https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/issue/feed Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2022-04-08T23:25:02+00:00 Dr. B.C. Okoye okoyebenjamen@yahoo.com Open Journal Systems <p>Published by the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, the <em>Nigerian Agricultural Journal</em> is the oldest agricultural journal in the country having been published since 1961. It is published bi-annually to quarterly, and contributions are accepted from anyone engaged in agricultural work in Nigeria and other countries in tropical Africa.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <span lang="NL"><a title="www.agriculturalsocietynigeria.com" href="https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">agriculturalsocietynigeria.org</a></span></p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223658 Evaluation of Post-Manure Application Planting Time and Poultry Manure Rate on Growth, Seed Yield and Yield Components of Egusi Melon 2022-04-08T23:23:30+00:00 E. A. Makinde eamakinde@yahoo.com O. M. Odeyemi eamakinde@yahoo.com J. N. Odedina eamakinde@yahoo.com O. S. Ayeni eamakinde@yahoo.com A. A. Olajide eamakinde@yahoo.com <p>Egusi melon (<em>Citrullus colocynthis</em> L) is a vegetable crop commonly cultivated for the seeds that majorly supply oil in human diet. Animal manure is used to amend and reclaim infertile soils. The rate and timing of manure application are determinants of its nutrient supply efficiency. Two field trials were conducted from September to December in 2017 and repeated from June to October in 2018 at the Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta to determine effects of time and quantity of poultry manure application on growth and seed yield of Egusi melon. The factors were poultry manure rate of 0, 5, 10 or 15 t∙ha<sup>-1</sup> and post-manure application planting time at 2 or 4 weeks after manure application (WAMA). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial fitted into a randomized complete block design, replicated 4 times. In 2017, average number of leaves/plant was generally lower with Egusi melon planted at 2 weeks after manure application (WAMA), relative to 4 WAMA when the highest number of leaves was from 5 t∙ha<sup>-1</sup>. Average leaf area and vine length were higher with planting at 4 WAMA. In 2018, number of leaves/plant and leaf area were similar with planting time and manure rate. First flowering in 2017 was attained in about 32 days with planting at 2 WAMA but in about 38 days with planting at 4 WAMA. In 2018, flowering was attained in 34 days with planting at 2 WAMA and in 32 days with planting at 4 WAMA. Seed yield at 2 WAMA in 2017 was highest (162 kg∙ha<sup>-1</sup>) from 5 t∙ha<sup>-1</sup> and 237 kg∙ha<sup>-1</sup> at 4 WAMA. In 2018, highest seed yields were 1262 kg∙ha<sup>-1</sup> from 10 t∙ha<sup>-1</sup> at 2 WAMA, and 702 kg∙ha<sup>-1</sup> at 4 WAMA from 15 t∙ha<sup>-1</sup>. Average fruit weight was higher in 2018. Number of seeds per fruit was highest in 2017 with planting at 4 WAMA. Application of 10 t∙ha<sup>-1 </sup>poultry manure with Egusi melon planted at 2 WAMA is optimum for seed yield.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223401 Quality Assessment of Stiff Dough (Eba) Produced from Gari and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Flour Blends 2022-03-29T20:28:08+00:00 S. C. Ubbor stellaubbor@gmail.com B. N. Iguh stellaubbor@gmail.com <p><em>Gari</em> is a major staple food consumed by millions of people in Africa and almost every part of Nigeria. In this study, flours from two Pearl millet (<em>Pennisetum glaucum</em>) cultivars (<em>Jero and Maiwa</em>) were used in partial replacement of gari for the production of stiff dough (<em>eba</em>). The millet grains were subjected to relevant preliminary operations and thereafter converted into flour. The flour was divided into two equal portions of 500 g each. A portion of the flour from each cultivar (250 g) was sieved to have sieved and unsieved flour samples. Gari was produced from TMS 419 cassava cultivar and served as the control. Stiff dough was produced from gari partially replaced with 30%, 50% and 70% of sieved and unsieved millet flours and 100% flour of each millet cultivar making a total of thirteen formulations. The proximate composition, total starch content and sensory evaluation of the stiff dough samples were determined using standard methods. There was significant difference (p˂0.05) in the chemical composition of the dough produced. The 100% unsieved <em>Jero </em>dough had the highest protein content (11.37%) while the control (100% gari) had the lowest (1.53%). The result revealed that dough samples with 70% gari: 30% Unsieved millet (<em>Jero and Maiwa)</em> flour blends recorded the highest crude fibre content (<em>1.12% and 1.15%, respectively</em>) and there was no significant difference (p˃0.05) among them. Ash content ranged from 1.58-2.98% with 50% gari: 50% Unsieved <em>Jero</em> recording the highest value, while 100% sieved <em>Maiwa </em>recorded the least value. The control (100% gari) recorded the highest carbohydrate content (74.33%) while the 100% sieved <em>Jero</em> dough recorded the lowest value (49.77%). There was significant difference (p˂0.05) in the starch content of the dough produced. Starch content of the dough was observed to increase with increase in the proportion of gari. The sensory evaluation results revealed that in terms of general acceptability, dough produced from samples with 30%, 50% sieved <em>Jero</em> and 30% unsieved <em>Jero</em> and <em>Maiwa</em> flour blends compared favourably with the control (100% gari) as they were generally accepted. This result therefore, has shown that, gari can be partially replaced with up to 30% millet flour. Moreover, the result depicted that stiff dough with high nutritional values can be produced from partial replacement of gari with millet flour.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223403 Management System and Production of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2022-03-29T20:35:03+00:00 C. Kadurumba kadurumbachukwuemeka@gmail.com J. A. Emma-Ajah kadurumbachukwuemeka@gmail.com I. A. Njoku kadurumbachukwuemeka@gmail.com G. O. Okezie kadurumbachukwuemeka@gmail.com <p>This study analyzed the management system and constraints of African catfish production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the management systems adopted by African catfish producers in Ebonyi State, to determine the socio-economic determinants of African catfish production in the region, to determine the factors influencing the management of the African catfish and to examine the constraints to the production of African catfish in the study area. Four local government areas were purposely selected from each of which two communities were chosen and from which twenty African catfish producers were randomly selected to give a total of eighty respondents for the study. Descriptive statistical tools and ordinary least squares estimators were used to analyze the objectives. Most African catfish producers (44.40%) adopted the intensive African catfish management system, they preferred to keep their fish in home fish ponds, while few of them (17, 1%) practised the extensive African catfish management system in which they breed their catfish. fish in streams, rivers, lakes and ponds built outside their homes. Gender, number of workers and income of the African catfish were the socio-economic determinants of African catfish production. Cost of labour, the cost of drugs and the cost of fingerling were the cost factors influencing management and production. Lack of readily available skilled labour was the greatest constraint, while storage was the least constraint. It was recommended that catfish producers should improve their socio-economic characteristics such as experience, income from another profession, level of education and number of workers in order to improve their management system as well as their performance.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223404 Technical Efficiency of Yam Farmers in Nigeria: A Metafrontier Approach 2022-03-29T20:44:27+00:00 A. Amaefula adamaefula@yahoo.com R. Farquharson adamaefula@yahoo.com T. Ramilan adamaefula@yahoo.com G. N. Asumugha gasumugha@gmail.com <p>Nigerian food producers are predominantly resource-constrained poor farmers, who are the most food insecure. It is crucial to optimize the use of the limited resources available for their performance improvement. Efficient management of the accessible resources will contribute to farmer performance enhancement. This paper investigates the technical efficiency of yam farmers and the existence of environment-technology gap among yam farmers in Nigeria. Cross sectional data was collected from 360 farmers in Nigeria in 2013. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency of farmers and the determinants of yam output in Nigeria. Metafrontier analysis was performed to evaluate the environment-metatechnology ratio. The stochastic frontier analysis shows that Nigerian yam farmers have a high mean technical efficiency estimate (0.86). Nevertheless, on Average, they are not fully efficient in yam production. There is room for farmers’ technical efficiency improvement in Nigeria. This investigation also indicates that yam production is affected by farm size, quantity of planting material and labour. The result of the metafrontier analysis reveals the presence of an environment-technology gap among farmers in Nigeria. Benue and Ondo States have more favourable environments for yam production. Enugu yam farmers are operating in a more restrictive environment. From this research, there are two key recommendations for yam production in Nigeria; further research is desirable in developing better technologies and farming systems suitable for yam production in the diverse environmental conditions in Nigeria, and farm-level improvements can be gained from an increase in farm size, increasing the quantity of planting material and improving the labour input (the use of labour-saving devices).</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223405 Promoting Local Agro-Processing in Nigeria: Way Forward 2022-03-29T20:51:32+00:00 N. Abdullahi nurafst@gmail.com M. H. Badau nurafst@gmail.com A. U. Shuaib nurafst@gmail.com N. S. Bako nurafst@gmail.com <p>Despite the economic growth reported in recent years, many African countries including Nigeria are facing an economic setback. Nigeria is importing a lot of processed foods despite its enamours potential in producing huge raw materials from the abundance of natural and human resources. Processing of locally grown crops and promoting the production and consumption of underutilised and locally processed crops will widen the horizon of the country's economy and improve the nutrition, health and livelihood of the majority of the population. The article is intended to propose broad plans that will provide a seamless direction on how the local agro-processing industry will be holistically promoted. The ideas in this research were gathered from the pool of literature published online between 2016 and 2021. Promoting agro-processing will offer solutions to many Nigerian social and economic problems; will reduce postharvest losses and make more foods available, reduce poverty by employing many, reduce rural-urban migration, improve utilisation of local raw materials, increase government revenue, improve local technology, diversify the economy and preserve foreign reserve by reducing imports. The potentials of local agro-processing will be realised when a conducive atmosphere is granted for large-scale production in addition to the provision of the right knowledge and skills, adequate access to loans, developing local technologies, provision of basic infrastructure in rural areas and enacting policies that will promote local agro-processing. Achieving this require sincere commitments from the leaders at all levels of government.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223406 Quality Evaluation of Chin chin From Blends of Wheat Flour and Combined Processed Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Flour 2022-03-29T21:03:03+00:00 D. C. Arukwe dorarukwe@gmail.com <p>Pigeon pea is an important legume which can be utilized in combating the protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies prevalent in Nigeria and may also serve as a nutraceutical when added to wheat flour for the production of bakery products. The study aimed at the production of <em>Chin chin</em> from wheat flour supplemented with combined sprouted/fermented pigeon pea flour and evaluating the proximate, mineral, phytochemical and sensory properties of the products. Wheat flour was blended with combined processed pigeon pea flour at the following proportion: 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 (where 100:0 served as control) and subjected to analysis using standard methods. The proximate results showed significant (p&lt;0,05) increment in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash and decrease in carbohydrate contents of the Chin chin samples as the substitution of combined sprouted/fermented pigeon pea flour to wheat flour increased with values of 15.60-34.10%, 2.85-5.65%, 1.01-5.50%, 1.00-4.98% and 44.77-74.53% respectively. The results for minerals composition showed that calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and sodium ranged from 111.12-165.30mg/100, 168.20-256.43mg/100g, 74.25-145.01mg/100g, 64.33-120.21mg/100g, 20.10-21.25 and 11.15-15.02mg/100g respectively. The phytochemicals contents were significantly different (p&lt;0.05) from each other with values ranging from 0.53-0.81mg/100g for flavonoid, 0.41-0.55mg/100g for saponin, 0.22-0.38mg/100g for alkaloid and 0.30-0.45mg/100g for tannin. The sensory evaluation results showed that all the samples were acceptable to the panelists.