Malawi Journal of Science and Technology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/mjst <p class="style6"><span lang="EN-GB">The Malawi Journal of Science and Technology (MJST), the research journal of the Faculty of Science, Chancellor College in Malawi is published once or twice in a year depending upon availability of manuscripts and financial support. It includes contributions on empirical or theoretical investigations that cover the full range of science and technology, particularly those relevant to Malawi. Full length papers and short communications (500- 800 words) on original research, as well as succinct review articles, will be considered for publication.</span></p><p class="style6"> </p> University of Malawi University en-US Malawi Journal of Science and Technology 1019-7079 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Spatial and temporal dynamics of water quality in aquatic ecosystems. A review of physical, chemical and biological gnomes of some Rivers in Malawi https://www.ajol.info/index.php/mjst/article/view/229242 <p><span id="page1223R_mcid16" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 487.34px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.953228);" role="presentation">River</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 115.527px; top: 487.34px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.93103);" role="presentation">ecosystems are among the most</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 339.385px; top: 487.34px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.931812);" role="presentation">vulnerable aquatic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 468.256px; top: 487.34px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.977547);" role="presentation">systems in the face of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.873454);" role="presentation">increased,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 148.732px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.91793);" role="presentation">urbanization,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 244.709px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.911728);" role="presentation">land</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 283.917px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.866335);" role="presentation">deg</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 307.302px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.907751);" role="presentation">radation,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 375.571px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.943193);" role="presentation">agricultural&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 461.248px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.939517);" role="presentation">activities,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 534.914px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.863935);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 569.607px; top: 505.892px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.851608);" role="presentation">careless</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 524.417px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.949361);" role="presentation">disposal of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 152.335px; top: 524.417px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.892293);" role="presentation">sewage and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 236.584px; top: 524.417px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.93007);" role="presentation">waste water.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 326.633px; top: 524.417px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.942152);" role="presentation">This</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 362.099px; top: 524.417px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.937414);" role="presentation">paper presents a review on substantial</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.868043);" role="presentation">parameters</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 154.58px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00061);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 178.646px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.909215);" role="presentation">water</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 225.974px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.960122);" role="presentation">quality&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 282.178px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.827521);" role="presentation">assessments</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 371.453px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00042);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 401.785px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.904928);" role="presentation">recreational</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 489.385px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.865897);" role="presentation">purposes,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 562.084px; top: 542.942px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.902993);" role="presentation">domestic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 561.467px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.938117);" role="presentation">purposes and drinking. To attest good quality of wat</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 416.869px; top: 561.467px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.96601);" role="presentation">er, multiple</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 497.09px; top: 561.467px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.890427);" role="presentation">parameters have to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 579.912px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.8832);" role="presentation">be&nbsp; measured.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 165.384px; top: 579.912px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.936269);" role="presentation">Physical, chemical and biological gnomes are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 475.585px; top: 579.912px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.858156);" role="presentation">tested</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 519.159px; top: 579.912px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.921589);" role="presentation">to ascertain the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 598.437px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.982098);" role="presentation">water quality.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 171.988px; top: 598.437px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.979366);" role="presentation">Water quality studies on some Malawian&nbsp; rivers</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 504.017px; top: 598.437px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.923749);" role="presentation">evaluated various</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 616.962px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.946697);" role="presentation">constituents such as phosphates, nitrates,</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 356.461px; top: 616.962px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">p</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 364.515px; top: 616.962px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">H</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 376.113px; top: 616.962px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.992974);" role="presentation">, electrical conduc</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 504.098px; top: 616.962px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.06669);" role="presentation">tivity (EC), total</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 635.487px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.917583);" role="presentation">dissolved solids</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 180.929px; top: 635.487px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.928384);" role="presentation">(TDs), heavy&nbsp; metals and faecal coliforms.