Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2021-09-27T18:17:29+00:00 Dr. B.C. Okoye Open Journal Systems <p>Published by the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, the <em>Nigerian Agricultural Journal</em> is the oldest agricultural journal in the country having been published since 1961. It is published bi-annually to quarterly, and contributions are accepted from anyone engaged in agricultural work in Nigeria and other countries in tropical Africa.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<span lang="NL"><a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> Analyses of Willingness to Practice Agriculture as Enterprise among Students of Tertiary Institutions in Ibadan, Oyo State 2021-09-06T10:59:48+00:00 O. O. Olayemi O. O. Abegunrin O. G. Ogunwale J. O. Ogunsola J. T. Mariju A. S. Adebayo B. T. Olatunji <p>This study investigated willingness to practice agriculture as enterprise among students of tertiary institutions in Oyo State. A Multi-stage sampling technique was used to elicit data from 112 selected respondents in the study area. Data were collected using a well structured questionnaire and analyzed with the use of descriptive (frequency counts, percentages, and mean) and inferential statistic (Chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation). The results showed that majority of the respondents were within the age range of 21-25 years, with majority males, whom were single in the study area. Furthermore, results revealed that majority of the respondents had low interest in agricultural enterprise preference and high constraint associated with respondents willingness to engage in agricultural enterprise in the study area. Majority of the respondents had positive willingness to practice agricultural enterprise in the study area. There was significant relationship between selected socio-economic characteristics of the respondents except Gender and Marital status. It is therefore recommended that government should motivate agricultural students by providing Youth Empowerment programmes and services directed to improve their willingness to engage in agricultural enterprises.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Technical Efficiency of Cassava Cooperative Farmers in South-South, Nigeria: A Comparative Analysis 2021-09-06T12:17:56+00:00 A. J. Akpaeti N.N. Frank <p>This paper used the stochastic frontier production function to analyze the technical efficiency of 90 randomly selected cooperative cassava farmers in comparison to 90 non-cooperative cassava farmers in South-South, Nigeria. The result showed that labour, land preparation, planting materials, fertilizer and farm size were positively related to cassava production for cooperative farmers and at 1% level of significance, whereas, land preparation and cuttings had the same effect for their counterparts. Technical efficiency analysis revealed the presence of cost inefficiency effects in cassava production at 95 and 91% for both cooperatives and non-cooperative farmers, respectively. It showed that 36.6, 33.3 and 16.6% of the cooperative farmers were 90, 80 and 70% technology efficient, respectively, while, 11.1, 24.4 and 11.1% of the non-cooperative farmers were 90, 80 and 70% technology efficient, also. The minimum efficiency for cooperative and non-cooperative farmers was 0.63 and 0.31; the maximum was 0.92 and 0.99, and the mean 0.92 and 0.85 respectively. Coefficients of Age, experience, household size and education were positive and significant for cooperative farmers with the mean technical efficiency value of 0.724. However, experience was significant for non-cooperative farmers with the mean technical efficiency value of 0.609. The study concluded that the mean technical efficiency of cooperative cassava farmers was comparatively and significantly higher than the non-cooperative farmers. The study recommended that factors that will enhance membership into effective and viable farmers' cooperatives societies should be addressed. Such factors include a robust/focused extension education, conscious/consistent awareness of the comparative advantage of cooperative societies and creating an easy/acceptable framework for its operation.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Farmers Trait Preferences for Desirable Cultivars: Implications for Demand-Led Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] Varietal Development 2021-09-06T11:42:52+00:00 S. O. Afuape O. O. Abimbola C. O. Alfonso O. F. Kolawole A. B. Adesina <p>In a bid to identify trait preferences that influence the adoption of cultivars by farmers in diverse agro-ecologies, a study was conducted in the Rain Forest (Abia State) and the humid Guinea Savannah (Benue State) using structured questionnaires. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that more females were involved in sweetpotato production in both States. However, there exists marked differences in age (more Benue sweetpotato farmers were older), educational background (Abia farmers more and better educated), and farming experience (Benue farmers more experienced). Majority of the farmers in both States shared similarities in their farm size (majority having &lt;3.0ha) and number of cultivars planted on a farm (&gt;1.0). However, the farmers from both agro-ecologies differed in their preferences for cultivar maturity time (99% of Benue farmers preferred early maturing, while as high as 43% preferred late maturing cultivars). For root shape, most Benue respondents preferred cylindrical root shape, while Abia farmers wanted the round shaped roots. Farmers in both States preferred the big to very big root sizes. For preference for taste and mouth-feel of boiled roots, sweet and hard roots were preferred by farmers in both agro-ecologies. Majority of Abia farmers (64%) practiced sole cropping as against 14% for Benue farmers. For those engaged in mixed cropping across both agro-ecologies, up to 5 crop-mix were practiced. Above 70% of farmers in both States also had knowledge of the sweetpotato virus disease. The study also shows the need to mainstream gender into sweetpotato breeding, especially traits such as long in-ground storability which is key for household piecemeal harvesting, and as such is more important to the female than the cash crop-focused male farmers.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change among Artisanal Fishermen in Fishing Communities along Anambra River Nigeria 2021-09-06T12:07:20+00:00 C.A. Okezie S. N. Odo S. O. Aigbokie M. C. Odo C.A. Iwuji <p>Climate change is threatening the attainment of self-sufficiency in fish production in Nigeria. As a result, artisanal fishermen are developing adaptation practices that will reduce their vulnerability to climate change. The study therefore investigated perceptions and adaptation behavior of climate change among Artisanal Fishermen in Fishing Communities along Anambra River in South East Nigeria. The study adopted multistage sampling technique to select 240 Artisanal Fishermen. The results showed that the mean age of Artisanal Fishermen was 50 years and household size of 4 persons, with 52.5% married. On average, the Artisanal Fishermen have spent about 15 years. Majority (85%) of the respondents have formal education.