Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus insect larvicides on mosquito larval densities in Lusaka, Zambia
The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding. Ninety percent (90%) of the collected mosquito larvae and pupae were preserved in 70% ethanol, while 10% were reared to adults for species identification. Prior to larviciding, the largest number of mosquito larvae collected was culicines. Among the anophelines, Anopheles coustani Laveran (13.5%) (n = 111) and An. squamosus Theobald (9.5%) (n = 78) were identified from all the study areas with An. rufipes Gough (1.1%) (n = 9) collected from one study area only. None of the major malaria vector species reported for Zambia were identified. No mosquito larvae were found in freshwater bodies following the larviciding exercise. Possible reasons for the absence of known major malaria vectors could be the re-introduction of effective vector control and loss of suitable breeding grounds. The study highlights the potential of larviciding using Bti and Bs for malaria vector control and its integration with indoor residual spraying and insecticide treated nets.