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223407 Commercialization of Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato and Food Security Status of Producing households in Benue State, Nigeria 2022-03-29T21:11:22+00:00 C. S. Onwusiribe justinnmerengwa@gmail.com J. K. Nmerengwa justinnmerengwa@gmail.com I. N. Nwokeocha justinnmerengwa@gmail.com <p>The study analyzed commercialization of Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato (OFSP) and food security status of producing households in Benue State, Nigeria. Commercialization of OFSP and food security status of the producers is constrained by inadequate incomes to purchase food, instability of supply and demand, and natural and man-made disasters. &nbsp;The study therefore, specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the OFSP producing households, assessed the current level of commercialization among OFSP producing households, estimated the food security status of the producing households, analyzed factors that influenced commercialization of OFSP in the area and factors affecting food security of the OFSP producing households and deduced policy implication from the findings. The study adopted purposive and multistage sampling techniques in the selection of one hundred and eighty (180) respondents. The study made use of descriptive statistics, commercialization indices, food security indices, ordinary least square and probit regression analyses to analyze the objectives. The results showed that majority of the OFSP farmers were males (78.89%) whom were still strong and in their productive ages (38.81yrs), many of whom were literate (88.89%) with household sizes of 1 to 2 persons. Not many of the farmers had long years of marketing experience (62.22%). The average commercialization index was 57.91% with quantity of OFSP produced and sold as 4.13t and 3.19t respectively. Results showed that few of the OFSP farmers were food secure (46.11%) with monthly food expenditure of N27,554.22 compared to the food insecure (51.11%) counterparts with monthly food expenditure of N16,919.59.&nbsp; The multiple regression estimate of the determinants of commercialization with exponential form as the lead equation showed the R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.6429 with the coefficients of household size, quantity of OFSP produced and volume of credit had a direct relationship with level of commercialization and significant at 1% level.&nbsp; The coefficients of membership of cooperatives and years of education also had a direct relationship with level of commercialization of OFSP and significant at 10.0% and 5.0% levels respectively. The probit regression estimates of the determinants of food security among OFSP farmers indicated that the coefficients of volume of capital had a direct relationship with the probability of being food secure and significant at 1.0% level as well as years of education and gender at 10.0% level. The coefficient of household size had an indirect relationship with the probability of being food secure and significant at 1.0% level. The results therefore called for policies aimed at provision of free and affordable education and training opportunities to the farmers.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223408 Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Oil Palm Wine (Elaeis guineensis) and Raphia Palm Wine (Raphia vinifera) 2022-03-29T21:19:12+00:00 V. O. Oti val4oti@gmail.com I. C. Okwulehie val4oti@gmail.com B. J. Nwankwo val4oti@gmail.com H. I. Ogoke val4oti@gmail.com <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties of oil palm wine (<em>Elaeis guineensis</em>) and Raphia palm wine (<em>Raphia vinifera</em>). Samples of fresh palm wine were collected from Ikwuano and Isiala Ngwa local government councils both in Abia state. They were stored in a cooling jar and were analyzed in their fresh state. Test for concentrations of pH, Ethanol concentration, Acetic Acid concentration, Lactic Acid concentration was initiated immediately and was repeated after 24 and 48 hours respectively. Results obtained were then subjected to two way completely randomized analysis of variance tests. From the study, it was observed that the results gotten vary from pH, Sugar, Lactic acid, Ethanol and Acetic of the oil palm wine and the raphia palm wine. Acetic acid concentration of <em>Ngwo</em> (Raffia) juice was 0.01 for 0 hour, 0.01 for 24 hours and 0.05 for 48 hours while that of <em>Nkwu</em> (Oil palm) juice was 0.01 for 0 hour, 0.04 for 24 hours and 0.04 for 48 hours. Effect of difference in plant, time and interaction was not significant (P ≥ 0.05).&nbsp; From the result, there was a positive strong correlation between pH and Sugar, negative strong correlation between pH and Ethanol, weak correlation between pH and Acetic acid and negative strong correlation between pH and Lactic acid.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223409 Comparative Analysis of Efficiencies of Smallholder Rubber Farmers in Peninsular Malaysia: Conventional and Data Envelopment Analysis Models 2022-03-29T21:29:48+00:00 A. Aliyu abdualiyu14@ymail.com S. Mad Nasir abdualiyu14@ymail.com N. Nolila Mohd abdualiyu14@ymail.com <p>The main aim of this paper was to compare the technical and scale efficiencies of smallholder rubber farmers in Malaysia using Conventional and Bootstrapped –Data Envelopment Analysis Models. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 206 rubber farmers for the study, while data were collected from them using well-structured questionnaire. Under the CDEA model, 128 farmers were technically efficient in variable returns to scale, while 11 were both technically and scale efficient in constant returns to scale.&nbsp; Findings revealed that, using CDEA, 128 farms were found to be technically efficient under variable returns to scale (VRS), 11 farms were both technically and scale efficient under constant returns to scale (CRS). Under BDEA model, 77 farmers were technically efficient in variable returns to scale (VRS).&nbsp; Factors that affected the efficiency of the farmers include; race, marital status, tapping system and farms’ distance. It is therefore recommended to apply BDEA model in measuring technical efficiencies as this helps to give robust results. Also, more emphasis should be given in tapping system such as half spiral and alternate days tapping systems, and the smallholders distance away from his/her farms.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223410 Determinants of Agricultural Products Value Chain Actors' Use of Electronic Banking Platforms in Accessing Savings in Southeast Nigeria 2022-03-29T21:35:45+00:00 L. A. Treasure treasure.lilian@mouau.edu.ng G. C. Nnamerenwa treasure.lilian@mouau.edu.ng K. Ilechukwu treasure.lilian@mouau.edu.ng <p>This study focused on analyzing the determinants of agricultural products value chain actors' use of e-banking platforms in accessing savings in Southeast Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the socioeconomic characteristics of the agricultural products value chain actors; ascertained their level of use of e-banking platforms in advancing access to savings; correlated the relationship between the use of e-banking platforms and access to savings by actors in agricultural products value chains, estimated the determinants of use of e-banking platforms in accessing savings by agricultural products value chain actors and examined the motivating factors for the use of -banking platforms in accessing savings by agricultural products value chain actors in the study area. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in selecting a total of eighty (80) respondents used in the study. Primary source of data was used for the study. Data for the study was obtained using structured questionnaires and personal interviews. Data obtained were analyzed using both descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages, and means and econometric tools such as Pearson product-moment correlation and probit regression technique. Findings showed that the majority of the agricultural products value chain actors are males (62%), married (55%), had tertiary education (40%), owned certificate of business registration (70%), belonged to a cooperative society (72%), uses social media (63%) and saves their money in the bank (97%). E-banking application platform was identified as the most used platform for accessing savings by these actors. In addition, e-banking apps, Quickteller, and ATM services strongly correlated with access to savings by agricultural products value chain actors at 1%, 1%, and 5% levels of significance. Sex, age, level of education, membership of cooperation, target market, time-saving, easy business transactions, and access to internet facilities significantly determined e-banking platforms by agricultural value chain actors in the study area. The study recommends that agricultural products value chain actors receive ongoing training on how to use e-banking platforms to access their saved money, as this will increase their access to other financial services necessary to keep their enterprises sustainable.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223411 Carcass Yield and Physiological Status of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Mango (Mangifera indica) Fruit Reject Meal (MFRM) 2022-03-29T21:42:14+00:00 K. T. Orayaga orayacollins@gmail.com O. I. A. Oluremi orayacollins@gmail.com C. D. Tuleun orayacollins@gmail.com S. N. Carew orayacollins@gmail.com <p>The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em>) fruit reject meal (MFRM) on the carcass yield and blood profile of finisher broiler chickens.&nbsp; The research was carried out at the Poultry house of the Livestock Unit, Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture Makurdi. Day-old broiler chicks numbering 200, were grouped into five (5) with each group replicated four times and assigned to diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% mango fruit reject meal (MFRM) as T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub>, and T<sub>5</sub> in a completely randomized design (CRD), and fed to finishing - 63 days. Carcass and blood profile were examined.&nbsp; Results showed that fasted weight significantly reduced (P &lt; 0.05), from 2025 to 1737.50g as MFRM increased (0-20%) in diets. Mean relative-dressed weight (60.57-63.09%) were not significantly different (p&gt;0.05) across treatment groups. This trend subsisted for the main meat cuts and internal organs. White blood cell count (WBC) varied (p&lt;0.05) without pattern, while red blood cell count (RBC) increased (p&lt;0.05) as MFRM increased in the diets and both had values within normal ranges. Serum biochemical components were also not significantly different (p&gt;0.05) across treatment groups.&nbsp; It was concluded that MFRM has significant effect on fasted weight, decreasing it significantly at levels beyond 15% incorporation in broiler chicken diet. However, dressed weight, main meat cuts, internal organs and blood are not affected by inclusion of MFRM in broiler diets. It was recommended that 15% MFRM be included in broiler chicken diets to serve as an energy source.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223412 Extent of Wood Utilization by Small Scale Furniture Makers: A Case Study of Aba Timber Market, Abia State 2022-03-29T21:45:53+00:00 O. D. Chukwuemeka daphneonyi@gmail.com <p>This study examined the extent of wood utilization by small scale furniture makers in timber market, Aba Abia State. The study involves a random selection of 35 small scale furniture makers in Aba timber market. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on the types of timber species used in furniture production, lumber dimensions used and percentage volume of wood used in furniture making. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis ranked sum test. The result from data collected showed that timber species like <em>Milicia excelsa, Khaya spp</em> and <em>Terminalia ivorensis</em> are most commonly used while species like <em>Terminalia superba, Garcinia kola, Lovoa trichilioides</em> were fairly or rarely used. Some lumber dimensions such as 1” x 12” x 12’,1” x 6” x 12’, 1” x 4” x 12’, 3” x 6” x 12’,3” x 12” x 12’ and 3” x 3” x 12’ were used for the production of furniture in timber market Umuahia. Also, some of the species like <em>Khaya spp, Milicia excelsa</em>, <em>Terminalia ivorensis </em>and others were highly utilized based on percentage volume on weekly basis. It is therefore recommended that necessary actions be taken to widen species utilization to increase value and profit, without expanding the area of harvest.