Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --><!--[endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify;"><em>Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science</em> (MEJS) is a free access e-journal devoted primarily to the original contributions containing original scientific findings in any of the science fields, having national or international appeal and significance. It is aimed to publish the research output mainly related to earth science, physical sciences, chemical sciences, biological sciences and computational sciences; and focuses on all aspects of geology, chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics and related areas. It publishes original peer-reviewed scientific papers, covering both basic and applied aspects of science including interdisciplinary researches. It will also include short communications, invited review papers, general review articles, book reviews, letters to the editor, comments and critique of published materials, information related to conferences and any other relevant topics. Papers from researchers working in different public and private sector, academic institutions, industries, companies etc., having national/international interest are accepted for publication.</p> en-US <p>The <em>Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science</em> accepts the manuscripts for consideration with the understanding that the manuscript has not been published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Only original articles will be considered for publication if they have been published previously as abstracts, but not if they have been published previously as extended abstract (&gt;1000 words). This applies to both electronic and print versions of the journal. The authors should assign copyright ownership to the Editorial Office of MEJS in the event that the manuscript is accepted for publication in the <em>Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science</em>. All accepted manuscripts must be accompanied by a copyright statement signed by all authors. A copy of the copyright form will be supplied along with the final reviewed version of the manuscript that is sent for final proof- reading. Authors may make multiple copies of the form if necessary and send to the Editorial Office with author’s signature(s) even individually.</p><p>All articles published by Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS) are Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, and anyone can copy, distribute, or reuse articles as long as the author and original source are properly cited. In all these cases for re-use, the authors will be given proper credit to the original publication in MEJS.</p> (Prof. Bheemalingeswara Konka) (Dr. Hagos Weldegabriel) Wed, 29 Apr 2020 12:18:31 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Salt Stresses on Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Camelina sativa L. <p><em>Camelina sativa</em> is a promising low-input, high yielding biodiesel crop that can be suitable to grow on marginal lands and is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids. But, saltiness is an overall issue of agriculture that constrains the germination, development and productivity of plant because of osmotic and ionic poisonous quality impacts. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of salinity (NaCl and KCl) on germination and early seedling growth of <em>Camelina sativa. Camelina sativa</em> seeds were obtained from agricultural research sector of Wachemo University. In the laboratory, six salinity levels of NaCl and KCl (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/L) were prepared and arranged in completely randomized design with four replications. The result of the study revealed that <em>C. sativa </em>seedlings were differ significantly (p&lt;0.05) on speed of germination, germination percentage, germination index, shoot length, root length, vigor index, root shoot ratio and seedling fresh weight, relative injury rates &nbsp;of NaCl and KCl, shoot height reduction and root height reduction. However, there is no significant effect between salt type versus salinity level and salt type in all parameters tested except shoot length and shoot height reduction at 5% significant level. The increase in both salts (NaCl and KCl) concentration in culture medium causes a significant decreases in speed of germination, germination percentage, germination index, shoot length, root length, vigor index, root shoot ratio and seedling fresh weight of the salt treated <em>C. sativa</em> seeds as compared with the control (<em>C. sativa</em> seeds watered with distilled water). Similarly, relative injury rates NaCl and KCl shoot height reduction, root height reduction were highly increased as salinity level increases. Generally, as the concentration of NaCl and KCl was increased the overall germination and early seedling performance of <em>C. sativa </em>decreased. The effect of salinity on physiology, molecular and biochemical of properties of C<em>. sativa</em> should be studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Camelina sativa</em>, Salinity effect, NaCl, KCl, Seed germination, Seedling growth.