&nbsp; Also, majority of the Artisanal Fishermen had access to credit for male (67.5%). Furthermore the result revealed that Artisanal Fishermen ()&nbsp; were aware of the occurrence of climate change and the most widely used adaptation practice of the Artisanal Fishermen were changing of Diversification of livelihoods (), Information dissemination (), Improved housing (), Financial Support () and Community representative in disaster management (). Ordinary least Square regression result factors influencing adaptation behavior of climate change among artisanal fishermen in fishing communities along Anambra river Nigeria with an R<sup>2&nbsp; </sup>value of 88.3% shows that marital status (5%), member of cooperative society (10%) and extension services (1%) were positively related to number of mitigation strategies used by artisanal fishermen in fishing communities, while household size (1%) was significant and negative. The study therefore, recommends that extension workers should be continuously trained and educated on current information about climate change to enable them enlighten and disseminate to fish farmers. This will enable update and synchronization of ideas with the Artisanal Fishermen.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Local Rice Production Trend Analyses and Consumption in Benue State, Nigeria: 1980 – 2016 2021-09-06T12:37:26+00:00 S. N. Dauda A. A. A. Coker D. Opaluwa I. T. Salihu L. T. Yusuf J. B. Yunusa Y. Isaac A. B. Hadiza <p>The research examined local rice production trends and factors inhibiting the consumption of local rice from 1980 to 2016 in Benue State. Primary data were collected with the aid of questionnaire in Benue State, while secondary data were obtained from Benue Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (BNARDA) in 2017. Multistage random sampling method was employed in selecting respondents. Primary data were collected from one hundred and fifty six (156) respondents. Descriptive statistics, Z – test, Growth model and Kendal’s coefficient of concordance were used for the analysis. The results revealed that from 1980 to 2016, a total of 9.5mt of local rice was produced in Benue State. The result also shows that the respondents were all married (99%), with household size of 1 - 10 persons (95%) and mean household size of about 8 persons. The result further indicated that majority of respondents’ attained tertiary school level. The result also shows that the respondents had low income (40.3%).&nbsp; The mean quantity of local rice production was 257,333.06mt per year. The instantaneous growth trends of local rice production and price were 0.00122 and 0.01103, and compound growth rate as 3.72 and 3.76 respectively. The result also indicated that many of the respondents were above the age of 41 years (49%) with the mean age of 47 and all respondents male. The presence of stones, poor aroma, impure rice and broken grain were some of the factors inhibiting consumption of local rice in Benue State. The study recommended that the policies that focus on increasing growth rate of local rice in Benue State should be intensified. Breeders and Scientists should make effort in breeding rice with aroma. The processors of local rice should use modern processing mills like rice polisher and des-stoners to mill quality local rice that will be acceptable to consumers.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Physical, Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies Produced from Fermented Sorghum Flour Composited with Roasted Pigeon Pea Flour 2021-09-06T12:54:28+00:00 O. A. Okin A. A. Oladape O. F. J. Awofadeju <p>This study assessed cookies from the blends of fermented sorghum and roasted pigeon pea flours at varying ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40, and 100% wheat flour served as control. The pigeon pea, sorghum, wheat flour and other ingredients were purchased from Bodija market, Oyo State Nigeria. The proximate composition of the flour blends and cookies and functional properties; and physical and sensory evaluation were determined. The proximate composition of flour blends showed that crude protein (8.65-18.94), crude fibre (1.48-2.60) and ash (2.23-3.53) % contents increased with increasing level of roasted pigeon pea flour. The water absorption capacity, bulk density and swelling capacity in the flour blends increased with increasing proportion of roasted pigeon pea flour. The cookie sample 60:40 had highest scores in moisture, protein, fat, ash and fibre, while, sample 100:0 scored lowest. The diameter in cookie sample 90:10 was highest with 81.33mm; thickness in sample 80:20 had highest value of 33.00mm and spread ratio in sample 90:10 had optimum score of 28.40; degree of lightness and yellowness had highest value in cookie sample 80:20, while, redness had highest value in sample 60:40. The overall acceptability of cookies was observed in 100% wheat flour cookie followed by sample 90:10.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Preliminary Evaluation of Storage Behavior of Cola lepidota (K. Schum) Seeds 2021-09-06T13:00:51+00:00 H. O. Okonkwo A. Olubunmi-Koyejo R. I. Oyediran A. N. Ejizu <p>A preliminary study was conducted to provide information on the behaviour of <em>C. lepidota</em> seeds in storage prior to a proper investigation into different storage temperature regimes, methods and their effect on the viability and subsequent germination of the seed. <em>C. lepidota </em>seeds used in the study were collected from the Swamp Forest Research Station, Onne, Rivers State small plantation. Two storage methods, bare storage and storage in closed container and two temperature regimes, 4º C (refrigeration) and room temperature (30<sup>º</sup>C) were applied on the seed. There were a total of eighty-six (86) seeds allocated disproportionately to the treatments in a completely randomized design experimental layout. Data collected were number of decaying seeds and duration of decay (days). Due to non-normality of data after the Shapiro-Wilk test was conducted; the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used for analysis, while Mann-Whitney test was used for pair wise comparison. The results showed that <em>C. lepidota</em> seeds decayed or dried up at an average rate of 1 seed/week when stored bare at room temperature (30<sup>º</sup>C); storage in closed container accelerated the rate of seed decay to 6 seeds/week; while refrigeration at 4º C significantly reduced rate of seed decay to 1 seed in 29 weeks. This shows that storage by refrigeration is the best way to keep <em>C. lepidota </em>seeds fresh for a longer duration of time, the worst storage condition is in closed container at room temperature (30<sup>º</sup>C), while, storage of the seeds bare at room temperature (30<sup>º</sup>C) could only sustain the seeds for a few days. This information will serve as a guide for seed storage and handling when <em>C. lepidota </em>seeds are collected for later propagation or when there is the need to transport the seed a long distance.