groundwater levels.</p> Tadesse Ketemaw, Abdelwassie Hussien, Fethangest Woldemariyam Tesema, Berihu Abadi Berhe Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Corrosion and Scale forming Potential of Groundwater Resources: Case Study of Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia <p>Almost 100% of the water supply of Dire Dawa City is from groundwater (including boreholes, dug wells, and springs). Recently, groundwater cause corrosion and scale problems to water distribution systems due to its content of dissolved ions that can cause public health and economic issues. The present paper investigates the corrosion and scale-forming potential of the groundwater in the city and visualizes it with mapping. Spectrophotometer, EDTA/Acid titration with calculation methods were used for water quality parameters analysis. GW Chart Calibration plot applied for the Piper diagram to categorizes the water types. Langelier saturation (LSI), Ryznar (RSI), aggressive (AI), Puckorius Scale (PSI), and Larson-Skold (LRI) indices were manipulated with Excel<sup> ® </sup>and visualized their spatial distribution using ArcGIS 10<sup>®</sup>. The mean values of LSI, RSI, PSI, AI, and LRI obtained were 0.29 ± 0.28, 6.4 ± 0.5, 5.10 ± 0.48, 12.20 ± 0.24, and 1.4±1.57 respectively. LSI and RSI results indicate moderate to low scale-forming tendency of groundwater in most parts except the northeastern part with corrosive groundwater. Based on the AI value, the groundwater ranges low corrosion in almost all zones except the edge of the northeast and northwest region. PSI indicated the water tends to form salt-scale at a medium rate. The LSI results showed that chloride and sulphate are unlikely to interfere with the formation of protecting film except in northwestern and northeastern regions where localized corrosion might occur. In conclusion, in almost all distribution system of the city is affected by calcium carbonate scale formation. The groundwater in the northwest and northeast resulted in localized corrosion because of relatively high contents of chlorides and sulphates.</p> Girmaye Haile Gebremikael, Aman Hussien Dawod Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) investigation for road failure along Mekelle – Abi-Adi road segment, northern Ethiopia <p>Roads constructed along the mountainous terrains of Ethiopia are susceptible to landslides mostly during rainy season. Mekelle – Abi Adi road is one of the economically important road corridors that connects many towns with Mekelle city. However, the asphalt road segment is heavily affected by quasi-translational type of landslide which hinders traffic flow of the area. Vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was applied to investigate subsurface geology of the road failure along Mekelle – Abi-Adi asphalt road, northern Ethiopia. The geo-electric section result revealed that the shallow subsurface geology of the site is characterized by four distinct geological formations, from top to bottom are: shale, shale-limestone intercalation, limestone and shale-gypsum units. The subgrade of the failed road section is shale unit which is overlain by jointed sandstone unit. The sandstone unit serves as a recharge zone to the bottom shale layer by percolating water via sub-base fill materials which in turn blocks vertical percolation and promote seepage force to the overlying soil mass. Hence, the road failure in the study area seems to be caused due to the development of pore water pressure in the shale layer which soaked water during heavy rainfall. The recommended remedial method for the road failure is re-designing of the affected route from chainage 48 km+850 m to 49 km+250 m towards the northwest of the study area and excavates the top 6 m shale unit.</p> Gebreslassie Mebrahtu, Solomun Atsbaha, Berihu Abadi Berhe Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Optimum Open Pit Design for Kenticha Tantalite Mine, Southern Ethiopia <p>The mining sector’s share in Ethiopia’s economy is gradually increasing. Among metallic mines, Legadembi for gold and Kenticha for tantalum are the main contributors. At Kenticha, the Ethiopian Mineral Development Share Company is producing tantalite concentrate of 40-60% grade by open pit mining. The mine area is comprised of the rocks of Neoproterozoic age, pegmatite, granite, serpentinite, and talc-chlorite schist. The ore-bearing pegmatite intruding the basement serpentinite, and talc schist rocks, is asymmetric, N-S trending, and locally affected by fractures and local faults. Mining, at present, is being done using conventional methods not by developing benches. An optimum open pit design is developed and its impact on the run of mine is evaluated based on the field data, technical mine report data, borehole data, tonnage data, grade data, and mine survey. The suggested design has taken into account the mine drainage, bench design, haul road design, and mine waste dump design. Also keeping in view the future mining and production requirements. The suggested open pit mine design can minimize the dilution and improve the ore recovery.</p> Weldegebrial Haile, Bheemalingeswara Konka Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Effect of Gypsum Powder on Chemical Constituents of Soil and Selected Crops, Adigudem, Tigray, Ethiopia <p>This paper investigates the effects of gypsum powder from the gypsum plant in Adigudem on chemical properties of soil as well as the yield of two major crops, wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>) and barley (<em>Hordeum vulgare</em>). Three mixes of 10kg of soil with 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% proportion of gypsum powder were used for pot experiments under glasshouse conditions at Mekelle University. One bulk soil sample was collected from a spot at 4 km from the eastern side of the plant. The chemical concentration of major elements Ca, K, Na, Mg, and Mn, and trace elements, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Fe in soil and plant parts were determined using an Atomic absorption spectrometer as well as NO<sub>3</sub>, PO<sub>4</sub> and SO<sub>4</sub> using UV-spectrometer. The results suggest that the gypsum powder enhances metals and anion content in soil and in crop parts compared to the control sample. The chemical constituents in soil and crop parts showed negligible variation with increasing proportions of gypsum powder. Gypsum loaded Ca, SO<sub>4</sub>, Mn, and Pb onto the soil, which exhibited higher Mg, Cu, Mo, Cd, NO<sub>3,</sub> and PO<sub>4</sub> but the comparable concentrations of Fe, K, Zn, and Cr in decreasing order. However, a direct relationship was noted in chemical constituent loadings along the pathway:&nbsp; powder-soil-crop in a similar fashion in the three mixes. Factor analyses revealed that wheat parts have a higher accumulation of nutrients than the barley parts with higher content in its growth soil blends.&nbsp; As an extension of this research, the in-situ investigation is recommended to assess the direct impact of the gypsum powder emitted over the soil and crops.</p> Berhe Hailu, Samuel Estifanos Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Construction Waste Management Practice in Mekelle, northern Ethiopia: Challenges and Opportunities <p>The rapid economic growth and urbanization in Ethiopia have led to extensive construction activities in major cities. Construction activities have known to generate large quantities of wastes that pose serious environmental problems. This paper presents the challenges of construction waste management practices in Mekelle city and explores appropriate measures to address the issues in a more sustainable way. Field observation, questionnaire survey, interviewing of public sector officials at different levels was conducted to identify the source and management options of construction waste in the city. The findings showed that the majority of survey participants felt that their firms have taken various measures to manage construction waste. It was revealed that 40% of the respondents exercise illegal dumping as a common method of waste management, which is closely followed by reuse and recycling. It is evident that over 75% of the construction- generated has potential for recycling and reuse as backfilling and base for roads and buildings. The increase in the number of illegal dumping sites in the city represents the failure to properly control and implement effective construction waste management. It was suggested that sustainable solution for construction waste management at local level depends on increasing awareness and promoting reusing and recycling of construction waste.</p> Tewodros Alemayehu, Abdulaziz Osman, Haddush Goitom Copyright (c) Sun, 15 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000