Effect of Cassava, Maize and Soybean Flour Mixes on Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Bread

  • F. U. Ugwuona
  • U. B. Ejinkeonye
  • A. N. Ukom
  • A. N. Obeta
  • M. C. Ojinnaka
  • G. O. Arua
Keywords: Cassava, maize, soybean, composite bread, quality


This study evaluated composition, physical and sensory properties of gluten-free (non-wheat bread) bread produced with blends of cassava, maize and soybean flours. Flours were produced from cassava roots (7.kg), maize grains (1.5kg), soybeans (1.5kg) and wheat grains (2kg). Four composite flours; SF2 (12C:5M: 3S), SF3 (10C:7M: 3S), SF4 (8C:9M: 3S), SF5 (6C:11M: 3S) were blended from cassava (C), maize (M), and soybeans (S) flours. Bread samples were produced with the composite flours and 100% wheat flour (SF1, as control) using straight dough method. Bread samples were analysed for composition, physical and sensory properties. There was no remarkable difference in appearance of the composite and wheat breads. The gluten-free (composite flour) breads were comparably rich in protein (12.29 – 13.07%), minerals (6.1mg/100g Zn – 194.12mg/100g P) and vitamins (0.64mg/100g B2 – 35.93mg/100g vit. C). The wheat bread had 12.52% protein, 1.85 – 101.2mg/100g minerals, and 0.91 – 27.73mg/100g vitamins, and had safe levels of anti-nutrients.  However, wheat bread had anti-nutrients and higher specific volume than the gluten-free bread. The gluten-free bread; SF5 and SF4, had higher sensory scores than the 100% wheat bread, but SF4 was more preferred.  Based on nutrient composition and sensory scores, cassava-maize-soybean breads could replace 100% wheat bread and its associated celiac disease, high cost and scarcity in Nigeria.


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print ISSN: 0300-368X