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Medical Journal of Zambia

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Prevalence and bacteriology of tonsillitis among patients attending otorhinolaryngology Department at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam- Tanzania

Zephania Saitabau Abraham, Jane Bazilio, Aveline Aloyce Kahinga, Joel Manyahi, Daudi Ntunaguzi, Enica Richard Massawe

Abstract


Background: Tonsillitis is a common infectious disease contributing to significant social-economic impact worldwide. Like other infectious diseases, the determination of the pathogenic agents is important in antibiotic selection for the medical treatment of tonsillitis. Data on bacteriology of tonsillitis in Tanzania is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to determine the prevalence and bacteriology of tonsillitis in one of the largest tertiary hospital in Tanzania.

Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted involving 485 patients at Muhimbili National Hospital, from June to December 2016. Data was collected using specially designed questionnaires. Laboratory isolation of bacterial pathogens implicated in tonsillitis followed by consequent antimicrobial susceptibility testing was doneat the Country's largest laboratory. Gathered data was then analyzed using the SPSS program version 20.

Results: A total of 485 patients were recruited in the study, where majority were females (55.7%) and the mean age was found to be 27.7 years. Out of 485 patients 100(20.6%) had tonsillitis. Male preponderance was found (51%). The most affected age group was 1-10years (42.6%). Nearly 25% of patients had family history of tonsillitis with siblings being commonly affected. The isolated bacteria were Coagulase negative staphylococcus 41.7%, S. pyogenes 40%, Bacillus species 8.3%,K.pneumoniae 5.8%, E.Coli 2.5% and P.aeruginosa 1.7%. S.pyogeneswas susceptible to Ceftriaxone 95.7%; Azithromycin 93.6%; Doxycline 91.5%; Clindamycin 87.2%; Ampicillin 80.9%; Erythromycin 74.5%; Amoxiclav 59.6% and resistant to penicillin G(38.3%).

Conclusion: Tonsillitis was found to be prevalent in our setting with young individuals being most commonly affected. Male preponderance was found in this study and family history of tonsillitis was depicted in nearly 25% of patients.  Majority had recurrent tonsillitis and S. pyogenes was found to be the commonest isolated pathogenic bacterium and was susceptible to most of the drugs available in our setting though it was found to be resistant to penicillin G.

Keywords: Prevalence, Tonsillitis, Bacteriology, Otorhinolaryngology, Tanzania




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