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effect of Land Degradation on Maize Yield in Obudu Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria 2021-09-06T13:07:54+00:00 O. O. Osuafor K. D. Ude C. O. Ositanwosu <p>This study analysed the effects of land Degradation on maize yield in Obudu Local Government Area (LGA) of Cross River State. The study adopted the use of primary data and the instrument of data collection was a structured questionnaire administered on100 and 60 respondents for maize farmers in degraded and non-degraded lands respectively. The methods of data analysis used were both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics results on socio-economic characteristics shows that majority (67.0%) of the maize farmers were males, married (86.0%) and had mean age of 43.6years. Result on land degradation types revealed erosion (2.27), flooding (2.11) and desertification (2.02) as most common types of land degradation experienced by maize farmers in the study area. Over-grazing (35.0%) and poor farming method (35.0%) were the major causes of land degradation. Independent sample t-test statistic result comparing maize yield of degraded and non-degraded lands indicated a t-calculated value of 13.100 at 0.05 level of significance, implying significant difference in maize output between degraded and non-degraded lands in the study area. The OLS multiple regression model result with linear functional form as best fit equation of factors affecting output of maize, revealed coefficient of multiple determination (R squared) value of 0.840 which is an indication that 84.0% of the variation in maize output cultivated on degraded lands is explained by explanatory variables included in the regression model viz: cost of fertilizer (-0.002) and cost of seed (-0.006), all significant at 5% confidence level. The value of F-statistic (27.535) was significant at 1% significance level which explains that the explanatory variables jointly had effect on maize yield, therefore the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternate hypothesis accepted. The study recommended subsidization of fertilizer and seed cost for sustainability/better yield in maize production.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Climate Change Adaptive Capabilities of Small-Scale Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria: A Gender Analyses 2021-09-06T13:12:41+00:00 L. O. Obinna S. E. Onu <p>Gender differentials in climate change adaptive capabilities among small-scale farmers in Abia State was assessed using a sample size of 70 male and female respondents each, generated via a multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected from the respondents through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Z Test analysis. Results estimated 46 and 44 years as the mean ages of male and female respondents respectively. About 29%, 43% and 21% of the male respondents and 50%, 36% and 11% of the female respondents were into farming, trading and other professions respectively. Majority (86%) of the male and female (69%) respondents were literates and had mean monthly income of ₦32,871.143 and ₦28,642. 854 respectvely. Result equally, shows a mean farm size of 1.7 and 1.3 hectares for the male and female respondents with mean years of farming experience of 11 years and 12 years also. About 57%, 14%, 12% and 7% of male respondents acquired their farm lands through inheritance, lease, communal ownership, and outright purchase respectively as against 7%, 57%, 7% and 29% for the females. About 90% of the male respondents had between once every 2 years and once every 6 months of extension contacts compared to 82% of the females. Also 86% of the male respondents belong to social associations compared to their female counterparts (93%). Results further shows that a high proportion (X ≥ 50 %) of male and female respondents have high level of awareness on adaptive measures, but negative (X&lt; 2.5) and low practice (X&lt; 2.5) level of adaptive measures on climate change. The study equally shows that there is a remarkable difference between the male respondents’ attitude and practice levels and that of females in the study area. Therefore the study concludes that there is gender-gap differences in climate change adaptive capabilities among small- scale farmers in Abia State. The study recommends the need for government agencies and other stakeholders in climate change issues involve both male and females equitably in order to find a sustainable and location specific adaptive measures against negative effects of climate change mostly in the study area.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Perceived Benefits of Improved Practices in Pre Harvest Tomato Production among Farmers in Afijio Local Government Area, Oyo State 2021-09-06T13:19:40+00:00 O. G. Ogunwale A. S. Adeoye A. S. Adebayo O. O. Abegunrin B. T. Olatunji <p>This study was designed to investigate the perceived benefits of improved practices in pre-harvest tomato production among farmers in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State. Multistage sampling techniques were used to select respondents in the study area, with the aid of structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential (PPMC) statistics were used to analyze the data. Majority of the respondents (88.5%) perceived that it has lots of benefits. Also, 82.7% perceived that improved practices minimize post-harvest losses on a medium scale.&nbsp; Furthermore, 85.6% perceived that improved practices minimize disease infestation on a medium scale, while 84.6% perceive it protects tomato from decaying. Also, 76.9% of the respondents perceive that improve practices helps to retain nutritional content of tomato on a medium scale. &nbsp;Also, the category of the respondents that had high awareness considered the improved practices to be highly beneficial to them.&nbsp; The study further concluded that the benefits derived by minority of the respondents influenced most of the respondents to have favorable perception to derivable benefits embedded in improved practices of tomato in the study area.&nbsp; In addition, the result also revealed significant relationship between awareness and perceived benefits of improved practices in pre-harvest tomato production (r=0.280, p=0.004). &nbsp;The study therefore recommended that the extension agents should properly train the farmers on the benefits and use of these improved practices. Adequate information should be made available to the tomato farmers on the most recent developments in tomato farming and production (pre harvest and post-harvest). The government should be able to provide adequate and glitch free loan to the farmers to enable them utilize the information and training.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effect of Stake Length and NPK Fiertilizer on White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Minisett in Umudike, South-East, Nigeria 2021-09-06T13:29:22+00:00 O. K. Akinbo D. A. Okpara A. I. Ikoro <p>Staking and soil fertility are critical factors that affect yam production in the humid forest zone of South-East, Nigeria; where high rainfalls and cloud cover are prevalent. Field experiments were conducted at Umudike, South-East, Nigeria in the 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons, to study the effects of stake length and NPK fertilizer on the minisett of white yam cultivar <em>Yandu</em>. The experiment was laid out as a 4× 5 factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Treatments consist of four levels of stake length (0, 1, 2 and 3m) and five levels of NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800kg/ha). Stake of 2 and 3m lengths had significantly longer vine lengths at 3 and 4 months after planting &nbsp;(MAP) and leaf area index at 3MAP than no staking. Averaged across the two cropping seasons, staking did not affect tuber yield, but the 2 or 3m stakes in 2016 had significant higher tuber yields than the yields obtained in 2017 regardless of stake length. NPK fertilizer application did not significantly influence vine length, leaf area index, and tuber yield, but the application of fertilizer at 200kg/ha increased the number of tubers per plant in 2017. The non-significant effects of staking and NPK fertilizer on tuber yield were ascribed to high rainfall that caused flooding and leaching of nutrients.