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223413 Effect of Social Capital on Women Agriprineurs’access to Financial Services in Abia State, Nigeria 2022-03-29T21:52:14+00:00 C. R. Okezie rosynma2003@gmail.com <p>Access to financial services remains a bottle neck to women in agriculture. Economically empowered women are major catalysts for development as such social network is considered one of the important factors to achieve economic outcomes among women. The study examined the effect of social capital on access to financial services among female agriprineurs in Abia state. A cross sectional data were collected through the use of well- structured questionnaire. The study adopted multistage random sampling technique to select 100 female agripreneurs for detailed study. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, percentages, frequency, likert scale and probit regression were used for analysis. The female agripreneurs had access to financial services majorly from informal sources. The significant financial variable that influenced access to financial services in the study was distance to alternative sources of financial services while significant social capital variables included payback period, membership density index, decision making index, and cash contribution index. The findings showed that belonging to local network or association improves the probability of access for members which can be channeled towards improving their livelihood activities. Therefore, policy makers interested in improving the living conditions of women agripreneurs are advised to factor in social network affiliations as one of the major factors to easy access to financial services.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223414 Sustainable Food System Transformation in a Changing Climate 2022-03-29T22:31:44+00:00 P. N. Anyiam anyiam.paul@mouau.edu.ng G. C. Adimuko anyiam.paul@mouau.edu.ng C. P. Nwamadi anyiam.paul@mouau.edu.ng F. A. Guibunda anyiam.paul@mouau.edu.ng Y. J. Kamale anyiam.paul@mouau.edu.ng <p>In recent years, several major drivers such as population growth, shocks, and changing climate have put the world off track to ending hunger, malnutrition, and meeting global food demands. Temperature increase, changes in rainfall pattern, drought, flooding, and the occurrence of pests and diseases negatively impact our food system. The situation seems to be the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa, where farmers are slow in changing their farming practices such as bush burning and deforestation, mainly because they lack the requisite education, information, and training necessary to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The question is whether the current food systems in Sub-Saharan Africa can produce enough food in the future to meet the demands of a growing population that is predicted to double by 2050 amid climate change. Food systems need to transform in a sustainable way to limit their environmental impact, contribute to building more sustainable diets and at the same time adapt and become more resilient to climate change. The purpose of this review is to increase the understanding of the nature of climate change's effects on the food system and emphasize the need to adapt science-based technological and innovative approaches to address these challenges. Understanding climate change challenges on food system is pivotal to sustainable food security in Africa</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223418 Yam Production and its Determinants in Nigeria 2022-03-29T22:36:44+00:00 A. Amaefula adamaefula@yahoo.com <p>There is global food insecurity which could be attributed to poor performance of farmers in the developing countries. Ironically, Nigerian farmers are poor and the most food insecure. &nbsp;Yam contributes to wealth and food security of Nigeria. Notwithstanding, yam farmers in Nigeria are performing poorly. It is crucial to improve the performance of yam farmers for food security and poverty alleviation in the country. This paper investigates yam production in Nigeria and how it can be improved. The aim of this paper is to describe and compare yam production and its determinants in Nigeria. &nbsp;This research employed a multistage sampling technique in eliciting cross-sectional data from 360 farmers in Nigeria in 2013. Stochastic frontier and metafrontier analyses were used to determine factors affecting yam production. Descriptive statistics were used to discuss the Status of yam farmers and yam production. ANOVA was performed to determine similarities in variables between States. The result shows that yam production in Nigeria is dominated by middle-aged educated male farmers with large households and small farms. They have limited access to fund and extension services, and use insufficient inputs for yam production. The investigation also proves that farm size, labour and planting material are increasing factors of production. This research makes these three key recommendations for yam production in Nigeria. Government subsidy on inputs and the adoption of appropriate input dissemination strategies to ensure that inputs reach yam farmers in good condition and time; the use of labour-saving devices; and the development of alternative farming systems for yam to encourage mechanization.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223419 Housing Condition, Consumption Expenditure and Poverty Status of Female Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria 2022-03-29T22:45:16+00:00 E. O. Nze nzeedith3@gmail.com J. C. Nwaru nwaru.jude@mouau.edu.ng K. C. Igwe nzeedith3@gmail.com K. C. Igwe nzeedith3@gmail.com <p>This study analyzed housing condition, consumption expenditure and poverty status of female farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select areas and respondents for this study. A random sampling of 18 female farmers was performed in 12 communities among 6 Local Government Areas studied to get 216 respondents. Data were obtained from primary source using a well-structured questionnaire issued to the respondents. Generated data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Results showed that majority (57.41%) of the respondents lived in houses built by their husbands; most of them (78.24%) lived in bungalows. Majority lived in houses built with cemented floor (74.54%), with cemented walls (82.87%), and corrugated iron roofing sheets (75.46%). Food stuff (26.90%), education (22.97%), clothing and shelter (18.02%), health (15.57%), among others engulfed most of their monthly expenditure. Many (48.61%) attested to having three square meals on daily bases. The MPCE per person was estimates as N 577.259, poverty line was N 384.84 and mean household expenditure N 76.968. About 70.37% of the female farmers were poor. Access to credit (5.0%), Educational level (1.0%), farm income (5.0%) and non-farm income (10.0%) negatively influenced their poverty status, while household expenses (1.0%) was in the positive direction. It is therefore recommended that since most of these respondents were poor, poverty alleviation strategies such as implementation of a set of technical, social, cultural and institutional measures with the aim of improving the socio-economic conditions of the farmers are needed.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223420 Economic Appraisal of Artisanal Fishery Resources in Ogun State, Nigeria 2022-03-29T22:54:00+00:00 A. G. Jamiyu oladejiso@funaab.edu.ng S. O. Oladeji oladejiso@funaab.edu.ng A. O. Dipeolu oladejiso@funaab.edu.ng <p>Fisheries resources are common asset accessible for exploitation by any one that has the means to do so. Considering the opportunities this freedom offers, there is tendency for overexploitation of the resources than is desirable. This study estimates the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY); Open Access Yield (OAY); and Maximum Economic Yield (MEY) of the artisanal fisheries resources of the four biotopes (Marine, Estuarine, Lacustrine and Riverine) in Ogun State. The two widely used surplus model thus Schaefer's and Fox models were used. &nbsp;Marine and Estuarine biotopes were exploited above the Maximum Sustainable Yield. The levels of exploitation in Riverine and Lacustrine biotopes were still within the acceptable range. The result of the estimated Open Access Yield revealed that the level of exploitation in Riverine and Lacustrine are within the acceptable range. Marine and estuarine were over exploited respectively by 63.8% and 28.07%. The current level of exploitation was such that actual catch was 227% and 156% above Maximum Economic Yield for Marine and Estuarine biotopes respectively. Riverine and Lacustrine biotopes were also overexploited from Maximum Economic Yield point of view. The level of current catch was about 84,04% and 74.81% above the estimated MEY for Riverine and Lacustrine biotopes. The study concluded that the four biotopes in Ogun State were overexploited. The level of exploitation was above its Maximum Economic Yield. Diversification of livelihoods was recommended for the artisanal fishers that exploited marine and estuarine biotopes.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223423 Enhanced Soil Chemical Properties, Nutrient Uptake and Dry Matter Yield in a Mineral and Organic Fertilization of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) in Umudike, Southeastern Nigeria 2022-03-29T23:03:33+00:00 V. N. Okeke veranonye16@gmail.com A. L. Akinmutimi veranonye16@gmail.com <p>Field studies were carried out in 2018 and 2019 at the National Root Crops Research Institute Eastern Farm, Umudike to explore the enhancement of soil chemical properties, nutrient uptake and dry matter yield in a mineral and organic fertilization of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in Umudike, Southeastern Nigeria. There were seven treatments consisting of sole and combinations of poultry manure, rice mill waste and NPK 15:15:15 with a rate of 45 kg N ha-1 regarded as 100%. The treatments were as follows: 100% NPK 15:15:15 (45 kg N ha-1), 100% poultry manure (45 kg N ha-1), 100% rice mill waste (45 kg N ha-1), 50% NPK 15:15:15 (22.5 kg N ha-1) + 50% poultry manure (22.5 kg N ha-1), 50% NPK 15:15:15 (22.5 kg N ha-1) + 50% rice mill waste (22.5 kg N ha-1), 50% NPK 15:15:15 (22.5 kg N ha-1) + 25% poultry manure (11.25 kg N ha-1) + 25% rice mill waste (11.25 kg N ha-1) and control. They were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Ginger variety (UG I) was used for the experiments. Soil chemical properties and nutrient uptake (N, P and K) of the ginger rhizome after harvest were determined. The dry matter yield at harvest was equally determined. Results showed that the application of the treatments significantly (P &lt; 0.05) increased soil chemical properties with the application of 50% NPK + 50% poultry manure giving highest values for most of the parameters determined in the two planting seasons. The 50% NPK + 50% poultry manure significantly reduced soil acidity from a very strong acidity level of 4.80 and 4.90 (initial values before experiment) to 5.30 in each year. It increased total N from 1.00 to 1.30 g kg-1 in 2019, increased available P from 18.50 to 23.50 mg kg-1 in 2018, calcium from 3.6 and 3.20 cmol kg-1 to 4.40 and 4.00 cmol kg-1 for 2018 and 2019 respectively, effective cation exchange capacity from 6.76 and 5.95 cmol kg-1 to 7.16 and 6.38 cmol kg-1 and base saturation from 81.66% and 78.49% to 96.76% and 90.88% for 2018 and 2019. Nutrient uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the ginger rhizome were significantly (P &lt; 0.05) increased by the treatments. The treatment combination of 50% NPK + 50% poultry manure gave the highest nutrient uptake in N, P and K for the two planting seasons. The dry matter yield of ginger was significantly (P &lt; 0.05) increased across all the treatments when compared with the control. The highest dry matter yield of 12 058.9 kg ha-1 in 2018 was obtained from the combination of 50% NPK + 50% poultry manure. While in 2019, the highest dry matter yield of 9 868.4 kg ha-1 was obtained from the plot treated with 100% poultry manure which did not show any statistical difference from the yield of 9 702.3 kg ha-1 obtained from plot treated with 50% NPK + 50% poultry manure. The use of 50% NPK + 50% poultry manure was recommended for enhanced soil chemical properties and better yield in the study areas.