Livelihood Diversification and Settlement Patterns among Agro-Pastoralists in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone, Oyo State, Nigeria
This study assessed livelihood diversification and settlement patterns among agro-pastoralists in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone, Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 106 agro-pastoralists, while data were collected with the aid of pre-tested and validated interview guide. Data were subjected to descriptive (frequency, percentage, mean) and inferential (chi-square) statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results revealed that the mean age of respondent was 43 years, and that 60.4% of the respondents were sole owner of their cattle. The major livelihood activities were sale of cattle, crop farming and sale of milk/milk products. Findings also showed that many of the agro-pastoralists practiced either the transhumance (25.5%) or semi-transhumance (55.7%) settlement patterns. It was further revealed that the respondents benefited from equitable access to land, expansion of business trade and market integration. Some of the challenges faced by the agro-pastoralists include; cattle defecating on streams and roads (78.3%), extensive sedentarization (80.2%), farmland invasion by cattle (85.8%), and overgrazing on fallow lands (80.2%). Chi-square analysis revealed that there were significant associations between settlement patterns and livelihood diversification; selling of milk and milk product (χ2 = 12.248, p≤0.01), cultivation of crops (χ2 = 15.362, p≤0.01), petty trading (χ2 = 7.957, p≤0.05) and commercial selling of livestock (χ2 = 9.456, p≤0.05). It was concluded that the transhumance or semi-transhumance settlement patterns adopted by the agro-pastoralists had positive influence on their livelihood diversification into different activities. It is therefore recommended that agro-pastoralists should diversify into more income generating livelihood activities.
NAJ supports free online communication and exchange of knowledge as the most effective way of ensuring that the fruits of research and development practice are made widely available. It is therefore committed to open access, which, for authors, enables the widest possible dissemination of their findings and, for readers, increases their ability to discover pertinent information. The Journal adopts and uses the CC: BY license and is open access. This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the Journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Copyright for articles published in this Journal is retained by the Journal.