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Suitability Assessment of Soils around Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan for Maize Production: A Parametric Analyses 2021-09-06T13:34:52+00:00 J. O. Ishola O. A. Fawole I. A. Oluwaponle R. O. Ojedokun A. D. Owoade <p>The sustainable use of soil resources requires extensive knowledge about its morphology and other properties. The study was carried out to evaluate the suitability of soils for maize production in Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria’s (FRIN), environment, Ibadan, using the parametric method. Four profile pits were dug, described and the soil samples collected and analyzed for particle size distribution, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable acidity, exchangeable bases and extractable micro nutrients. The textures of the soils were loamy sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam which varied in response to changes in slope and drainage position. The soil’s pH ranged from strong to slightly acidity (4.32 – 6.75). Organic matter (17.2 -61.2g kg<sup>-1</sup>), total exchangeable base and total nitrogen (0.7 – 3.1g kg<sup>-1</sup>) were high, while the extractable micro nutrients; Fe (37 – 67mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), Cu (7 – 13mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), Mn (5 – 142mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and Zn (38 -134mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) were at toxic level. Suitability evaluation of the soil using parametric approach shows that the soils are presently not suitable (NS) for the cultivation of maize, while, the potential of suitability of the soil for maize cultivation was ranked marginally suitable (S3). The soils of the study area were classified as Egbeda association which is not currently suitable for maize production, because of its present status. However, the soils suitability potential can be improved through conservative agronomic practices and also to prevent rapid degradation.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effect of Cassava, Maize and Soybean Flour Mixes on Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Bread 2021-09-06T13:44:17+00:00 F. U. Ugwuona U. B. Ejinkeonye A. N. Ukom A. N. Obeta M. C. Ojinnaka G. O. Arua <p>This study evaluated composition, physical and sensory properties of gluten-free (non-wheat bread) bread produced with blends of cassava, maize and soybean flours. Flours were produced from cassava roots (, maize grains (1.5kg), soybeans (1.5kg) and wheat grains (2kg). Four composite flours; SF2 (12C:5M: 3S), SF3 (10C:7M: 3S), SF4 (8C:9M: 3S), SF5 (6C:11M: 3S) were blended from cassava (C), maize (M), and soybeans (S) flours. Bread samples were produced with the composite flours and 100% wheat flour (SF1, as control) using straight dough method. Bread samples were analysed for composition, physical and sensory properties. There was no remarkable difference in appearance of the composite and wheat breads. The gluten-free (composite flour) breads were comparably rich in protein (12.29 – 13.07%), minerals (6.1mg/100g Zn – 194.12mg/100g P) and vitamins (0.64mg/100g B<sub>2</sub> – 35.93mg/100g vit. C). The wheat bread had 12.52% protein, 1.85 – 101.2mg/100g minerals, and 0.91 – 27.73mg/100g vitamins, and had safe levels of anti-nutrients.&nbsp; However, wheat bread had anti-nutrients and higher specific volume than the gluten-free bread. The gluten-free bread; SF5 and SF4, had higher sensory scores than the 100% wheat bread, but SF4 was more preferred. &nbsp;Based on nutrient composition and sensory scores, cassava-maize-soybean breads could replace 100% wheat bread and its associated celiac disease, high cost and scarcity in Nigeria.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Factors Influencing Utilisation of Plastic/Nylon Materials Causing Pollution in Oyo State, Nigeria 2021-09-06T13:50:27+00:00 G. B. Kabir K. A. Bolaji-Olutunji D. O. Adebayo O. Olumide-Ojo <p>This study examined factors influencing the intensive use of plastic/nylon, which invariably leads to environmental pollution. The study was conducted in eleven (11) Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, which was randomly selected out of the 33LGAs using structured questionnaire with fifty respondents randomly selected per LGA. A total of 454 questionnaires were valid for the research from 550 questionnaires collected.&nbsp; The analytical tools used were descriptive statistics (such as percentage, frequency counts and mean) and multinomial logit regression. Result showed that the average age of the respondents was 36.4years, about 81.1% of the respondents were married and 88.6% educated; attained primary, secondary or tertiary level.&nbsp; The average household size was 2 persons, while income was ₦32,000 per month. About 36.6% of the respondents used plastics and nylon as refuse bins, 22.5% used it for carrying material, 19.6% for storage, 11.9% for wrapping food and other items, and 9.5% as aesthetics. About 32% of the respondents affirmed that availability of plastic and nylon at their disposal influenced its utilization and many indicated using paper (38.5%) and leaves (35%) in place of plastic/nylon. Important (significant) factors influencing the use of plastic/nylon were age, occupation, income, household ownership, sources of plastic and price. It is therefore recommended that awareness on degradable, alternative materials should be encouraged because of the menace of disposal of the materials.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Prospects of Mitigating Late Blight Disease of Potato in Nigeria through Deployment of Triple R (3R) Stacked Gene Transgenic Varieties 2021-09-06T13:59:40+00:00 C. O. Amadi M. Ghislain S. S. Kahya V. Dabels N. E. Nnadi G. Amadi <p>Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em>) is a cherished staple food in Nigeria. Low average yield of about 4.3t/ha obtained locally is partly due to 20-50% yield reduction caused by late blight disease (LBD) (caused by species of oomycetes known as <em>Phytophthora infestans</em>). Based on a price of $150 per ton for potato, the cost of late blight disease is estimated at between $42,000,000 – $105,000,000 per annum. Development and deployment of resistant varieties remain the most economic and environmentally sustainable way to control plant diseases. Stacking resistance <em>R</em> genes for <em>Phytophthora</em> into farmer-preferred varieties from wild relatives by conventional breeding takes decades to realize, especially when working with polyploids and crops suffering from inbreeding depression. Genetic transformation techniques provide a more direct transfer mechanism into existing elite varieties lacking resistance to LBD. The 3<em>R</em> biotech potato was developed by the International Potato Center (CIP) by transferring three <em>R</em> genes selected from unmodified DNA fragments of <em>Solanum bulbocastanum, </em>and<em> Solanum venturii</em> into farmers’ preferred varieties lacking resistance to LBD. These genes were chosen for their ability to recognise a broad spectrum of strains of <em>P. infestans</em>. The efficacy and safe use of 3<em>R</em> Potato have been demonstrated in Uganda and can be scaled out in Nigeria to mitigate the threat posed by LBD. Regulatory approvals for confined field trials of lead events, environmental and commercial release, robust extension and adoption of prospective 3<em>R</em> biotech potato varieties by relevant stakeholders will contribute significantly to food security in Nigeria. The prospects are brightened by extant policy environment which appears conducive for obtaining the required regulatory approvals for trial and deployment of potato varieties stacked with 3 <em>R</em> resistant genes.