Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies <p><em>Mgbakoigba</em> welcomes original and incisive contributions engaging historical and contemporary issues relevant to the Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences and Environmental Sciences, especially as they affect the field of African Studies. Its main emphasis is to generate and construct a new agenda for approaching history, methodology and theory in African knowledge production. Considering new frameworks for reflecting and addressing issues arising from the present context of economic, political, cultural and technological changes, the journal aims to establish a platform to revisit the grand teleological narration of progress and modernity where Africa has always been denied intellectual agency and subjectivity.&nbsp; The editors seek research papers and innovative essays engaging new debates, exhibition review essays, cultural events, responses to contemporary cultural criticisms in the relevant disciplines. All work submitted are subject to peer review. All submissions must not exceed 6, 000 word papers.&nbsp;</p> <p>All manuscripts and inquiries should be directed to the editor: Dr. Okechukwu Nwafor; &nbsp;Email:&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> African Arts Documentation Project en-US Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies 2346-7126 The copyright belongs to the journal. Developing the capacity of Nigerian teachers in training through constructive alignment principles <p>Constructive alignment is an outcome-based approach to teaching in which the learning outcomes that students intend to achieve are defined before teaching takes place. The principles behind the concept of constructive alignment had been with experts in the field of curriculum studies since the time of classical theory when Ralph Tyler posed the four very important questions that have influenced teaching to date. However, the effective negotiation of intended learning outcomes and the alignment of leaning activities and assessment methods have remained serious missing links generally, making it difficult for Nigerian teachers to effectively nurture in their students the capacity for competitive professionalism and employability skills that should constitute the hallmark of the educated. Teachers cannot give what they do not have. Thanks to globalisation efforts and the sharing of successful efforts for the good of humanity. Participating in Tuning Africa II program exposed me to insights that would assist the Nigerian teacher to prove his mettle and develop in his students, the ability and respect that would shape them into individuals of confidence, skill and honour. This paper shares these insights.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> constructive alignment, ILOs, learning tasks, competences, quality enhancement</p> Bakky Ngozi Adirika Copyright (c) 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 8 1 1 9 The creative environments of human beings and animals: who is the architect and what is architecture? <p>linear definition of Architecture may never be possible given the ample ramifications of Architecture as a discipline that straddles diverse human experience. A lot of the definitions were based on interests, foci, techniques and materials and the profession of architecture appears to have been cornered by few individuals and groups, qualified as “architects” based on legal interpretation of the word, even when they may not be enhancing the profession. It can be argued that Architecture is not a business, nor a career, but a crusade and a consecration to a joy that justifies the existence of the earth, but its primary concern remains the design and construction of buildings, the style in which a building is designed and constructed, and the complex structure of something. It is both a process and a product. It is a derivative as well as the process of planning, designing and constructing forms, spaces and the corresponding accommodating ambience. However, these definitions do not include the animal and other creative works of architecture. Architecture is broad and all-encompassing: the works of animals, auto-mechanics’ reconstruction works, hair designers and their designs, among others. However, these works of architecture have often been excluded and unduly undermined in the definitions of architectural works despite the fact that animal architecture constitute part of most communities’ tourist parks and centers. This paper hopes to engage this interesting perspectives that border on definitions.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Architecture, birds, hair, infrastructure, growth, development, buildings</p> Bons N. Obiadi A.O. Onochie Peter Umo Uduak Copyright (c) 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 8 1 10 41 The paradox of life and death: a Christian perspective It is a matter of fact that life and death are inseparable phenomena in human existence. Both ensure an essential juxtaposition that seem to sustain mystical convictions across religions. Christianity traces the origins of life to God. Death is the end of all life’s cycle such as birth, puberty, marriage, old age, among others. Historically, questions pertaining to life and death have troubled the minds of humans. The mysteries of life and death are unarguably the most contested of all mysteries in the world. Individuals have asked: “What is the meaning of life?” “Why must we die?” This paper attempts to answer these questions by examining the concepts life and death in Christianity from the stand point of the Old and New Testaments. Through an analytical study of these concepts, the paper posits that, according to Judeo-Christian eschatology, that life stems from God and death is the fate of all living beings. Christianity’s understanding of life is fundamentally anchored on God’s expression of his love and compassion for those who repent of their sin and his readiness to forgive them through the death and resurrection of his son, Jesus. This paper evaluates how death, on the other hand, has been described as a road that leads to another life. Mercy Uwaezuoke Chukwuedo Copyright (c) 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 8 1 42 49 Where is home for the Abuja, Nigeria urban poor? <p>Although Abuja officially became the capital of Nigeria in December 1992, the plan to relocate the capital of Nigeria from Lagos to Abuja was conceived in 1975. A Master Plan of the Abuja Federal Capital Territory was designed but successive governments in Abuja neglected these principles leading to inadequate housing and perverted urbanization. The current Abuja settlement patterns (formal and informal) are not concerned with integration and sustainability. The most vulnerable, the urban poor, had to arrange, on their own, where to live and that resulted in shanty settlements. The study areas are characterized by Quick-Fix homes, made with abandoned and used building materials from construction sites. This paper argues that successive Abuja governments have not considered all the housing options in housing the urban poor and in other to stay close to work, the urban poor infiltrate the formal settlement areas of the city and that resulted in dualistic and pluralistic settlements in Abuja.