Evaluation of Functional, Physical Properties, Proximate and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies Produced from Wheat and Oat Composite Flour Sweetened with Date Syrup

  • N.L. Nwanagba
  • A.N. Ukom
  • G. Ifokwe
  • H. Okudu
  • J.N. Okoli
  • I.I. Okparauka
Keywords: Functional and physical properties, proximate, sensory, composite flour (wheat and oat), date syrup


Evaluation of the functional, physical properties, proximate and sensory characteristics of cookies produced from wheat and oat composite flour sweetened with date syrup was investigated. Healthy grains of oat and wheat were purchased from Central Market Katsina State, and date nut purchased from Wuse Modern Market, FCT (Federal Capital Territory), Abuja. The oat grains were sorted, cleaned, washed, steamed, kilned, dried, cooled, milled into flour and packaged in an airtight container. The wheat grains were sorted, cleaned, washed, dried, milled and packaged prior to analysis. The date fruits were washed, soaked in distilled water for easy removal of dates, after removal, the dates were then rinsed, blended and boiled for 15 minutes. The slurry obtained after boiling was sieved with cheesecloth under manual pressure, and then subjected to another boiling under medium low heat for 20 minutes. A thick like liquid dates obtained after cooling was packaged in a plastic container and stored in fridge prior to analysis. The cookies were prepared accordingly using the necessary ingredients. The composite flour samples were evaluated for functional properties, while the cookies produced from these composite flour samples were evaluated for physical properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics. The result of the functional properties of the flour blends of oat and wheat showed that sample 202 and 404 (100% oat meal and 60% wheat with 40% oatmeal) had the highest value (2.37 g/ml) of water absorption capacity (WAC), while sample 505 (50% wheat flour and 30% oat flour) had the lowest value (1.87 g/ml). The functional properties values for the flour blends ranged from 1.87-2.37 g/ml for WAC, 1.37-1.67g/ml for oil absorption capacity, 0.68-0.79g/ml for bulk density, 58.27 to 72.57 0C for gelatinization temperature and 23.67-71.67s for wettability. The result for physical properties ranged from 10.10-10.46g, 3.90-4.37 cm, 0.22-1.17 cm, and 3.34-5.29 for weight, diameter, thickness and spread ratio respectively. The cookies had proximate composition ranging from 5.35-6.75% for moisture, 13.58-18.01% crude protein, 2.91-5.87% crude fiber, 13.23-18.80% fat, 1.48-2.58% ash, 93.25-94.65% dry matter and 50.21-62.06% for carbohydrate. The result of the sensory attributes of the cookies showed that sample 101 (100% wheat flour) was most preferred in terms of general acceptability.


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print ISSN: 0300-368X