Bacterial vaginosis: Prevalence and associated risk factors among non-pregnant women of reproductive age attending a Nigerian tertiary hospital
Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) among non-pregnant women of reproductive age group.
Methods: A cross-sectional study among non-pregnant asymptomatic women aged 19 to 45 years, attending the gynaecological clinic at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants were counselled and an informed consent was obtained. This was followed by vaginal swabs for microscopy, culture and sensitivity. Diagnosis of BV was by Nugent’s criteria. Data analysis was by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Chi-square and Yates corrected chi-square were calculated, and p value <0.05 was significant.
Results: Among the 212 participants, prevalence of BV was 40.1%; it was common among women aged 25-34 years (50; 58.8%), the married (77; 90.6%) and those with tertiary education (39; 45.9%). The risk factors for BV were common among women with laboratory evidence of the infection, however statistically significant risk factors were the use of intrauterine device (OR 1.61, 95%CI 0.543-4.759; p0.020) and previous voluntary termination of pregnancy (OR 1.04, 95%CI 0.600-1.808; p0.047).
Conclusion: There was high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the study population. Universal screening and treatment of cases may assist in lowering the associated morbidity.