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Use of Technical Information among Pig Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria: Empirical Analyses 2021-09-06T14:04:09+00:00 U. Kalu L. E. Odoemelam O. A. Maduka <p class="BodyText1" style="line-height: normal; background: transparent; margin: 0in 1.0pt .0001pt 0in;">The study investigated the level of use of technical information among pig farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers, ascertained the level of use of technical information and determined the level of influence of some socioeconomic variables on the use of technical information among pig farmers in the area. Purposive and multistage random sampling techniques were used in drawing sixty (60) pig farmers for the study. Data collected were analysed using both inferential and descriptive statistics such as Ordinary Least Square Regression, frequency counts, percentages and mean scores. From the result, a grand mean score of 2.83 shows that the level of use of technical information among pig farmers is low in the area. At P˂0.05, Stock size with a t-ratio of 1.878, Farming experience (-1.984**), Household size (2.251**) and Level of extension contact (-5.420**) all had significant influence on the use of technical information by the pig farmers. The study recommends formation of pig farmers into cooperative groups and conscious efforts at improving livestock extension by all extension agencies, to improve access to and use of innovations for enhanced prig production in the study area.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Cell Suspension Culture of Mucuna pruriens For Production and Improvement of L-3, 4-Dihydroxy Phenylalanine Concentration 2021-09-06T14:12:23+00:00 J. I. Reuben-Kalu R. Renuka D. Uma R. Gnanam <p>The production and improvement of L-3, 4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-Dopa) content in <em>Mucuna pruriens </em>was carried out through cell suspension culture. Thirty days old healthy, friable and soft calli derived from leaf and stem of two varieties of <em>M</em>. <em>pruriens</em>: (IIHR Selection 3 and Arka Dhanvantari) were used for the cell suspension in Murashige and Skoog’s liquid medium supplemented with IAA (1.0mg/L), NAA (1.5mg/L) and BAP (1.5mg/L) with treatment of elicitors: chitin and pectin (100, 150, and 200mg/L), precursor: L-tyrosine (5, 10, and 15mg/L) and ascorbic acid (250mg/L). The highest percentage of packed cell volume (PCV) (42.4 ± 0.1) was observed in leaf-derived callus of AD variety with treatment L4: MS + NAA (1.5mg/L) + Pectin (100mg/L) + ascorbic acid (250mg/L). From the HPLC analysis, treatment T3c: MS + IAA (1.0mg/L) + L-tyrosine (15mg/L) + ascorbic acid (250mg/L) recorded highest peak area percentage of 31.19 at retention time (RT) of 2.36 against control (1.39) at 2.35 RT. L-Dopa concentration was observed to increase with increase in elicitor and precursor treatment. This shows that L-Dopa can be produced from natural source in desired concentration through cell suspension culture.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Livelihood Diversification among Arable Farm Households in the Forest Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria 2021-09-06T14:32:31+00:00 K. A. Jatto S. O. Akanbi A. S. Adeoye O. O. Oke <p>The study assessed the livelihood diversification strategies among the arable farm households in the forest zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. A 3-stage random sampling technique was used to select a total of 160 arable farm households around some selected forest reserves for the study. A well-structured questionnaire was used for the collection of data. The analytical tools employed were descriptive statistics, livelihood index, and logistic regression model. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents were male (57.5%), educated (81.2%), married (71.9%), and had a household size of about 7 members. Non timber forest products (NTFP) gathering (39.38%) was the most preferred livelihood diversification strategy followed by transportation business (16.88%), petty trading (13.75%), artisanal work (12.5%), firewood sales (6.25%), wage employed (4.38%), charcoal production (3.75%), timber sales (1.88%), and hunting (1.25%) in that order respectively. The forest-related livelihoods accounted for 52.5% of the predominant livelihood strategies, whereas, non-forest-related livelihoods accounted for 47.5%. The significant predictors of the probability of engaging in forest-related strategies include; primary education, and secondary education (10% each); tertiary education, and household size (1% each), and age of household head (5%). The study recommends the intensification of local capacities of the farmers such as access to education and training facilities to enable them access and process information, and credit to enhance their livelihood and minimize forest dependence.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Insecticidal Effect of African Nutmeg (Monodora myristica) Oil on Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum in African Breadfruit 2021-09-06T14:39:34+00:00 F. U. Ugwuona A. N. Ukom A. N. Obeta J. Ndife U. B. Ejinkeonye <p>This study investigated insecticidal effect of African nutmeg (<em>Monodora myristica</em> Gaertn) oil against <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (Motsch) and <em>Tribolium castaneun</em> (Herbst) in African breadfruit during storage. Fruits (400g) of African nutmeg were milled into flour. Two hundred grams (200g) of flour was extracted for oil using 500ml of n-hexane. The fruit oil at 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00ml per 1ml ethanol was dosed against 10 adults of either insects infested on 15-20g African breadfruit seeds during post-exposure (24h), contact (7-12 days) and fumigant (72h) toxicity tests at ambient conditions (33-39<sup>o</sup>C; 42-59% RH) in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The oil caused dose-dependent mortality (%) which increased with exposure time of the insects. <em>Sitophilus</em> <em>zeamais</em> (Motsch) had higher mortality than <em>Tribolium</em> <em>castaneum</em> (Herbst) within the same oil concentration and exposure time. In a glass vial filled to 70% column with African breadfruit, 1ml oil concentration caused 63% kill of <em>T. Castaneum</em> (Herbst), but 90% kill of <em>S. zeamais</em> (Motsch) in 7days exposure. The 1ml oil concentration on 72hour fumigation test killed 95% of <em>S. zeamais</em> (Motsch) and 62% of <em>T. castaneum</em> (Herbst). <em>Monodora</em> <em>myristica</em> (Gaertn) oil could replace synthetic insecticides to preserve this grain against the two insect pests under storage.