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223424 An Overview of the Effects of Some Agricultural Policies in Nigeria-1960-2020 2022-03-29T23:12:20+00:00 Ahmed Abubakar abubakar8550483@gmail.com Jibrin Gambo abubakar8550483@gmail.com Saifullahi Umar abubakar8550483@gmail.com <p>This review provides a systematic exposition of some selected classes of agricultural policy issues and challenges in Nigeria. The objective of this study is to examine&nbsp;the role of agricultural policies in economic development and integration in Nigeria. The study involved a literature review for retrieving documents and analysing them. The findings of the study indicate that from 1960 to 2020, there were numerous policies aimed at enhancing agricultural development and economic integration in rural and urban areas. These policies were meant to address various challenges to agricultural development on a spatio-temporal basis, with different objectives but common responsibilities. However, these policies and programmes record success at different time intervals depending on the commitment from the government's side and assimilation from the farmers’ side. Despite that, the policies were constrained by various challenges: technical, social, political, and economic.This study recommends that the existing policy barriers to increasing productivity, sustainability, and resilience should be removed, redirect government spending to ensure the availability of public goods and services that benefit producers, consumers, and society as a whole, and encourage the establishment of the localized agricultural policies at state and local government levels.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223454 Influence of Different Drying Methods (Oven, Sun and Green House) on Some Micronutrient Composition of Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) 2022-03-30T12:20:05+00:00 H. O. Okudu helenokudu@yahoo.com U.L. Okeke helenokudu@yahoo.com <p>Tomatoes are climacteric fruits which are known to have short life span once harvested. To extend their shelf life, drying technology is often employed. This work was designed to find the effect of some conventional drying methods on micronutrient composition of tomatoes. Mineral and vitamin compositions were analysed using standard procedures. Data generated were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. The result showed that β-carotene contents of the tomatoes ranged between 2680 – 4020µg/100g with fresh tomatoes having the highest value (4020µg/100g) and sun dried tomatoes the lowest β-carotene value (2680µg/100g). The vitamin C content of the tomatoes (7.83 – 12.10µg/100g) was significantly lower (p&lt;0.05) than the value (19.59mg/100g) obtained for the fresh sample. &nbsp;The zinc content of oven dried tomatoes was 8.77-fold higher than the zinc content of the fresh tomatoes, while zinc contents of sun dried and greenhouse dried tomatoes were 8.15 and 6.07 folds higher than that of the fresh tomatoes.&nbsp; The copper (0.14 – 0.23mg/100g) and iodine (2.76 – 3.35mg/100g) contents of the dried tomatoes were significantly higher (p&gt;0.05) than values obtained in fresh tomatoes. The study showed that minerals and vitamins analysed were better conserved using oven dry method than using sun and greenhouse drying methods.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223456 Adoption of Improved Cocoyam Technologies Disseminated by National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria 2022-03-30T12:58:44+00:00 I. L. Onuegbu ijeloismiram@gmail.com G. E. Ifenkwe ijeloismiram@gmail.com F. N. Nwakor ngonwakor@gmail.com <p>This paper analyzed the adoption of improved cocoyam technologies disseminated by the National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 cocoyam farmers using a structured questionnaire/interview schedule. Data collected were analyzed through the use of percentages and mean. Results from the study shows that about 23% of the respondents were within the age range of 21-30 years, 54.4% had a family size of 6- 10 members and 58.3% were females. Results equally show that 61.7% of the farmers were married. Forty nine percent (49%) attained secondary education; many (57.5%) were civil servants and 29.2 % had farm size of between 1 to 2 hectares. “Manure/fertilizer application", “weed control methods” and "pest/disease control" had mean adoption score of 3.44, 3.38 and 3.18 respectively, indicating that the respondents adopted the techniques in order to enhance cocoyam production. The main methods used by the National Root Crops Research Institute to disseminate cocoyam production technologies include: farmers’ cooperative, followed by extension agents, establishment of demonstration farms in the area, encouraging farmers’ visits to research farms, promotional campaign to encourage cocoyam production, personal contact method, and radio/television programmme on cocoyam. The study therefore recommends that National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) should organize more promotional campaigns and training workshops geared towards encouraging an increased cocoyam technology adoption and production in Ikwuano Local Government of Abia State.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223457 Effects of Tillage and Bradyrhizobium Inoculation in Soybean/Maize Intercrop on Microbial Biomass and Water-Soluble Carbon in Samaru, Nigeria 2022-03-30T13:05:44+00:00 K. C. Uzoma obia.joe@gmail.com J. O. Omeke obia.joe@gmail.com J. F. Akpan obia.joe@gmail.com G. O. Chukwu obia.joe@gmail.com <p>A field study was conducted during 2011 cropping season to investigate the effect of tillage practices and bradyrhizobium inoculation of soybean on microbial biomass carbon (C<sub>mic</sub>), microbial biomass nitrogen (N<sub>mic</sub>) and water-soluble carbon (WSC) in maize-soybean intercropping systems. Treatments comprised of two tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT)) as the main plot and bradyrhizobium inoculation at four levels (inoculated soybean sole, inoculated soybean/maize intercrop, un-inoculated soybean sole and un-inoculated soybean/maize intercrop) as sub-plot. The treatments were laid in a split-plot under a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that C<sub>mic</sub> and N<sub>mic</sub> were significantly higher under RT than CT by 31.97% and 17.28% respectively. The WSC was consistently higher in maize-soybean intercropping system with soybean inoculated with bradyrhizobium than in the un-inoculated plots. Values of WSC was 22% higher in inoculated sole soybean and 38% higher in inoculated maize-soybean intercrop than the un-inoculated sole and intercropping system respectively. Similarly, C<sub>mic</sub> was 39.20% higher in the inoculated sole soybean than the un-inoculated sole and 24.43% higher in inoculated soybean/maize intercrop than in the un-inoculated soybean/maize intercrop. Also results of N<sub>mic</sub> obtained under inoculated sole soybean and inoculated soybean/maize intercrop, respectively, were significantly higher than in un-inoculated sole soybean and soybean/maize intercrop by 45.13 and 56.78% rrespectively. The results demonstrated that inclusion of bradyr<em>hizobium </em>inoculants in soybean-maize intercropping systems under tillage practices will improve microbial biomass and water-soluble carbon, thereby enhancing the productivity of Alfisols of Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223459 Effect of Levels of Energy- Protein Value on Growth Performance, Blood Profile and Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Pigs 2022-03-30T13:52:44+00:00 O. A. Adebiyi smogisaac@gmail.com T. A. Ajayikolade smogisaac@gmail.com I. O. Adejumo smogisaac@gmail.com O. Abiola smogisaac@gmail.com O. A. Adediran smogisaac@gmail.com <p>There is surplus protein and energy that cannot be digested in diet than required. This study investigated the effect of balancing the concentration of nutrients in pigs’ diets aiming at reducing environmental wastage. Eighteen weaned pigs were randomly distributed into three treatments: 22%CP and 3200ME Kcal/kg; 20%CP and 3300ME Kcal/kg; 18%CPand 3400ME Kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates and two pigs per replicate. Data were collected on growth parameters, blood profile and nutrient digestibility. Pigs fed treatment 1 had significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) average feed intake and average final weight. Significant (p&lt;0.05) higher values were observed in cholesterol level and high density lipoprotein level in pigs fed treatment 3. Pigs fed treatment 3 had significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher levels of triglyceride and total protein (252.87mg/dL and 7.44mg/dL) compared to those fed with treatment 1 (210.34mg/dL and 5.78mg/dL) respectively. However, low density lipoprotein level increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) in pigs fed treatment 1 (11.13mg/dL) compared to treatment 3 (3.14mg/dL). Digestion of crude protein was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher (88.71%) in pigs fed treatment 3 compared with treatment 1 (85.12%). It can be concluded that reducing crude protein level to18% and increasing metabolizable energy level to 3400 Kcal/kg in feed would lead to improved nutrients utilization and absorption in pigs.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223461 Prospects of Domestication of Polynesian Arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides L.) in Nigeria 2022-03-30T18:17:01+00:00 C. O. Amadi okeyamadi2013@yahoo.com O. A. Olojede yemiolojede@yahoo.com A. Ironkwe adanmaironkwe@gmail.com C. N. Ebeniro christyebeniro@yahoo.com C. C. Nwokocha chrisnwokocha@gmail.com G. Amadi genevieveamadi@yahoo.com <p>Polynesian Arrowroot (<em>Tacca leontopetaloides </em>(L.) Kuntze), popularly known as <em>Gbache</em>, <em>Amora</em> or <em>Aduro susun</em> by some ethnic nationalities in Nigeria, is a tuber bearing perennial herb that grows in the wild as solitary plants in open fields, under tree shades or on hilltops across the tropical rainforest and guinea savannah agro-ecologies of the country. Starch extracted from the tubers are used to prepare different local delicacies by some indigenous people of north-central Nigeria. It also has pharmaceutical, medicinal, and sundry applications. In recent years, the plant population in the wild has dwindled probably due to increasing use of herbicides, urbanization and climate change. This coupled with the increasing recognition of the industrial quality of its starch have brought to the fore the need to domesticate the plant. This paper reviews the prospect of domesticating the crop, highlighting its usefulness, geographical distribution, folk biology, morphology, propagation, tuber storage and starch extraction, and nutritional qualities that can be harnessed towards its domestication. The implications of some morphological attributes of the crop on its domestication were also discussed.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223473 Growth and Flowering Response of Tagetes erecta L. (Asteraceae) Grown in Different Nursery Media Mixtures 2022-03-30T18:22:44+00:00 J. U. Ogbu juogbu2003@yahoo.com N. C. Isienyi juogbu2003@yahoo.com A. I. Woghiren woghiren.ai@frin.gov.ng <p>Marigold (<em>Tagetes erecta </em>L.) is an annual ornamental bedding and pot plant of the family Asteraceae. This study on growth and flowering response of <em>T. erecta</em> grown on different locally sourced nursery media was conducted at the floriculture nursery of the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal College of Agriculture, Ishaigu Ebonyi State Nigeria. Six treatments comprised of mixtures of different growth media, namely topsoil + cured poultry manure + river sand, at varied ratios: T<sub>1</sub> (M3:2:1), T<sub>2</sub> (M2:3:1), T<sub>3</sub>(M1:3:2), T<sub>4</sub> (M1:2:3), T<sub>5</sub> (M0:3:3), and T<sub>6</sub> – control (M6:0:0), respectively, were used. The screen house pot experiment was laid out in completely randomised design six replicates. Data on Plant Height-PH (cm), Number of Leaves (NL), Number of Branches (NB), Stem Diameter-SD (mm), Days to 50% Flowering (DF), Number of Flower (NF); including Root Length-RL (cm) and Dry Matter-DM (g) at 12 weeks after planting (WAP) were collected. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA . Results showed that the PH, NL, NF and DM of <em>T. erecta</em> at 12 WAP ranged 95.2 (T<sub>1</sub>) to 71.1 (T<sub>5</sub>), 85.0 (T<sub>1</sub>) to 61.0 (T<sub>6</sub>-control), 6.0 (T<sub>1</sub>) to 5.0 (T<sub>6</sub>-control), and 16.2 (T<sub>1</sub>) to 8.4 (T<sub>6</sub>-control), respectively; while NB, SD, RL and DF ranged from 21.0 (T<sub>2</sub>) to 11.0 (T<sub>6</sub>-control), 6.2 (T<sub>4</sub>) to 3.5 (T<sub>5</sub>), 12.8 (T<sub>4</sub>) to 10.4 (T<sub>6</sub>-control), and 58.2 (T<sub>4</sub>) to 65.6 (T<sub>5</sub>), respectively. &nbsp;The T<sub>1</sub> showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher values in PH, NL and DM than other growth media combinations; in addition to NF, although differences were non-signoficant among the treatments. Results from nursery medium T<sub>1</sub> (M3:2:1) conbination showed remarkably improved growth and yield of <em>Tagetes erecta</em> than the control growth medium (M6:0:0; topsoil only) and other growth media evaluated.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223474 Utilisation of Chicken Intestines as Extender in Frankfurter Sausage 2022-03-30T18:59:52+00:00 G. M. Oppong dimu4ever@yahoo.com O. A. Adediran dimu4ever@yahoo.com O. R. Awodoyin dimu4ever@yahoo.com A. B. Omojola dimu4ever@yahoo.com <p>Chicken intestines are high in nutrients; however its consumption is limited due to aesthetic and hygienic reasons. There has been little documentation on its use in product formation. Therefore, yield and nutritional quality of frankfurter-type sausage with different levels of chicken intestine was evaluated. Frankfurter-type sausages were produced using chicken intestines to substitute ground beef in treatments 2, 3, 4 and 5 at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively with treatment 1 serving as the control. A completely randomised design (CRD) was used. Proximate composition, texture profile analysis and microbial load were carried out using standard procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA (p&lt;0.05). Crude protein, crude fibre, ash, dry matter, moisture and ether extract all had significant (p&lt;0.05) differences.