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 460.926px; top: 635.487px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.90091);" role="presentation">The mean values among</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 654.012px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.960238);" role="presentation">the rivers were: PH (6.1</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 234.893px; top: 654.012px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 240.289px; top: 654.012px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.90697);" role="presentation">7.8), Phosphates (0.1</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 379.899px; top: 654.012px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 385.295px; top: 654.012px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.946243);" role="presentation">4.4mg/L), nitrates (0.05</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 542.759px; top: 654.012px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 548.182px; top: 654.012px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.940875);" role="presentation">9.79mg/L),</span>&nbsp; <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 672.537px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.955406);" role="presentation">faecal coliforms (300</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 214.435px; top: 672.537px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 219.831px; top: 672.537px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.950744);" role="presentation">20408 cfu/100ml), Lead (0.05</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 419.849px; top: 672.537px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 425.245px; top: 672.537px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.954272);" role="presentation">0.74mg/L), Cadmium (0.</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 590.951px; top: 672.537px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.899932);" role="presentation">004</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 615.114px; top: 672.537px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.944071);" role="presentation">0.14mg/L)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 151.294px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.866335);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 185.026px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.872288);" role="presentation">Manganese</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 268.775px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.919755);" role="presentation">(0.4</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 294.415px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 299.811px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.944088);" role="presentation">1.8mg/L</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 354.769px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">)</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 360.166px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 374.664px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.903487);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 410.167px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.91675);" role="presentation">reviewed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 479.58px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.868043);" role="presentation">parameters</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 560.639px; top: 691.062px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.858058);" role="presentation">exceeded</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 709.587px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.949794);" role="presentation">World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) limits.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 728.113px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.942208);" role="presentation">This signifies that the studied&nbsp; rivers</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 314.793px; top: 728.113px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.914573);" role="presentation">to some extent</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 416.788px; top: 728.113px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.845971);" role="presentation">are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 441.837px; top: 728.113px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.931405);" role="presentation">polluted and probabl</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 577.742px; top: 728.113px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.904198);" role="presentation">y pose</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 746.638px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.890824);" role="presentation">threat to the ecos</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 183.425px; top: 746.638px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.912862);" role="presentation">ystem health as well as public wellbeing. Therefore, there is a&nbsp; need</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 765.163px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.967167);" role="presentation">to intensify integrated management of water and land to curb further pollution of </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 783.688px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.930485);" role="presentation">rivers.&nbsp; <br></span></span></p> Grace Mweta Wisdom Changadeya Copyright (c) 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 14 1 1 18 Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) in rabbits’ pens at different building orientations and openings: a measure of animal comfortability in Ile-Ife, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/mjst/article/view/229243 <p><span id="page652R_mcid14" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 445.376px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.971012);" role="presentation">Natural ventilation for rabbits’ comfortability when subjected to different building</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 463.898px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.932803);" role="presentation">orientations and side openings when stocked and when&nbsp; unstocked were studied. It</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 482.419px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.943184);" role="presentation">was 3 x 2 x 3 factorial design. There were 3 factors: season at two levels (dry and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 500.94px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.946192);" role="presentation">rainy seasons); building&nbsp; orientations (Or) [two levels: 45</span><sup><span dir="ltr" style="left: 447.624px; top: 498.993px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">o</span></sup> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 458.417px; top: 500.94px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.906423);" role="presentation">and 90</span><sup><span dir="ltr" style="left: 503.052px; top: 498.993px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">o</span></sup> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 513.845px; top: 500.94px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.937712);" role="presentation">to the directions</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 519.461px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.952594);" role="presentation">of prevailing wind] and ventilation openings (Op) [four different levels: 20%,&nbsp; 40%,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 537.982px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.920421);" role="presentation">60% and 80% side openings]. Two phases in the experiment were the monitoring of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.879774);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 103.966px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.896898);" role="presentation">outside</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 162.237px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.928869);" role="presentation">climate</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 221.371px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.893385);" role="presentation">(temperature,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 319.327px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.930402);" role="presentation">relative&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 379.271px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.971956);" role="presentation">humidity)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 454.504px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.863835);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 489.377px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.979301);" role="presentation">in-building</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 572.936px; top: 556.503px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.927605);" role="presentation">climate</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 575.024px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.902859);" role="presentation">conditions at stocked and unstocked. The measurements were taken two times a day</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 593.545px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.953077);" role="presentation">at 10.00 hr and&nbsp; 14.00 hr. There was interaction among the Or, Op and THI inside</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 612.066px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.954238);" role="presentation">stocked building (THI</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 216.838px; top: 616.804px; font-size: 