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Comparative Analysis of Pre and Post-migration Livelihood Outcomes of Households with Absentee Heads in Osun State, Nigeria 2021-09-06T14:58:17+00:00 A. K. Aromolaran O. A. Adekola C. P. Adekunle F. I. Wole-Alo J. Adekunle <p>Migration is often linked with a deleterious impact on rural area production and development. Although, the change of location for better opportunities also affect the lives and livelihoods of the migrant households’ in the rural communities. The study was a comparative analysis of the pre and post-migration living outcomes of absentee households’ heads in Osun State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure involving the simple random sampling was used to select 120 absentee household heads. Data collected with interview schedule was subjected to descriptive statistics, t-test and correlation analyses. Findings showed that more men (76.7%) migrated, leaving women to become the interim household heads. It was found that migrants have a higher average monthly income level (<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">₦</span>44,400). Prior to migration, most families were in the lower financial well-being category (83.3%), while only 55% remained in that category after migration. This follows the result of the t-test which revealed that a significant difference (t=0.00; p&lt;0.05) exists between the well-being of migrant’s household before and after migration. Thus, it was concluded that unless the rural push factors are removed, rural-urban migration will continue at an increasing rate because benefits and opportunities acquired in the process influence the well-being of the rural households. The study recommends that enabling environment, facilities and opportunities should be created in the rural communities to transform livelihoods and improve the wellbeing of the people via interventions by national and international agencies.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Beneficiaries' Perception of Effectiveness of Rural Development Programmes: Cross River Agriculture Development Project, Cross River State, Nigeria 2021-09-06T14:56:08+00:00 L. O. Obinna J. I. Bassey <p>The study assessed beneficiaries' perceptions of effectiveness of rural development programmes with particular reference to Cross River Commercial Agriculture Development Project. One hundred and thirty-five (135) beneficiaries of CADP were selected for the study through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Results revealed that many (36.29%) of the respondents were within the age range of 50years and above, 72.60% indicated married and educated (84.44%) with farming (92.59%) as major source of income. Respondents reported that CADP implementation was effective with grand mean of 2.11. Some of the identified constraints to effective implementation of CADP were untimely delivery of inputs by service providers (x = 3.42), difficult procurement process (x = 3.24), farmers have little control over approved grant as disbursement was in kind (x = 3.19). There was no significant difference among beneficiaries perceptions of the effectiveness of CADP implementation across the three agricultural zones in the study area (F-Cal =2.76, P&lt;0.05). The study concluded that CADP implementation was effective. The study recommends timely delivery of production inputs to beneficiaries by service providers in similar projects.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effect of Cutting Velocity and Slot Size on the Efficiency of a Cocoyam Chipper 2021-09-06T15:06:42+00:00 M. C. Ikejiofor <p>The developed cocoyam chipper was evaluated. Two varieties of cocoyam tubers (NXs 001 and NXs 002) were used. The machine cutting velocities used were 3. 60, 3.93, 4.25, 4.58 and 4.91m/s, and the chipping slot sizes used were 0.0014, 0.0016 and 0.0018 m<sup>2</sup>. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the effect of cutting velocity and the chipping slot size on the efficiency of the cocoyam chipper. The analysis results showed that the cutting velocity within the range of 3.6 to 4.91m/s had a significant effect at 0.05 level, on the efficiency of the cocoyam chipper. Also, the chipping slot size within the range of 0.0014 to 0.0018m<sup>2</sup> had a highly significant effect at 0.01 level. The data obtained also showed that the highest efficiency of 85.18% was obtained at machine cutting velocity of 4.91m/s and chipping slot size of 0.0018m<sup>2</sup>. These ranges of chipping slot sizes and cutting velocities are therefore recommended to obtain the maximum chipping efficiency of cocoyam chipper.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Awareness and Perception of Climate Change among Farmers in Nigeria: Implications for Food Security 2021-09-06T15:14:31+00:00 O. G. Oti C. U. Okoye I. O. Obasi <p>Nigeria is characterized by high level of hunger, malnutrition and poverty, making food security a serious concern in the country. This is being worsened by threats of climate change which adversely affect agriculture; the predominantly livelihood activity in the country. The study examined the implications for food security of farmers’ awareness and perception of climate change in Nigeria using evidence from farmers in Ebonyi State. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 360 respondents for the study, while data were collected using structured questionnaire. Analysis of data involved the use of frequencies, percentages, means and rating scale, while the results were presented using charts, tables and graphs. The mean extent of knowledge of the farmers of climate change phenomenon is 2.74. About 16.1% of the respondents indicated knowledge to a great extent, 36.4% to a reasonable extent, 26.4% to a little extent, and 21.1% to no extent. Climate change is largely understood by 93.6% of the farmers as fluctuations in average weather conditions. The farmers are being impacted by climate change through increased weather uncertainties (3.71), reduced cropping season (3.60), decreased soil fertility and farm yield (3.48), early cessation of rains (3.33), delayed onset of rains (3.20) and increased temperature (2.89). Their sources of information on climate change are radio (66%), friends and relatives (56.2%), family (33.4%), personal observations (40%), social media (23%), extension agents (21.6%), internet (19%), cooperatives (12.1%) and religious bodies (10%). The study recommends the strengthening of agricultural extension system to engage in increased and continuous sensitization and education of farmers on climate change through radio, social media, internet, cooperative societies and religious organizations.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Poverty and Food Expenditure among Farming Households in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria 2021-09-06T15:18:59+00:00 Z. A. Elum K. H. Okorodudu <p>The prevalence of poverty continues to remain high in sub-Saharan Africa. It is common to see smallholder farmers focus on the production of food crops from which they can feed their families. The objectives of the study were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers and analyse the determinants of poverty among the farmers. Data was collected with the aid of a questionnaire and personal interview. The questionnaire was made up of social and economic variables. The objectives were achieved with the use of descriptive statistics and a logistic regression model. The results showed that household size, education and having other steady source of income are significant determinants of a farmer’s poverty/non-poor status. Consequently, it is recommended that farming households should engage in family planning and invest in education to be able to access salary earning opportunities as these will bring them out of the poverty trap.