&nbsp; Chicken intestine had significant effects (P&lt;0.05) on the microbial load on the various treatments with treatment 1 recording the highest amount of colony count. The texture profile analysis revealed the increase in chicken intestine along the treatments had significant differences (P&lt;0.05) with adhesiveness, chewiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, hardness, resilience and springiness. The results suggest that chicken intestine has promising potential as an extender in Frankfurter-type Sausage. Chicken intestine has a potential to be used in meat formation especially frankfurter-type sausage.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223475 Assessment of Water Quality Status and Benthic Fauna Diversity of Amuzuta Stream, Umuahia, Southeast Nigeria 2022-03-30T19:07:18+00:00 C. C. Ndubuisi nwakanma.chioma@mouau.edu.ng C. Nwakanma nwakanma.chioma@mouau.edu.ng U. R. Onyeizu nwakanma.chioma@mouau.edu.ng <p>The assessment of water quality status and benthic fauna composition of Amuzuta Stream in Umuahia Southeastern part of Nigeria was carried in this study. Physiochemical and microbiological parameters were measured following standard procedures, and the benthic fauna’s were identified accordingly. Data collected were compared to World Health Organization (WHO) standards and analyzed using one factor Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Correlation analysis was used to establish relationship between physiochemical parameters at 5% level of significance. The stream showed high bacterial and faecal load, all above the WHO limit. Benthic fauna composition and identification was carried out under a stereomicroscope and a 400X optical microscope. The benthic fauna of the stream in the dry season were dominated by Melanodies and Chronomidae (38%) followed by Veliidae, Gyrinidae, Zypoptera (6%) &gt; Gomphidae and Hydrocarina (3%); while in the rainy season, Zygopterasp and Germidae H16 (18%) were more distributed. The ranking for remaining organisms was Hydropsychidae, Oligachaeta and Naedidae (12%)&gt;Philopotamide, Gamphidae, Libelludae, Ecnomidae, and Caloptergidae (6%). &nbsp;Worms and Diptera (in dry season) and Odonata and Hemiptera (in rainy season) were the most distributed benthos. The Water Quality Index (WQI) for the stream for both seasons was calculated to be 41, and the water was found to be under excellent to good water quality for domestic use but not for drinking purpose. Further assessment of the stream water and necessary measures to be taken to prevent and reduce contamination of the water is highly recommended.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223476 Assessment of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Genotypes for Quantitative and Qualitative Traits 2022-03-30T19:13:29+00:00 Q. O. Oloyede-Kamiyo qudratkamiyo@gmail.com B. O. Lawal qudratkamiyo@gmail.com K. T. Kareem qudratkamiyo@gmail.com O. O. Odeyemi qudratkamiyo@gmail.com O. J. Adelakun qudratkamiyo@gmail.com <p>The qualitative and quantitative traits, as well as nutritional composition of six cowpea genotypes were assessed to determine their worth for improvement purposes. The experiment was conducted at the research site of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&amp;T) Ibadan in 2018 and 2020. The genotypes comprised of three improved varieties and three landraces. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in three replicates. Combined analysis of variance, means, coefficient of variation, and correlation analysis were conducted on the data collected. Mean squares for year and genotype were significant for most of the traits. Virus incidence and severity were significantly higher in ART/98-12 and least in Cotonou. Number of pods per peduncle was highest in Ife BPC (5) and least in Cotonou (2). Number of days to 50% flowering was least in Cotonou and ART/98-12 (46 days). Seed weight per plot was highest in Cotonou (0.35kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and least in Oloyin (0.003kg/m<sup>2</sup>). Crude protein was significantly higher in Oloyin (23.92%) and least in ART/98-12 (21.15%). Calcium, magnesium and potassium were highest in Cotonou. Cotonou, a landrace, is a promising genotype for improvement for yield and earliness.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223478 Effects of Oil Spillage on the Welfare of Cassava Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of Abia State, Nigeria 2022-03-30T19:51:54+00:00 T. A. Amusa amusa.taofeeq@mouau.edu.ng R. O. Mejeha onyekamej@yahoo.com I. S. Azubuike amusa.taofeeq@mouau.edu.ng <p>The study examined the effects of oil spillage on the welfare of cassava farmers in oil producing communities of Abia State, Nigeria. Multistage, purposive and random sampling techniques were used to sample 120 cassava farmers for the study while well structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the farmers. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage, means, z-test statistics and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis. The results identified the effects of oil-spillage in the area to include: pollution of water bodies (100.0%), poor yield of crops (100.0%), low farm income of farmers in affected areas (100.0%) and threat to aquatic lives (95.0%). Environmental factors that significantly influenced the welfare status of the farmers included: soil remediation cost at 1%, farm size at 1%, oil producing status at 5% and soil condition at 1%. The result of the profitability analysis showed profitability index of cassava farmers in oil producing and non oil producing communities as 0.47 and 0.65 respectively, while their benefit cost ratios were 1.89 and 2.87 respectively. Socioeconomic factors that significantly influenced profitability of cassava farmers include: farm size, education, household size, gender, extension contacts, cooperative and oil-bearing status at 1 and 5%. Based on the findings, the study recommends increaed provision of intervention funds to farmers, and the remediation of degraded soils, to boost farm productivity and improve farmers’ income and welfare.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223481 Market Performance and Utilization of Garcinia kola (Heckel) (Bitter Kola) in Abia State, Nigeria 2022-03-30T20:03:33+00:00 F. B. Olowoyo felixolowoyo@yahoo.com E. O. Samson felixolowoyo@yahoo.com I. G. Okpara felixolowoyo@yahoo.com J. Q. Nwachukwu felixolowoyo@yahoo.com E. O. Oyewusi felixolowoyo@yahoo.com <p>This study analysed the marketing performance and utilization of bitter kola in Abia State, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty structured questionnaires were administered on the respondents who were bitter kola producers, marketers and consumers. The data for the study were captured using a structured questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis and cost and returns were estimated. The result of the regression analysis showed that the coefficient of age was statistically significant at 1% and inversely related to value of sales. The coefficient of household size and level of education were significant at 5% and positively related&nbsp; to value of sales. The coefficient of marketing experience was significant at 1% and directly related to value of sales. The coefficient of distance was statistically significant at 10% and inversely related to value of sales. The result of the cost and returns shows a monthly revenue of N39,760 for bitter kola and a Net return of N13,403.01. Benefit cost ratio for marketers was 1:1.51, which implies that every one naira spent about N1.51 was returned to the kola marketer. The most severe constraint to bitter kola marketing are deforestation, seasonal fluctuation in production, lack of modern processing technology and price fluctuations. It was recommended that marketers should be given better access to credit at low interest rate to boost bitter kola marketing business, while agricultural extension model is adopted, the government direct promotion and practice of extension delivery in Nigeria should be reviewed.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223482 Effects of Processing Methods and Packaging Materials on the Shelf-Life of Yellow Root Cassava Flour 2022-03-30T20:12:31+00:00 S. C. Ubbor stellaubbor@gmail.com O. N. Nwose stellaubbor@gmail.com <p>Cassava is a staple crop that is consumed in almost every Community in Nigeria. It is a high perishable crop that deteriorates within few days after harvesting. Processing cassava into chips and flours reduces the moisture content to a very low level thus reducing post-harvest losses. It has been shown that biofortified yellow root cassava possesses great potential to alleviate vitamin A deficiency complementary to other interventions such as vitamin A supplementation and fortification. This study therefore, investigated the effects of processing methods and packaging materials on the shelf-life of yellow root cassava flour. Yellow root cassava (UMUCASS 36 (TMS 01/1368) was harvested, cleaned and processed into flour by chipping and grating. Flour samples obtained from each method was stored for 6 weeks in tin and black polyethylene, and evaluated weekly. Result of a preliminary study conducted on the moisture content of the raw cassava root and flour samples showed that both chipped and grated flour samples had lower moisture content (2.36% and 3.20% respectively) compared to the raw cassava root (71.63%). The results of the chemical properties of the flour samples showed no significant difference (p˃0.05) in week 0. However, the physicochemical and functional properties of the grated and chipped flour samples packaged in tin and polyethylene varied significantly from week 1 through week 6. Carotenoids retention was highest (72.1%) in chipped flour sample packaged in polyethylene. Chipped flour sample in polyethylene had the lowest mould count (34.33-66.67 cfu/g). Moisture retention was highest in grated sample packaged in both tin and polythene. The result of this study revealed that flour processed from dried chips and packaged in black polythene was the best for storage stability and longer shelf-life.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223483 Assessment of Cassava Peels Utilization among Agro-Forestry Farmers in Sakpoba Forest Reserve in Edo State 2022-03-30T20:19:23+00:00 A. S. Adeleye adeleyeadegoke03@gmail.com E. S. Omoghie adeleyeadegoke03@gmail.com O. S. Oripelaye adeleyeadegoke03@gmail.com V. B. Simpson adeleyeadegoke03@gmail.com U. F. Aliboh adeleyeadegoke03@gmail.com <p>Significant quantities of peels are generated from cassava processing and are inappropriately disposed thereby, constituting a source of environmental pollution. This study assessed the utilization of cassava peels generated among the agroforestry farmers in Sakponba forest reserve area of Edo State, Nigeria. A well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from one hundred and twenty (120) agro-forestry farmers using an interview schedule. Percentages and frequency count were used to analyse the objectives of the study. Results showed that majority (69.2%) of the respondents are male and about 40.8% small scale farmers with annual income between N200,000 to N500,000. Majority (78.3%) of the farmers indiscriminately disposed the cassava peels and about 84.2% had no information on the effective utilization of the peels. Using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation, there was a significant relationships (p &lt; 0.05) between the level of utilization (r = 0.022) and the constraints to cassava peels utilization in the study area. The study therefore concluded that the level of cassava peel utilization in the study area is low and as such, huge amount of peels are discarded on a daily basis; also there are limited options and inadequate time for effective utilization of the peels. It was recommended that extension services from relevant agencies targeted on how best to utilized cassava peels should be more vigorously pursued, to increase household income and reduce environmental pollution caused by the indiscriminate disposal.