</p> Gebremedhn Yohannes, Leul Kidane, Berhanu Abraha, Tadesse Beyene Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Single Item Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Problem with a Quantity Discount and Transportation Costs <p>In this paper, we address a single item supplier selection, economic lot-sizing, and order assignment problem under quantity discount environment and transportation costs. A mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINP) model is developed with minimization of cost as its objective, while lead-time, the capacity of the supplier and demand of the product are incorporated as constraints. The total cost considered includes annual inventory holding cost, ordering cost, transportation cost and purchase cost. An efficient and effective genetic algorithm (GA) with problem-specific operators is developed and used to solve the proposed MINP model. &nbsp;The&nbsp; model is illustrated through a numerical example and the results show that the GA can solve the model in less than a minute. Moreover, the results of the numerical illustration show that the item cost and transportation cost are the deciding factors in selecting suppliers and allocating orders.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Supplier selection, Economic Order Quantity, Order allocation, Mixed-integer nonlinear programming.</p> Getachew Basa, Till Becker, Abdelkader Kedir Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 MHD Partial Slip Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluids through a Porous Medium Over a Stretching Sheet with Convective Boundary Condition <p>This paper investigates the boundary layer analysis for magnetohydrodynamic partial slip flow and heat transfer of nanofluids through porous media over a stretching sheet with convective boundary condition. Four types of nanoparticles, namely copper, alumina, copper oxide and titanium oxide in the ethylene glycol (50%, i.e., Pr = 29.86) and water (i.e., Pr = 6.58) based fluids are studied. The governing highly nonlinear and coupled partial differential equations are solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting techniques. The velocity and temperature profiles are obtained and utilized to compute the skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for different values of the governing parameters <em>viz.</em> nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, magnetic field parameter, porosity parameter, velocity slip parameter and convective parameter. It is found that the velocity distribution of the nanofluids is a decreasing function of the magnetic parameter, porosity parameter, and velocity slip parameter. However, temperature of the nanofluids is an increasing function of magnetic field parameter, nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, porosity parameter, velocity slip parameter and convective parameter. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of the four nanofluids are compared. Moreover, comparison of the numerical results is made with previously published works for special cases and an excellent agreement is found.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Keywords:</strong> Magnetohydrodynamics, Partial Slip, Porous medium, Convective boundary, Nanofluid.</p> Yohannes Yirga Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Second Degree Generalized Successive Over Relaxation Method for Solving System of Linear Equations <p>In this paper, a second degree generalized successive over relaxation iterative method for solving system of linear equations based on the decomposition&nbsp;</p> <p>A= D<sub>m</sub>+L<sub>m</sub>+U<sub>m&nbsp;</sub> is presented and the convergence properties of the proposed method are discussed. Two numerical examples are considered to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results presented in tables show that the Second Degree Generalized Successive Over Relaxation Iterative method is more efficient than the other methods considered based on number of iterations, computational running time and accuracy. <br><br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Second Degree, Generalized Gauss Seidel, Successive over relaxation, Convergence.</p> Firew Hailu, Genanew Gofe Gonfa, Hailu Muleta Chemeda Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Seven-Step Block Multistep Method for the Solution of First Order Stiff Differential Equations <p>In this paper, a seven-step block method for the solution of first order initial value problem in ordinary differential equations based on collocation of the differential equation and interpolation of the approximate solution using power series have been formed. The method is found to be consistent and zero-stable which guarantees convergence. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the method.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Keywords</strong>: Power series, Collocation, Interpolation, Block method, Stiff.</p> Solomon Gebregiorgis, Hailu Muleta Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Structure of the Spectra and Resonances of Schrödinger Operators <p>The main goal of this paper is to study the spectrum and resonances of several classes of Schrödinger operators. Two important examples occurring in mathematical physics are discussed: harmonic oscillator and Hamiltonian of hydrogen atom.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Schrödinger operator, Spectrum, Periodic potential, Resonances.