10.7123px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04211);" role="presentation">in</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 225.134px; top: 612.066px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.933859);" role="presentation">) but the interaction between Or and Op did not&nbsp; significantly</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 630.587px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00755);" role="presentation">affect THI</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 142.58px; top: 635.325px; font-size: 10.7123px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04211);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 157.56px; top: 630.587px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.971021);" role="presentation">at stocking. This interaction accounts for why 90</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 490.452px; top: 628.64px; font-size: 10.7123px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">0</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 502.453px; top: 630.587px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01424);" role="presentation">Or have low THI</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 649.108px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.971676);" role="presentation">values. The Or signi</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 211.648px; top: 649.108px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.984801);" role="presentation">ficantly affected (p ≤ 0.05)&nbsp; temperature, humidity and THI</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 612.347px; top: 653.847px; font-size: 10.7123px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04211);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 667.629px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00064);" role="presentation">during rainy seasons. There were higher concentrations of air moving in from</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 686.15px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.937514);" role="presentation">surrounding of the&nbsp; building especially in the 90</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 383.004px; top: 684.204px; font-size: 10.7123px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">o</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 393.072px; top: 686.15px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.9243);" role="presentation">Or pens and especially with higher</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 704.672px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.916456);" role="presentation">percentage of openings like 60% and 80% and therefore rabbits in those&nbsp; pens could </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 723.193px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.907042);" role="presentation">be adjudged to be in thermo-comfort zone. <br></span></span></p> Wasiu Agunbiade Lamidi James Adewale Osunade Copyright (c) 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 14 1 19 28 Water quality in the Lisungwi and Kaphamtengo Rivers in Manondo, Central Malawi: Assessment of the impact of artisanal small scale gold mining https://www.ajol.info/index.php/mjst/article/view/229244 <p><span id="page592R_mcid15" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 517.087px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.940232);" role="presentation">Water quality assessment for river systems is important for tracing any changes in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 535.613px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.947576);" role="presentation">quali</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 104.707px; top: 535.613px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.965773);" role="presentation">ty caused by, among other things, mining&nbsp; activities. Mining activities can be</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 554.138px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.931872);" role="presentation">one of the most impactful sources of water contamination. In Malawi, gold deposits</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 572.663px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.913153);" role="presentation">occur in the&nbsp; basement rocks of the Lisungwi</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 358.555px; top: 572.663px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 363.951px; top: 572.663px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.912884);" role="presentation">Manondo region. As a result, a boom in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 591.188px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.944266);" role="presentation">small scale</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 155.718px; top: 591.188px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.960095);" role="presentation">artisanal mining</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 272.024px; top: 591.188px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.96608);" role="presentation">has occurred as residents have&nbsp; settled in the area.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 609.713px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.924939);" role="presentation">Despite the development of artisanal small scale mining activities, few studies have</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 628.238px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.928999);" role="presentation">investigated the water quality of&nbsp; the main rivers in the region (i.e., the Lisungwi and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 646.763px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.936835);" role="presentation">Kaphamtengo Ri</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 184.875px; top: 646.763px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.969576);" role="presentation">vers), upon which local residents are highly dependent for daily</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 665.288px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.952539);" role="presentation">use.&nbsp; This study provides baseline data for water quality in the region. On</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 563.646px; top: 665.288px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 569.043px; top: 665.288px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.914951);" role="presentation">site and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 683.813px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.923719);" role="presentation">laboratory measurements were carried out on the river&nbsp; water samples, to obtain the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 702.338px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.93646);" role="presentation">physio characteristics (</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 225.791px; top: 702.338px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.976654);" role="presentation">e.g. pH, turbidity, electric conductivity) and the major and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 720.864px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.976694);" role="presentation">minor element&nbsp; concentrations of the river water. The data was compared to the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 739.308px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.927653);" role="presentation">regional geology to establish anthropogenic and/or geological impacts&nbsp; on the water</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 757.833px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.934871);" role="presentation">quality. The river water has a mod</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 298.12px; top: 757.833px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.944737);" role="presentation">erate buffering capacity due to its high alkalinity,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 776.358px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.979707);" role="presentation">along with high Ca, Si, Mg, and Cl&nbsp; concentrations sourced from the gneiss and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 794.883px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.95371);" role="presentation">calcsilicate rocks in the region. Further analysis of the water quality based on the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 813.409px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.902683);" role="presentation">physiochemical parameters, major and tra</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 343.09px; top: 813.409px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.893189);" role="presentation">ce element concentrations, showed that the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 831.934px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01368);" role="presentation">river waters were in accordance with guidelines&nbsp; set by the Malawi Bureau of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 850.486px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.934415);" role="presentation">Standards (MBS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) for river water quality, <span id="page1R_mcid0" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 99.2523px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.989024);" role="presentation">with all analyzed&nbsp; parameters being below the stipulated</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 471.477px; top: 99.2523px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.941651);" role="presentation">standards. Our results</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 117.777px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.946799);" role="presentation">indicated that the regional geology exerts a significant control on water&nbsp; chemistry,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 136.303px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02897);" role="presentation">but the mining activities on and along the river water leaves the water in an</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 154.828px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.887039);" role="presentation">uncontaminated state. </span></span><br></span></span></p> Frances Chikanda Tsubasa Otake Jonas Mwatseteza Tsutomu Sato Copyright (c) 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 14 1 29 43 Development of a Digital Body Mass Index (BMI) measuring device for low-resource settings https://www.ajol.info/index.php/mjst/article/view/229245 <p><span id="page824R_mcid10" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 371.518px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.903487);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 106.64px; top: 371.518px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02291);" role="presentation">global burden of nutrition</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 287.891px; top: 371.518px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 293.287px; top: 371.518px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.967934);" role="presentation">related diseases majorly: diabetes, obesity, and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 390.043px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.922218);" role="presentation">cardiovascular diseases have been on a geometrical increase. One way of knowing</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 408.568px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.924788);" role="presentation">the risk factor of these is by accurately measuring the Body Mass Index (BMI) of an</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 427.093px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.982283);" role="presentation">individual. The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 182.056px; top: 427.093px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.991512);" role="presentation">design&nbsp; of a digital BMI device, which measures and displays a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 445.618px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.925803);" role="presentation">subject's BMI, was executed. Materials used include an ultrasonic sensor&nbsp; for height</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.873962);" role="presentation">measurement,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 176.327px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.911728);" role="presentation">load</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 217.952px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.917);" role="presentation">cells</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 261.413px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00042);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 294.098px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.940386);" role="presentation">weight</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 351.816px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.871144);" role="presentation">measurement</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 451.481px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.866335);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 488.676px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.849536);" role="presentation">an</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 517.817px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.966963);" role="presentation">Arduino</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 585.377px; top: 464.143px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.973507);" role="presentation">UNO</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 482.668px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.955807);" role="presentation">microprocessor which receives the output fro</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 377.885px; top: 482.668px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.934828);" role="presentation">m&nbsp; measuring devices, calculates the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 501.193px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.958341);" role="presentation">BMI and sends it for display on a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. This device</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 519.745px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.916496);" role="presentation">depicts a low</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 157.812px; top: 519.745px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 163.209px; top: 519.745px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.911477);" role="presentation">cost&nbsp; solution for accurate measurement of a subject’s BMI. The results</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 538.27px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.932687);" role="presentation">of the tests performed on the data obtained from the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 424.52px; top: 538.27px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.897693);" role="presentation">anthropometric&nbsp; measurements</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 556.796px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.947576);" role="presentation">of eight subjects using the digital BMI device, a stadiometer and a weighing scale</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 575.321px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.936322);" role="presentation">proved the equipment is reliable in BMI&nbsp; measurement, with 0.32 root mean square</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 593.846px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.0025);" role="presentation">error (RMSE) compared to the 1.19 RMSE gotten from the BMI measu</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 575.889px; top: 593.846px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.89302);" role="presentation">rement</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.901736);" role="presentation">calculated&nbsp; </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 149.119px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.969281);" role="presentation">from</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 191.469px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 209.978px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00052);" role="presentation">wall</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 237.873px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 243.27px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.898234);" role="presentation">mounted</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 310.83px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.918403);" role="presentation">height</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 362.426px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.871144);" role="presentation">measurement</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 459.433px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.889949);" role="presentation">meter</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 507.325px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.935601);" role="presentation">rule</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 543.618px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.880241);" role="presentation">against</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 600.53px; top: 612.371px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.879774);" role="presentation">the </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.4895px; top: 630.896px; font-size: 16.1088px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.883122);" role="presentation">stadiometer measurement. <br></span></span></p> Lydia John Jilantikiri Suleiman Abimbola Yahaya Taiye Mary Ajibola Ayomide Samson Oluwajoba Chima Anthony Obioha Copyright (c) 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 14 1 44 57