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223484 Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Diet Containing Graded Levels of Pro-Vitamin-A Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Leaf Meal as Replacement for Groundnut Cake 2022-03-30T20:30:21+00:00 S. M. O. C. Urom donunkwo1@gmail.com F. E. Nsing donunkwo1@gmail.com D. N. Onunkwo donunkwo1@gmail.com B. N. Zachary donunkwo1@gmail.com R. S. Onabanjo donunkwo1@gmail.com E. C. Oko donunkwo1@gmail.com <p>The study was conducted to investigate the performance of broiler chickens fed diet containing Pro-vitamin-A Cassava Leaf Meal (PVACLM) as a replacement for groundnut cake (GNC) protein. A total of 120-day-old Ross-308 broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 4 treatment groups of 30 birds per treatment, each group further divided into 3 replicates of 10 chicks per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The group were tagged as treatment 1 (T<sub>1</sub>) treatment 2 (T<sub>2</sub>), treatment 3 (T<sub>3</sub>) and treatment 4 (T<sub>4</sub>) at the ratio of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% PVACLM for T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4 </sub>respectively. Treatment 1 had no PVACLM, designated control.&nbsp; The feeding trial lasted for 56 days. Results for growth parameters showed that there were no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) among the treatment groups, except in feed conversion ratio (FCR). The best feed conversion ratio (2.63) was found in 10% inclusion level of PVACLM (T<sub>3</sub>), followed by 15%, 0%, while 5% was the lowest. Least levels (36.6967 and 26.6667) of mortality were recorded in T<sub>2</sub> and T4 respectively. Carcass characteristics shows that T<sub>4</sub> (15%) inclusion level had better performance (p&lt;0.05) in thigh weight (17.75 g). therefore, for efficient productivity and reduction in cost of production 10% inclusion of graded PVACLM is recommended.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223485 Evaluation of Timber Harvesting and its Impact on Residual Tree Species in Edo State, Nigeria 2022-03-30T20:43:43+00:00 V. B. Simpson eomoghie@gmail.com E. S. Omoghie eomoghie@gmail.com D. K. Osazuwa eomoghie@gmail.com A. S. Adeleye eomoghie@gmail.com U. F. Aliboh eomoghie@gmail.com <p>The study was carried out to evaluate and examine the impact of timber harvesting on residual tree species in Edo State, Nigeria. The reconnaissance survey of the forest reserve was used to identify logging activities in the study. Furthermore, questionnaire was used to retrieve information from fifty (50) professional tree loggers to collect information on the demographic characteristics of the loggers and to know the major causes of damages to the trees and seedlings during felling operations and precautions taken to mitigate such damages. Findings showed that <em>Bosquieaangolensis</em> had the highest frequency among the damaged species. The total volume of damaged trees per hectares was 711.04m<sup>3</sup>. Results also showed that among the loggers, 7.6% had no formal education, while, 23.7% had over ten years of working experience. It also revealed that the majority of the operators 92.4% still required additional training on effective felling operation. The timber industry has grown beyond the forest regeneration capacity with poor conventional harvesting practices, and unabated degradation of the forest ecosystems during logging operations. The study revealed that major damage is done to the residual trees during the felling and transportation of the targeted tree species. There is&nbsp; need therefore, for adequate training and or retraining, monitoring, and supervision of effective felling operations to improve their competencies and further decrease the destruction of the ecosystem during logging activities<em>.</em></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223487 The Effect of Feeding Red Sorghum Supplemented with Phytase Enzyme Additive on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens 2022-03-30T20:53:46+00:00 B. C. Anyaegbu donunkwo1@gmail.com A. C. Ogbonna donunkwo1@gmail.com E. M. Afam-Ibezim donunkwo1@gmail.com S. I. Onyeanusi donunkwo1@gmail.com D. N. Onunkwo donunkwo1@gmail.com <p>The study was carried out to determine the effect of feeding red sorghum supplemented with phytase on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty (150) Agrited Anak broiler chicks at one week old were used for this study. The Red Sorghum supplemented with phytase enzyme was used to replace maize at various levels to determine the best replacement that would give optimal performance in broiler chicken diets. The anti-nutritional composition of red sorghum showed that it contained 0.31 (mg/100g) tannins and 0.50 mg/g trypsin. In the starter feeding trial, the red sorghum supplemented with phytase enzyme was used to replace maize at levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively in the control diet. Each starter diet was fed to a group of 30 starter broiler chicks for four weeks using Completely Randomized Design. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of 10 broiler chicks each. Parameters measured include initial body weight, final body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost benefit. In the finisher feeding trial, the replacements were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% sorghum supplemented with phytase enzyme. Each finisher diet was fed to a group of 30 finisher broilers for another four weeks using Completely Randomized Design. The parameters measured include initial body weight, final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, cost of production and carcass characteristics. The cost of production of the finisher broiler chicken was lowest for those on the control diet (N390.51), while the costliest was for those on TMT5 (100% sorghum supplemented with phytase enzyme) (N459.16). The internal organs of the finisher broiler chickens expressed as percent of the live weight were not affected by the treatments. The feed cost benefit of the starter broiler chicks was lowest for those fed the control diet (TMT1), (N241.89) while the costliest was starter broiler chicks on TMT5 (100% sorghum supplemented with phytase enzyme (N412.30). In the starter feeding trial, red sorghum supplemented with phytase enzyme could be used up to 50% in their diets without affecting feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. In the finisher feeding trial, red sorghum supplemented with phytase enzyme could be used up to 100% in their diets without affecting feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. It was concluded that red sorghum supplemented with phytase enzyme could be used up to 50% in the diets of starter broiler chicks and up to 100% in the diet of finisher broiler chickens without affecting body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio as indicated in this study.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223603 Determinants of Choice of Yellow Yam Consumption in Nigeria: Case Study of Delta State, Nigeria 2022-04-02T10:38:27+00:00 S. Nwachai ahamefule.blessing@mouau.edu.ng A. O. Onoja ahamefule.blessing@mouau.edu.ng B. A. Ahamefule ahamefule.blessing@mouau.edu.ng <p>The research analyzed various factors that affect farmers’ choice of yam species they consume in Delta North Agricultural Zone of Delta State. Yam is important as a source of food, income and livelihood. The quest for convenient, nutritious and cheap food by consumers has necessitated the cultivation and maintenance of the yam varieties to avoid extinction of some yam species. Primary data were collected from one hundred and forty-three households; yam producers (69) and yam consumers (74). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis.&nbsp; Findings show that 97.1% of the farmers are male, 81.2% married, 47.8% had primary education, 68.1% engaged in mixed-farming and most of the farmers preferred planting white yam (62.3%) over yellow yam (33.3%). Yam producers had more yield from white yam than yellow yam producers. Majority (78.4%) of the yam consumers preferred white yam over yellow yam. Many (43.2%) of the yam consumers were highly educated. It was also found that educational background (t=2.419) and preferred specie (t=-2.154) were statistically significant at 5%, as consumption determinants alongside household expenses (t=-3.030), household size (t=4.252) and income (t=2.907) - all significant at 1% level. The study therefore recommends the promotion of white yam for commercial production, while yellow yam should also be promoted; especially for subsistence consumption to increase biodiversity. In addition, more land should be made available for yam production, as this will encourage yellow yam production, since the result indicates a positive correlation between land and the propensity to produce yellow yam in the study area.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223604 Morphometric Organ Weight and Histopathological Studies of Broiler Chickens Fed Diet containing Graded Level of Pro-Vitamin-A Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Leaf Meal as Replacement for Groundnut Cake 2022-04-08T23:25:02+00:00 S. M. O. C. Urom donunkwo1@gmail.com F. E. Nsing donunkwo1@gmail.com D. N. Onunkwo donunkwo1@gmail.com B. N. Zachary donunkwo1@gmail.com R. S. Onabanjo donunkwo1@gmail.com E. C. Oko donunkwo1@gmail.com <p>The study was conducted to investigate the morphometric organ weight and histopathology of broiler chickens fed diet containing Pro-vitamin-A Cassava Leaf Meal (PVACLM) as a replacement for groundnut cake (GNC) protein. A total of 120-day old Ross-308 broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 4 treatment groups of 30 birds per group, each group was further divided into 3 replicates of 10 chicks per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The group were tagged as treatment 1(T1), treatment 2(T2), treatment 3(T3) and treatment 4(T4) at the ratio of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. PVACLM T1 had no PVACLM and served as the control. The results of the organ weight of broiler chickens showed that the heart, kidney, bile and spleen differed significantly (p&gt;0.05) among the treatment groups. T4 had the highest value (0.7567 g) for the heart, kidney (1.0367 g), bile (0.2300g), and spleen (0.2300g). The result of 0% inclusion of Pro Vitamin A-Cassava leaf meal on broiler chickens showed normal hepatic histo-architecture, while 5% and 10% inclusion of Pro Vitamin A-Cassava leaf meal showed sections of the liver with multifocal areas of hepatocellular necrosis with marked infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes (Plate 1-4). The result of 15% inclusion of Pro Vitamin A-Cassava leaf meal on broiler chickens showed mild periportal infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes Therefore for efficient productivity and reduction in cost of production, 15% inclusion of graded PVACLM is recommended.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223605 Effect of Informal Credits on Farm Household’s Welfare in South East, Nigeria: a Quantile Regression Approach 2022-04-08T23:24:56+00:00 C. R. Okezie rosynma2003@gmail.com A. D. Teran rosynma2003@gmail.com A.A. Enete anselmenete@hotmail.com <p>The study estimated the effect of informal credits on farm household’s consumption expenditure in Southeast Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire administered to 240 farm households that had at least borrowed once during the 24 months prior to the survey which were selected using multistage and simple random sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using: descriptive statistics, ordinary least square regression model and quantile regression model. The effect of informal credit on consumption expenditure at the 25<sup>th</sup> quantile was positively influenced by gender (P&lt;0.01), age (P&lt;0.05), education (P&lt;0.01), participation (P&lt;0.01), non-farm income (P&lt;0.01), farm size (P&lt;0.01) and asset (P&lt;0.01) while negatively influenced by main occupation (P&lt;0.01), household size (P&lt;0.01) and remittance (P&lt;0.01). At the 50<sup>th</sup> quantile, it was positively influenced by gender (P&lt;0.05), education (P&lt;0.01), participation (P&lt;0.01) and negatively influenced by household size (P&lt;0.01) and remittance (P&lt;0.05). At the 75<sup>th</sup> quantile, it was positively influenced by gender (P&lt;0.01), education (P&lt;0.01), participation (p&lt;0.01) and assets (P&lt;0.01) while negatively influenced by farm income (P&lt;0.01), dependency ratio (P&lt;0.05), household size (P&lt;0.05) and remittance (P&lt;0.01). Participation of farmers should be encouraged through farmers association to help unleash the inherent social capital and information advantages for improved informal financing. Also, government and policy makers should pay more attention on finding relevant credit policy for the poor and disadvantaged households to assimilate informal financial institution into federal government’s overall rural banking policy thereby unleashing its potential for accelerated growth and development.