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> dichotomy; environment; development; housing; architecture; commerce</p> Bons N. Obiadi A.O. Onochie Peter Umo Uduak Copyright (c) 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 8 1 50 74 Teaching sociology of education in south-eastern Nigeria universities for sustainable development: challenges and prospects <p>This study investigated issues associated with pedagogies in Sociology of Education in southeastern Nigerian universities and how these have impacted Sustainable Development. The study also identifies the challenges and prospects posed by these kinds of pedagogies. Three research questions guided the study. The population of the study comprised 24 lecturers from both federal and state universities in the South East Zone. There was no sampling carried out because the number of the lecturers were manageable. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation for research questions 1 &amp; 3 then percentage was used for research question 2. Results revealed that physical facilities inhibit effective teaching of Sociology of Education. Also that use teaching methods is very important in the teaching of sociology of education. It was recommended amongst others that: There is an urgent need for government to fund education in all levels especially university education; The University Management should provide facilities like Laptops, projectors, public address system in all the classes used for lectures, this to a great extent will ease the stress of teaching; The University Management should make provisions for lecturers offices. This to a large extent will increase high productivity by them; The University Management should make the school environment internet friendly. This will always attract and keep students and lecturers in the school for research purposes.</p><p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Teaching, Sociology of Education, Sustainable Development</p> Ugochukwu Ifeyinwa Offor Copyright (c) 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 8 1 75 87 The impact of conflict on health outcomes: a systematic evidence from sub-saharan Africa <p>One of the greatest risks and challenges faced by the health of populations and systems in developing countries is conflicts. Sub-Saharan African countries have experienced various forms of violent conflicts which prompted this study to evaluate the health consequences of these conflicts. Online systematic search was conducted for relevant literature and this made it possible for studies that were peer-reviewed, research article, report, working paper, discussion paper and a briefing paper to be included in the study. The inclusion criteria were met by 12 studies, one each from Angola, Côte D’Ivoire, Eretria-Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Uganda. Two studies were conducted in Nigeria and three in South Sudan. Three studies reported a negative effect of conflict on health facilities; two reported a negative effect on health workers while nine studies mentioned that conflict has a negative effect on child nutritional status. One and two other studies reported negative effects of conflict on maternal healthcare utilisation and mental health respectively. In general, conflict has negative effects on health outcomes. Among the studies selected for this review, children were mostly reported to have been affected by conflict. Most of them in conflict zones were found to have been undernourished due to conflict. The findings of this review have demonstrated that conflict has a negative effect on the health of the population.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> children, conflict, health, malnutrition, Sub-Saharan Africa</p> Nathaniel Awojobi Oladayo Copyright (c) 2018-06-10 2018-06-10 8 1 88 100 Depression among women: symptoms, causes, intervention and preventive strategies by guidance counsellors No Abstract Amaka S. Obineli Copyright (c) 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 8 1 101 109 The significance and use of cultural symbols in the contemporary African society: Igbo symbols as a paradigm It is often thought that Africans, and the Igbo in particular, are disposed to abandoning their local lifeworld in preference for western systems of life. In recent times, it is generally believed among the Igbo that there is an erosion of cultural values, especially those that constituted a veritable source of human existence in the past thus giving rise to a somewhat cultural crisis in the Igbo society. It would be assumed that one of the things that distinguish humans from all other creatures is their ability to symbolize memories, imaginations and religious experience. A symbol operates because it bears a relationship with the symbolized and this places a limit upon its use. The Igbo as an ethnic group in Nigeria are influential in a number of ways: while their population constitute one of largest (among the Yoruba and Hausa ethnic groups in Nigeria), their entrepreneurial spirit has been widely acknowledged across Nigerian ethnicities. Igbo culture is replete with symbols of varying significances. This paper therefore aims to give clear identification and definition of Igbo cultural symbols and their significance to Igbo modern life. In the course of this research, a descriptive method of research was adopted where I interacted and interviewed some Igbo people across age, class and gender. The result obtained lends insight into the significance of symbolism in Igbo everyday existence while also mitigating the negligence of cultural observances and its aftermath in the event of discordant modernities in contemporary life. Gladys Ifeoma Udechukwu Copyright (c) 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 8 1 110 116 Significance of animal motifs in indigenous <i>Uli</i> body and wall paintings This article explores the significance of animal motifs in traditional <em>Uli</em> body and wall paintings. A critical assessment and understanding of the philosophical import of animals in African concept of existence is vital for an in-depth appreciation of their (animals’) symbols in indigenous African artworks. This paper attempts to a draw parallel between traditional beliefs concerning certain animals among the Igbo of south-eastern Nigeria and motifs derived from indigenous <em>Uli</em> body and wall painting. In essence, the article sees animal motifs in <em>Uli</em> body and wall paintings as playing an aesthetic as well as metaphysical roles. Hence I argue that local nuances of religiosity and spirituality have historically imbued the animals with a heightened sense of sacredness in some Igbo communities thus allowing the animals to occupy a mystical space in Igbo cosmology. Nkiruka Jane Uju Nwafor Copyright (c) 2018-06-10 2018-06-10 8 1 117 133