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Conventional Methods of Controlling Microbial Contaminants in Meristematic Tissue Cultures: A Review 2021-09-06T15:22:37+00:00 G. C. Nsofor <p>Microbial contaminants in meristematic tissue cultures remain a big problem in the quest to grow plants <em>in vitro</em> in the laboratory prior to commercial scale roll out. The ubiquitous nature and the ability to compete favourably with explants for the same nutrient in the growth medium make these contaminants a serious threat in meristematic tissue cultures. The common microbial contaminants frequently reported in <em>in vitro</em> meristematic tissue cultures are endophytes such as bacteria, fungi and sometimes viruses. Most of the epiphytic microbes are usually removed by surface sterilization but the endophytes may persist to contaminate the culture. Endophytic microorganisms; usually bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi colonize almost every plant species. This review therefore focuses on the present conventional methods of controlling microbial contaminants in meristematic tissue cultures from the list of relevant available articles.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Livelihood Diversification and Settlement Patterns among Agro-Pastoralists in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone, Oyo State, Nigeria 2021-09-06T15:28:42+00:00 O. A. Adekola D. A. Adegbite O. Adetarami W. G. Ojebiyi <p>This study assessed livelihood diversification and settlement patterns among agro-pastoralists in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone, Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 106 agro-pastoralists, while data were collected with the aid of pre-tested and validated interview guide. Data were subjected to descriptive (frequency, percentage, mean) and inferential (chi-square) statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results revealed that the mean age of respondent was 43 years, and that 60.4% of the respondents were sole owner of their cattle. The major livelihood activities were sale of cattle, crop farming and sale of milk/milk products. Findings also showed that many of the agro-pastoralists practiced either the transhumance (25.5%) or semi-transhumance (55.7%) settlement patterns. It was further revealed that the respondents benefited from equitable access to land, expansion of business trade and market integration. Some of the challenges faced by the agro-pastoralists include; cattle defecating on streams and roads (78.3%), extensive sedentarization (80.2%), farmland invasion by cattle (85.8%), and overgrazing on fallow lands (80.2%). Chi-square analysis revealed that there were significant associations between settlement patterns and livelihood diversification; selling of milk and milk product (χ<sup>2</sup> = 12.248, p≤0.01), cultivation of crops (χ<sup>2</sup> = 15.362, p≤0.01), petty trading (χ<sup>2</sup> = 7.957, p≤0.05) and commercial selling of livestock (χ<sup>2</sup> = 9.456, p≤0.05). It was concluded that the transhumance or semi-transhumance settlement patterns adopted by the agro-pastoralists had positive influence on their livelihood diversification into different activities.&nbsp; It is therefore recommended that agro-pastoralists should diversify into more income generating livelihood activities.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Development of a Reciprocating Motion Cassava Slicing Machine 2021-09-17T18:36:46+00:00 C. H. Kadurumba J. C. Aririguzo O. M. Uzoma S. C. Ogbonnaya O. I. Ogbonna <p>The development of cassava reciprocating slicing machine was achieved using locally sourced materials that is affordable and effective. Although hand slicing is the cheapest form of slicing operation, but it has posed to be labour intensive, time-wasting, and hazardous. This necessitated the design and development of a cassava slicing machine. The machine's capacity for boiled and unboiled cassava root was calculated as 22.8kg/hr, with an average slicing time of 0.005hr for boiled and 0.00455hr for unboiled cassava root. The machine has low labour requirements and power consumption. The cassava reciprocating slicing machine use electric motor of 0.75kw (1hp) rating, with a speed of 99rpm. The machine is made with stainless steel for the slicing section and other components with mild steel and has an overall efficiency of 91.05%. The machine reduces drudgery and also enhances mass production of cassava chips, implying more profit.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Agricultural Society of Nigeria Management of Arthropod Pests of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) with Selected Plant Extracts and Cypermthrin at Umudike, Abia State 2021-09-17T18:43:46+00:00 M. C. Ibeh C. N. Ehisianya A. R. Abu <p>Field experiment was carried out at the Research farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, during the cropping seasons (July-October, 2019) to determine the efficacy of leaf extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> (Bitter leaf), <em>Carica</em> <em>papaya</em> (Paw-paw) and <em>Gmelina</em> <em>arborea</em> (Gmelina) and the synthetic insecticide (Cypermethrin) in the control of arthropod pests of groundnut (<em>Arachis</em> <em>hypogea</em> L.) and to assess the yield and yield components of the crop. The design was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five treatments in three replicates. Data were collected at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after planting (WAP) on the arthropod population, yield and yield components. The results indicated that arthropods belonging to two classes, four separate families, genera and species: arachnida (<em>Tetrnychus urticae</em>) and insecta (<em>Spodoptera litura</em>, <em>Oedaleus nigeriansis</em>, and <em>Empoasca kerri</em>) were identified with the aid of taxonomic keys and pictures. There was significant (P≤0.05) reduction in the population of arthropods in plots treated with plant extracts and Cypermethrin. At 10 WAP, the populations of the arthropods pests were significantly (P≤0.05) lower in <em>V.</em> <em>amygdalina </em>treated plots (2.33, 1.67, 1.33, and 4.00) compared with the untreated control plots (8.33, 5.00, 4.67, and 3.67). Treated plots also recorded significantly (P≤0.05) higher pod weights compared with control, except in <em>C. papaya </em>treated plot.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Estimating Tree Height and Volume of Gmelina arborea and Three other Tree Species in Plantations of South-West, Nigeria 2021-09-17T19:14:01+00:00 O. O. Olunloyo D. E. Ibiyeye O. I. Owolola R. T. Afolabi D. A. Ezekiel <p>This study explores the estimation of stand structure of <em>Gmelina arborea</em> and three other tree species in two plantations, in Ibadan, South West Nigeria, with the primary objective of estimating plot – level mean tree height, merchantable tree height, and volume of <em>Gmelina arborea<strong>, </strong>Terminalia montalis,</em> <em>Tectona grandis, and Triplochiton scleroxylon.