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223606 Nutritional Evaluation of Sundried Pro-vitamin-A Cassava Tuber Meal (Manihot esculenta crantz) Supplemented with Enzyme as Energy Source in Broiler Chicken Production 2022-04-08T23:24:50+00:00 B. C. Anyaegbu batoanyaegbu@gmail.com A. C. Ogbonna batoanyaegbu@gmail.com J. C. Chukwu batoanyaegbu@gmail.com D. N. Onunkwo donunkwo1@gmail.com <p>Considering the inherent attributes of Pro vitamin-A cassava tuber meal (manihot esculenta crantz), its’ appropriate utilization for chicken diets may enhance the performance of broiler chickens. The study was therefore carried out to determine the nutritional evaluation of sundried Pro vitamin-A cassava tuber meal (manihot esculenta crantz) supplemented with nonagrain enzyme as energy source in Broiler chicken production. Pro vitamin-A cassava tubers were harvested, cleaned of debris and chopped into bits of about 0.2cm and spread on flat polythene sheet and allowed to dry under the harmattan sunshine for four days to reduce the anti-nutrients and moisture content. The dried yellow cassava was milled and then used. The proximate chemical composition showed that sundried Pro vitamin-A yellow cassava tuber meal contained 2.85% moisture, 3.3°/o ash, 2.77% crude fibre, 1.30% ether extract, 3.30% crude protein, and 86.48% carbohydrate. Five experimental straight broiler chicken diets were formulated such that, diet 1, (control) contained maize as the main source of energy, while sundried Pro vitamin-A cassava tuber meal (SDCTM) supplemented with enzyme was used to replace maize at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively in the control diet. Each broiler chicken diet was fed to a group of 30 broiler chicks for 8 weeks using completely randomized design. Each treatment was further grouped into 3 replicates of 10 birds each. The broiler chickens were kept in deep litter and given feed and water ad-libitum. Parameters measured included initial body weight, final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, cut parts weight, internal organs weight, dressed weight and cost of production. In the broiler chicken feeding trial, the broiler chickens on 75% (SDCTM) supplemented with enzyme compared favourably with those on the control diet (P&lt;0.05) in terms of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and body weight gain and hence recorded the highest body weight gain which was significantly different (P&lt;0.05) from those on the control diet and the rest of the treatment groups. It appeared that the broiler chickens could tolerate the sundried Pro vitamin-A cassava tuber meal supplemented with enzymes in their diets up to 100% inclusion level. The broiler group on 50% and 75% (SDCTM) supplemented with the nona grain multi-enzyme recorded similar feed conversion ratio of 2.39 and 2.32 which were significantly (P&lt;0.05) better than those on other diets. The internal organs expressed as percent of the live weight were not affected by the treatments. The broiler chicken group on 75% (SDCTM) diets supplemented with enzyme recorded the highest dressing out percent of 74.34 followed by those on 50% (SDCTM) (68.33) diet. The percent cut parts weights were not affected by the treatment. The cost of production (cost/kg feed x feed conversion ratio) was lowest for the broiler chicken on control diet (N853.06) as against (N1,570.94) for those on 100% cassava tuber meal diet containing enzyme. For optimal performance of broiler chickens sundried Pro vitamin-A cassava tuber meal supplemented with nona-gram multi grain enzyme could be used up to 75% without affecting body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio as indicated in this study.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223607 Effectiveness of Transfer of Improved Cassava Technologies between Contact and Non Contact Farmers in Owerri Agricultural Zone, Imo State, Nigeria 2022-04-08T23:24:44+00:00 S. C. Nwafor solomonnwafor8@gmail.com Q. C. Uwandu solomonnwafor8@gmail.com N. K. Ogbonna solomonnwafor8@gmail.com J. O. Onyenmma solomonnwafor8@gmail.com <p>The study assessed the effectiveness of contact farmer’s dissemination of improved technologies/information to their non-contact farmer counterparts in the study area. Cross-sectional survey was adopted in the study conducted in Imo State between September 2020 and November 2020. For this study, 120 respondents were selected from Owerri Agricultural Zone. The result showed that majority of the respondents were between 50 and 69 years for non contact farmers and between 40 and 69 years for contact farmers. Majority of the contact farmers (57%) attained secondary education. Most of the contact and non contact farmers are within farming experience ranges of 11 – 20 (37% and 43.3%) and 21 – 30 (30% and 24.5%) years of experience respectively. Findings from this study revealed that while there is no significant relationship between contact farmers' age and their effectiveness (r=-0.3243: p=0.05). Meanwhile, educational level (r = 0.4218: p = 0.05) and years of farming experience (r = 0.3995: p = 0.05) had a positive and significant relationship with the effectiveness of the contact farmers. The study therefore recommends training and agricultural education for the contact farmers.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223608 Post-Harvest Losses of Eggplant in Ghana 2022-04-08T23:24:38+00:00 E. Wahaga ewahaga@yahoo.com S. I. S. Arimeyaw ewahaga@yahoo.com <p>Eggplant (<em>Solanum</em> spp.) is susceptible to post-harvest loss because of its perishable nature. The project was undertaken to assess post-harvest loss in eggplant production. Five communities mainly involved in eggplant production in the Atebubu district of the Bono Ahafo Region, Ghana, were chosen. Sixty (60) from 200 farmers involved in eggplant production were randomly selected and interviewed with another 80 farmers interviewed two months later. Five middlemen/women and ten retailers were randomly interviewed. Respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured and open-ended questionnaire. The study indicated that there is a year-round demand for eggplant, and it is potentially profitable for farmers to grow. However, unavailable storage facilities and poor agronomic practices and frequent use of agro-chemicals results in post-harvest loss, making farmers not achieve the desired profits. It is therefore important to prioritize efforts into research in eggplant production to boost nutritional and food security in both tropical and non-tropical areas as they are consumers of eggplant fruits.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223609 Assessment of the Level of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Production among Small Scale Women Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria 2022-04-08T23:24:32+00:00 F. N. Nwakor ngonwakor@gmail.com <p>The study was conducted among women in Abia State Nigeria to assess the level of orange fleshed sweet potato production. A Mmulti- stage sampling technique was used to select 108 respondents for the study. Data were collected with structured questionnaires. Data collected were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics (such as frequency distribution, percentages, mean), and ordinary least square regression analysis. A three point rating rating scale was used to present the participation of farmers in orange fleshed sweet potato production. The result&nbsp; showed a high level of&nbsp; participation&nbsp; in orange fleshed sweet potato&nbsp; planting( 2.7), harvesting ( 2.7), weeding (2.5), land clearing (2.4), ridging/mounding (2.4) and processing (2.0) activities. The major factors affecting orange fleshed sweet potato production were unavailability of planting materials (-6.520)***, &nbsp;pests (5.4472)*** cost of&nbsp; labour (-5.864)***, cost&nbsp; of processing (5.5845)***, lack of&nbsp;&nbsp; knowledge/skill (5.3247) *** and age (2.71)** which were significant at various levels of probabilities. The major challenges in the production of orange fleshed sweet potato among the respondents were lack of finance, land issues, poor storage facilities and inaccessibility of credit facilities. Based on these findings, it is recommended that farmers should be provided with funds, improved seeds, storage and credit facilities for increased sweet potato production in the study area.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223610 Influence of Two Tropical Plant Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) Seeds 2022-04-08T23:24:26+00:00 B. A. Yekini ykadeniyi@fcaishiagu.edu.ng A. O. Egbontan ykadeniyi@fcaishiagu.edu.ng A. Babatunde ykadeniyi@fcaishiagu.edu.ng O. J. Olusola ykadeniyi@fcaishiagu.edu.ng L. C. Nwoke ykadeniyi@fcaishiagu.edu.ng <p>Seedling growth is an important process in groundnut cultivation, and growth retardation constitutes one of the major problems. Seed health test was carried out on five local cultivars of groundnut collected from seed vendors at Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria and the effect of two plant extracts; <em>Solanum torvum</em> and <em>Heliotropium indicum</em> as seed treatment on radicle length, plumule length, seed germination and seedling vigour was further investigated. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) and replicated three times. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means separated using Tukey at p ˂ 0.05.&nbsp; Visual inspection revealed that healthy seeds varied from 79% to 97% across the cultivars. Kafachan cultivar recorded highest (13%) discoloured number of seeds (21.0%), while Nwaevu cultivar had the least abnormal seeds. <em>Aspergillus niger</em> had the highest (47%) incidence, while <em>Penicillium</em> species had the least (2%). Extracts of <em>S. torvum</em> and <em>H. indicum</em> significantly (p ˂ 0.05) enhanced seedling growth across all concentration. However, extract of <em>H. indicum</em> was superior to that of <em>S. torvum</em> by increasing radicle length by 2.59cm, germination (90.19%) and vigour index (379.7) at concentration of 400ml. Extracts from <em>S. torvum</em> and <em>H. indicum</em> could therefore be used as a viable option for seed treatment and seedling growth stimulators.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223611 Determinants of Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) among Actors within the Cassava Value Chain in Anambra State, Nigeria 2022-04-08T23:24:20+00:00 A. I. Olaniyi abiodun.olaniyi@yahoo.com I. A. Enwelu abiodun.olaniyi@yahoo.com <p>The study assessed influence of socio-economic characteristics of cassava value chain actors (farmers, marketers, processors, and consumers) on use of ICT in Anambra State. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 319 respondents for the study. Data used for this study were from primary sources collected with the aid of a well structured questionnaire and interview schedule. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, mean from likert scale and multinomial logistic regression. The result indicated that majority (70.6%) of the respondents had one form of education or the other, age (72.2%) ranged between 31-50 with 46.7% married and males (60.2%). The result revealed that mobile phone, radio, television, computer and internet were the types of ICT tools often utilized by the respondents. The result also showed that major constraints to the use of ICT perceived by the actors were erratic power supply, poor networks coverage, inadequate ICT training centre, high cost of ICT facilities. The result revealed that some of the items were accepted (age, educational qualification, farming experience, cost of ICT equipment, cost of ICT maintenance and government policies) by the respondents as factors influencing use of ICT. The results of multinomial logistic regression analysis on level of use of ICT revealed that coefficients of education (X<sub>4</sub>) were positive and significant at 5% significant level for farmers’ group (1.097); marketers’ group (1.112) and consumers’ group (1.051) and the coefficients of farming experience (X<sub>6</sub>) were positive and significant at 5% significant level for farmers (1.008); processors (1.07); marketers (1.033) and consumers (1.052). It implies that education and faming experience led to increase in the use of ICT in the study area. It is therefore recommended that farmers, consumers, processor and marketers should endeavor to make judicious use of the ICT tools in order to get reliable information on new innovation that will help them increase their production and income.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223612 Effect of Brand Image on Brand Loyalty: Evidence from Chain Fast Food Establishments in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria 2022-04-02T12:13:27+00:00 I. B. Anyanwu ibbanyanwu@gmail.com F. U. Ohwobevughe ibbanyanwu@gmail.com <p>This study examined the relationship between brand image (brand communication, brand trust, and perceived quality) and brand loyalty. The study was a survey in which a purposive sample size of 200 was used, while accessibility sampling technique was utilized in the administration of the research instrument with the help of three research assistants. The research instrument was subjected to Crombach Alpha reliability test to determine its usability and a reliability coefficient of 0.74 obtained; confirming its adequacy for the study. Regression analysis on SPSS Version 24 was used in analysing the data generated for the study. Results indicated that brand image has positive and significant relationship with brand loyalty, as all the variables used as predictors of brand loyalty showed positive and significant Adjusted R square and F values respectively; Brand Communication(0.725, 2.884), Brand Trust(0.3996, 1.462), Perceived Quality(0.652, 2.451), Brand satisfaction (0.965, 2.139). On the strength of the findings, it is therefore concluded that brand image has positive and significant relationship with brand loyalty and can indeed impact brand loyalty. In view of the findings, it is recommended among others that operators of chain fast food establishments in the study area should fulfil service promises, see trust as the key to brand building, and continuously improve on the quality of service offerings as all these and more contribute in shaping brand image which ultimately impacts brand loyalty.