Market Performance and Utilization of Garcinia kola (Heckel) (Bitter Kola) in Abia State, Nigeria

  • F. B. Olowoyo
  • E. O. Samson
  • I. G. Okpara
  • J. Q. Nwachukwu
  • E. O. Oyewusi
Keywords: Producers, marketers, consumers, regression, constraints


This study analysed the marketing performance and utilization of bitter kola in Abia State, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty structured questionnaires were administered on the respondents who were bitter kola producers, marketers and consumers. The data for the study were captured using a structured questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis and cost and returns were estimated. The result of the regression analysis showed that the coefficient of age was statistically significant at 1% and inversely related to value of sales. The coefficient of household size and level of education were significant at 5% and positively related  to value of sales. The coefficient of marketing experience was significant at 1% and directly related to value of sales. The coefficient of distance was statistically significant at 10% and inversely related to value of sales. The result of the cost and returns shows a monthly revenue of N39,760 for bitter kola and a Net return of N13,403.01. Benefit cost ratio for marketers was 1:1.51, which implies that every one naira spent about N1.51 was returned to the kola marketer. The most severe constraint to bitter kola marketing are deforestation, seasonal fluctuation in production, lack of modern processing technology and price fluctuations. It was recommended that marketers should be given better access to credit at low interest rate to boost bitter kola marketing business, while agricultural extension model is adopted, the government direct promotion and practice of extension delivery in Nigeria should be reviewed.


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eISSN: 0300-368X