Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis and Method for Reduction of Blood Culture Contamination
AbstractBackground: False-positive blood cultures findings may lead to a falsely increased morbidity and increased hospital costs.
Method: The survey was conducted as retrospective - prospective study and included 239 preterm infants (born before 37 weeks of gestation) who were treated in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina during one year (January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2012). The retrospective part of the study focused on examination of incidence of neonatal sepsis and determination of risk factors. In the prospective part of the study infants were sub-divided into two groups: Group 1- infants hospitalized in NICU during the first 6 months of the study; blood cultures were taken by the ‘’clean technique’’ and checklists for this procedure were not taken. Group 2- neonates hospitalized in NICU during last 6 months of the study; blood cultures were taken by ‘’sterile technique’’ and checklists for this procedure were taken.
Results: The main risk factors for sepsis were prelabor rupture of membranes, low gestational age, low birth weight, mechanical ventilation, umbilical venous catheter placement, and abdominal drainage. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus were the most frequently isolated microorganisms in false-positive blood samples.
Conclusions: Education of employees, use of checklists and sterile sets for blood sampling, permanent control of false positive blood cultures, as well as regular and routine monthly reports are crucial for successful reduction of contamination rates.