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223613 Determinants of Rate of Accessibility to Productive Resources among Poultry Farmers in Obowo Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria: A Gender Situation Analyses 2022-04-08T23:24:14+00:00 C. N. Nwachukwu chibuzornwachukwuh@gmail.com P. Samuel chibuzornwachukwuh@gmail.com N. M. Agwu chibuzornwachukwuh@gmail.com <p>Access to resources implies the ability to use resources and or benefits and make short- term decisions on these resources. Lack of access to productive resources/ inputs is an obstacle to agricultural growth. Thus, access to productive resources such as land, modern inputs, technology, education and financial services is a critical determinant of agricultural productivity. Hence, the study estimated the rate of gender accessibility to productive resources in poultry farming in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. It employed the multistage sampling technique to obtain data from one hundred and twenty respondents with structured questionnaire and the data were analysed using descriptive and inferential (multiple regression model) statistics. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that among the variables tested; flock size, household size, years of experience, and annual income significantly affected rate of male poultry farmers’ accessibility to poultry productive resources at varied levels of significance with an R<sup>2 </sup>of 61.2%. Similarly, their female counterparts’ rate of accessibility were significantly influenced by age, household size, membership of co-operatives, participation level and annual income at varied levels of probability with an R<sup>2 </sup>of 74.4%. The study recommended that poultry farmers should be encouraged to belong to groups as this will help them access productive resources like credit from both government and non- governmental organizations.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223614 Perceived Environmental Effects of Cassava Waste Management on the Residents of Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria 2022-04-08T23:24:08+00:00 A. O. Ajanaku oyebusayomi@gmail.com O. O. Olayemi oyebusayomi@gmail.com B. A. Oyelami oyebusayomi@gmail.com B. H. Ugege oyebusayomi@gmail.com <p>This study was carried out to assess the perceived environmental effects of cassava waste management on the residents of Ido Local Government Area (LGA), Edo State. A multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents from four purposively selected communities for this study. A total of 115 structured questionnaires were randomly administered to the selected respondents who are cassava processors residing within the community based on the population of processors in each community to determine their waste management practices. The objectives were addressed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results showed that most (93.0%) cassava processors were females and had primary education as highest (42.6%) level of education. Majority (61.7%) has been living in the vicinity for more than 20 years; thus can be said to have good understanding of the area. No fewer than 80.9% generate over 40kg of cassava peels, with 82.6% discharging more than 100 liters of wastewater into the environment daily. Many (57.4%) noted severe soil mobility in the area, with high erosion of topsoil as reported by 84.3% of the respondents. However, majority disagree with other environmental effects of the waste, while 98.2% and 89.6% indicated that the water bodies and air are not severely polluted respectively. Cassava peels was not considered to be a nuisance to their environment as 93.9% of the respondents sell it off to livestock farmers. The result of the hypothesis showed a P value of 0.101 which is not significant, while considering the relationship between their waste disposal methods and the perceived effects of such on the environment. The findings from this study recommended that educational programs should be made available for the processors on how to properly manage the waste water from cassava by processing it for other purposes and proper channeling of waste water in order to stop further erosion of topsoil in the study area.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223615 Effects of Secondary and Micro Nutrients on Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Growth, Development and Yield 2022-04-08T23:24:02+00:00 C. I. Abel abelcharlesexcel57@gmail.com R. Adu-Gyamfi raphpat205@yahoo.com W. K. Atakora willianet@gmail.com M. Asante mkasante08@yahoo.co.uk <p>A replicated field trial was carried out at the research field of CSIR- Savanna Agricultural research Institute (CSIR-SARI) Nyankpala during the 2016 cropping season, to determine the integrated effects of macro (N,P,K), secondary (S and Mg) and micro nutrients (B, Zn and Cu) on rice growth, development and yield using omission trial. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The results revealed that the maximum number of tillers per square meter, dry weight of biomass and paddy yield was obtained when all the nutrients (NPK, S, Mg, B, Zn and Cu) were used. Yield decreased with the omission of K, S, Mg, B, Zn and Cu. Sulphur exclusion promoted panicle development, but caused 20% paddy yield loss; could it be that some of the panicles were not productive. Further experiment should be conducted to ascertain why the omission of Sulphur promoted panicle development but decreased grain yield.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223616 Effect of Climate Change Mitigating Practices on the Productivity of Arable Crop Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria 2022-04-08T23:23:55+00:00 B. O. Okpara beatriceokpara@gmail.com I. O. Obasi excellentmind2009@yahoo.com D. C. Nwaogu danielchinedu32@gmail.com <p>Agricultural production in Nigeria is heavily dependent on changes in climate over time. Farmers have identified and tried to manage such changes. This study therefore examined the effect of climate change mitigation practices on the productivity of arable crops farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Data were elicited from 180 farmers (purposively selected) comprising of adopters and non-adopters of climate change mitigation practices drawn from the study population, while, descriptive statistics and regression techniques were used to analyze the data. The result showed that the use of organic manure and improved agricultural seedlings were the most adopted mitigation practices, while, thinning, zero tillage and zero bush burning were the least adopted. Adoption was expected as hypothesized to positively influence productivity as the productivity index of adopters (1.72) was higher than that of non-adopters (1.39), implying that applying climate change mitigation practices guarantee higher farm productivity. Farmers’ age, years in school, farm size, household size, and farming experience were the significant factors that affected productivity for adopters and age and years in school for non-adopters. There was a significant difference in the productivity of adopters and non- adopters. Based on the research, it was recommended that government should formulate and implement viable polices geared towards effectively mitigating the harsh effect of climate variability and effective extension of these practices to farmers.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223617 Economics of Millet Production in Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria 2022-04-08T23:23:49+00:00 F. U. Tikon fomatikon@fuwukari.edu.ng M. O. Egbeadumah fomatikon@fuwukari.edu.ng C. K. Hassan fomatikon@fuwukari.edu.ng <p>The study examined the economics of millet production in Wukari Local Government Area of Taraba State. A multistage random sampling technique was employed to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire and analyzed using frequency distribution, means and gross margin analysis. The average age of the farmers was 46 years with the highest proportion (45.0%) within the age range of 30 - 40 years. Majority were males (78%) and married (63%). Their mean household size was 5 persons, while the highest proportion (41%) had primary education. About 38.3% of the farmers had between 21 and 30 years of millet farming experience, while majority (58%) were non-cooperators. Their mean annual income was ₦76,853.00 per farmer with a cumulative gross margin of N3, 260,544.00. The study recommended policies that will promote increased millet production in the country, especially among the youths.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223618 Socio-Economic Determinants of Participation in Non-Farm Income Generating Activities among Households in Abia State, Nigeria 2022-04-08T23:23:43+00:00 D. C. Nmeregini d.cnmeregini@yahoo.com B. U. Udoka d.cnmeregini@yahoo.com <p>Recently, there is an upsurge in the involvement of rural households in non-farm income generating activities. While several literatures have reported the role of non-farm income generating activities in improving livelihood of rural households, there seems to be very few studies on determinants of non-farm income. Hence, the study assessed the socio-economic determinants of participation in non-farm income generating activities among households in Abia State Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of rural households, ascertained the factors motivating households’ involvement in non-farm activities; and analyse the socio-economic factors influencing non-farm income. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 160 respondents. Data were collected using questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive (such as frequency, percentages and mean) and inferential (ordinary least square regression analysis) statistics. The study showed that majority of the respondents (71.25%) was married. The mean years in school and mean age of the respondents were approximately 41years and 11 years respectively. The foremost perceived factors motivating involvement in non-farm income generating activities were inadequate land to practice farming as a main occupation (2.93), higher income in non-farm activities (2.91), and less fatigue in non-farm activity relative to farming (2.71). Education (0.376<sup>**</sup>), household size (0.205<sup>**</sup>), membership to cooperatives (0.277<sup>***</sup>), and years of experience (0.188<sup>**</sup>) were the significant factors influencing non-farm income generating activities. The study recommends the need for policies aimed at free and affordable education, encourage the formation of cooperatives to enhance non-farm income earning activities. Extension massages should integrate the promotion of diversification into non-farm income activities as an alternative and support to farming and basic infrastructure such as electricity, good access roads, portable drinking water, and health facilities should be provided.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/223619 Assessment of Factors Precipitating Postharvest Losses of Yam in Zone A Agricultural Area, Benue State, Nigeria 2022-04-08T23:23:36+00:00 S. A. Agba solomonnwafor@gmail.com S. C. Nwafor solomonnwafor8@gmail.com K. M. F. Lamin solomonnwafor8@gmail.com <p>The study assessed the factors precipitating postharvest losses of yams in Zone A Agricultural Area of Benue State. Survey research design was adopted for the study and with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires and focused group discussion; data were collected from 204 respondents who were sampled from 1,735 yam farming households using multi-stage cluster and purposive sampling techniques. Descriptive (frequency counts, percentages) and inferential multiple regression analysis) statistics were used to achieve the objectives of the study. The findings revealed that postharvest losses of yams in the study area are precipitated by mechanical and environmental factors such as: pest attack, storage method used, disease/infections, poor transportation facility, theft, poor handling, destruction due to crisis and excessive exposure of yams to sunlight. The computed f-statistic value of 20.78 and 16.12 was significant at 1% and 5% level for mechanical and environmental factors respectively. The study therefore, concluded that mechanical and environmental factors precipitate postharvest losses of yams in the study area. It was recommended that the Government and Agricultural Aid Agencies should provide yam farmers with relevant knowledge on modern yam storage methods, including credit facility that will help them to apply these modern yam preservation methods.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA