Association of Pulmonary Paragonimiasis with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Rural Yakurr Community in Cross River Basin, Nigeria

  • E.S. Ibanga Department of Zoology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
  • F.O.I Arene Department of Zoology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • J.E. Asor Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria


Pulmonary tuberculosis and human Paragonimiasis coexist in communities in Cross River Basin in Nigeria. In 1997, our unit surveyed the Yakurr community in the basin to ascertain the prevalence of both Paragonimiasis and active pulmonary tuberculosis in the community, and to investigate whether there was association of Paragonimiasis with tuberculosis in the community. Deep sputum samples from 1100 subjects of the community were examined for prevalence of Paragonimus eggs by the concentration method, as well as for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the Ziehl-Neelsen method.
The subjects ranged in age between 5-68 years old, and were categorized into eleven age groups (5-10, 11-16, 17-22, 23-28, 29-34, 35-40, 41-46, 47-52, 53-58, 59-64, and > 64). Both sexes were represented. Three sputum samples collected in three consecutive days were examined. Mean prevalence rate of Paragonimiasis in the community was 9.36% (203/1100). Highest prevalence of the infection (19.00%) occurred in the 11-16 years age group. Thereafter prevalence of the infection decreased to lower levels in the older age group. Intensity of the infections were generally low (< 20 eggs per 5ml sputum). Active pulmonary tuberculosis was recorded in 20 (1.18%) of the 100 subjects investigated, with peak prevalence (3.00%) among subjects between the age of 23 and 34 years old. Paragonimus eggs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurred concomitantly in 10 (0.91%) of the 1100 sputum samples examined. There was no significant association of Paragonimiasis with tuberculosis in the community.

Key Words: Paragonimiasis, Tuberculosis, and Yakurr Community, Cross River Basin, Nigeria

[Mary Slessor Jnl of Medicine Vol.3(1) 2003: 19-23]

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1119-409X
print ISSN: 1119-409X