</p> Tahar Bouguetaia, Bekkai Messirdi Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Micro and Small Enterprisers in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia <p><a name="_Toc502515390"></a>Micro and Small Enterprises (MSE) have become the focus of attention for the economic development, economic growth and job creations in the world. Majority of the firms worldwide are dominated by businesses of micro and small enterprises. In developing countries, the informal sector that mainly establishes MSE remains the major source of employment and income for the urban population. A study was conducted to examine the performance of MSE in three zones of Tigray State, namely, Southern zone, Mekelle zone and Eastern zone.<a name="_Toc502515391"></a> The data was collected using structured questionnaire on 246 MSE business owners. The data are analyzed using multiple linear regressions (dummy), Cross tabulations and chi-square test for test of independence.<a name="_Toc502515392"></a> The result revealed that Gender, initial capital, enterprise and job type are found to be important factors of performance of MSE. There is a gender difference on sector type, education level and work sheds of micro and small enterprises business owner.<a name="_Toc502515393"></a> The result also showed that initial capital has positively affected the performance of business owners and men headed business owners have better performance than female headed business owners.</p> <p><a name="_Toc502515394"></a><strong>Keywords</strong>: Micro- and Small Enterprises, Performance, Gender, Tigray, Ethiopia.</p> Gebretsadik Gebru Wubet, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) Model: A Tool for Water Quality Interpretation <p>The lack of standard water analysis equipment as well as inadequate trained personnel especially in the developing countries has discouraged many researchers in such countries to execute water quality researches. Hence, this paper presents developed mathematical relationship among some physicochemical parameters in order to aid the determination of the concentrations of certain parameters with the use of minimal equipment. This was achieved by weekly analyzing 7 physicochemical parameters of two sources of potable water (tap water and borehole water) stored in different containers for a period of 6 weeks using standard methods. The storage containers used were black plastic tank, blue plastic tank, green plastic tank, coated steel metal tank, uncoated steel metal tank and clay pot. The parameters examined were turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, alkalinity, chloride ion (Cl<sup>-</sup>), dissolved oxygen (DO) and total hardness. Results showed that the relationship between electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity (Alk), total hardness (TH) and chloride ion (Cl<sup>-</sup>) is given as; EC = -224.8066493 + 6.244028022(Alk) + 0.28204735(TH) + 0.000518108(Cl<sup>-</sup>). A programing language was written on the models using Visual Basic.Net (VB.Net) version 2018.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Water, Physicochemical, Parameters, Function, Equation.</p> Ogbozige F. J, Toko M. A, Arawo C.C Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Economic Contribution of Cart Horses to the Livelihoods of Families in Gondar Town Ethiopia <p>Equines are providing traction power and transport services, like pulling cart, packing and riding, at low cost in both rural and urban areas of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar city from November 2014 to April 2015 to assess major health problems and to investigate the economic contribution of cart horses to livelihood of the community. Cart horses were randomly selected from the study area. Observational study was also conducted and semi-structured questionnaire survey was administered to all cart horse owners. The study revealed that behavioral responses, skin coat and dental conditions were significantly associated with body condition and age of cart horses (p&lt;0.05). Wound and musculoskeletal problem had no significant association with body condition and age of working horses. Young horses with good body conditions were more prone to wounds (75%) than the older horses with poor body conditions. The majority of the carthorse owners used their horses for transportation for long hours (&gt; 8 hours) per a day, 5-6 days per week and loaded them 500-700 kg. The income in cash for the cart horse owners was recorded as 80-100 ETB per day. The current study indicated that the cart horse contribution to livelihood of communities is considerable. The working animals deserve better husbandry and veterinary care to sustain their contribution. We suggest a more detailed and systematic study be conducted in the study area to influence policy makers towards better regulation in animal welfare.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cart horses, Economic contribution, Gondar, Ethiopia.</p> Hamelmal Asfaw, Gebrehiwot Tadesse Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 CORRECTION to "Study on gross pulmonary lesions in lungs of slaughtered animals and their economics importance in Tigray, Ethiopia” MEJS, 2015, 7(1): 46-54. <p>Correction&nbsp;</p> Editor MEJS Copyright (c) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000