</em> The number of tree species and the volume of wood in the two selected plantations were determined. Random sampling method was adopted in carrying out the assessment of the stand structure. Each plantation was divided into three plots of dimension 32mx32m. Twenty (20) stands were selected randomly in each plot, hence sixty (60) stands in each plantation. Quantitative data were taken on: Diameter at breast height (DBH), Total tree height (TTH), Basal area (BA) and Total volume (of wood) (TVOL). A total of three species were encountered in the two study area; the family <em>Verbenaceae</em> has the highest tree species (75%) in the two plantations. During the assessment of the tree species in both plantations, the results revealed that majority of the trees’ (68%) diameter were within 10-20cm, and the number of tree species in the upper diameter class (&gt;60cm) (20%) were considerably small. Trees in the <em>Gmelina </em>plantation had on average, lower merchantable heights than those in the College Arboretum, despite having higher total tree height, diameter at breast height, basal area, and area volume. Inventory analysis of these plantations will establish a base-line information about the stand, point out possible improvements to the management plan and provide information on the volume of merchantable logs that can be extracted from the stand.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Analyses of Use of Improved Beekeeping Equipment among Agricultural Development Programme Registered Bee Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria 2021-09-17T20:16:59+00:00 E. Ubeh P. C. Umunakwe O. O. Aja R. C. Chukwu-Okonya M. A. Ibe <p>The study examined improved beekeeping in Imo State, Nigeria. A sample of 30 registered bee farmers participated in the study. Data were elicited from the farmers using structured questionnaire and analysed using percentages and means. Results showed that the major sources of information on modern bee keeping equipment were farmers’ association (96%), extension agents (76%) and friends/relatives (70%). Available bee products in the area were honey (97%), bee wax (83%), bee venom (70%) and propolis (63%). Improved beekeeping equipment used in the area were foot wears (100%), gloves (100%), smokers (93%), bee veil (96%) and bee suits (87%). Constraints to improved beekeeping in the area include; lack of favourable agricultural policies (87%), lack of standard market for the products (77%), inadequate training and information on beekeeping (67%) and high cost of equipment (70%). The study therefore recommends the need for efforts aimed at promoting modern bee farming in the area, especially targeted at younger and educated farmers.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effect of Planting Date on Growth, Carotene and Root Yield of three Sweetpotato Varieties [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] in South-East Nigeria 2021-09-17T20:23:54+00:00 N.G. Olori-Great D. A. Okpara <p>There is paucity of information on the effect of time of planting on sweetpotato in South-East Nigeria and hence the need for this study; where four planting dates were assessed under field conditions for their comparative effects on growth, carotene, and root yield of orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. The experiment was a split-plot laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot treatments were three sweetpotato varieties (Umuspo 1, Umuspo 3, and Ex-Igbariam), while the sub-plot treatments were four planting dates (April, May, June, and July). Results indicated that delayed planting from April to other planting dates significantly reduced orange-fleshed sweetpotato fresh shoot biomass and dry matter. Similarly, planting in April, 2013 produced significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher storage root yield than planting later in May, June, and July by 75%, 92%, and 149%, respectively. In contrast, delayed planting up to June produced a carotene yield of 1267.7µg/g, which was higher than those of April and May by 180% and 82%, respectively. On average, Umuspo 1 produced significantly greater biomass of shoot and root. In 2013, Umuspo 1 also produced higher storage root yield than Umuspo 3 and Ex-Igbariam by 61% and 46%, respectively. However, Umuspo 3 produced significantly highest carotene yield (1918.0µg/g), followed by Umuspo 1 (582.0µg/g), while Ex-Igbariam had the lowest value (296.5µg/g). There were no significant interaction effects on root yield in both years, but there was a significant interaction on carotene yield, which was highest in Umuspo 3 in July, followed by the June planting date. For high fresh shoot and storage root yields, planting Umuspo 1 in April is recommended, while for high carotene yield, planting Umuspo 3 in June or July is recommended.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Plant Growth Promoting Microbes in Plant Tissue Culture 2021-09-17T20:11:17+00:00 G. C. Nsofor T. Isaiah <p>Plant Growth Promoting Microbes (PGPMs) are key players in major ecological processes like atmospheric nitrogen fixation, water uptake, solubilization, and transport of minerals from the soil to the plant. A broad spectrum of PGPMs has been proposed as biofertilizers, biocontrol agents and biostimulants to enhance plant growth, agricultural sustainability and food security. However, little information exists with regard to the application of PGPMs in plant tissue culture. This review therefore presents an insight into the importance of PGPMs in plant tissue culture from relevant available articles. In addition, exploiting the potential benefits of PGPMs will lead to a significant reduction in the cost production of <em>in vitro </em>plantlets during plant tissue culture.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Nutritionally Improved Cookies from Composite Flour: African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) with Wheat 2021-09-17T20:32:24+00:00 O. F. J. Awofadeju A. B. Awe O. J. Adewumi B. J. Amadi F. J. Oluwatoke <p>African walnut seed (<em>Tetracarpidium conophorum</em>) is rich in protein and phytochemical with great potentials for food application, but has limited uses in food industry. The African walnut seed was procured from Oje market and commercial wheat flour in Aleshiloye market, Ibadan. The commercial wheat and African walnut flours were composites of varying ratios; 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 to prepare cookies and labeled samples X, A, B, C and D respectively. The proximate composition, anti-nutrients (oxalates, phytate and protease inhibitor), phyto-chemical (tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and sensory evaluation of the cookies were determined using standard methods. The result of proximate composition of cookies showed that carbohydrate (47.0-52.36%), protein (16.3-19.6%) and fat (18.5-19.2%) were the major components in the cookie samples. Other components including; moisture (7.7-8.4%), ash (4.1-4.2%) and fibre (0.9-1.8%) were generally low. Anti-nutrient factors of cookie samples ranged from 11.3-17.7mg/100g for Phytate and no traces of oxalates and protease inhibitors in all cookie samples. Control cookie sample had no traces of tannin, flavonoids and saponins, but enriched cookie ranged from 10.3-14.7mg/100g; 3.4-5.7mg/100g and 10.7-15.3mg/100g, respectively. Phytochemical constituents of cookie samples in ORAC ranged from 3.4-12.0mg/100g and alkaloids (3.7-7.7mg/100g). Organoleptic panelists preferred sample X to all other samples, followed by sample A. Inclusion of 10% African walnut flour compared favorably with wheat cookie in terms of sensory quality.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Assessment of Arthropod Ectoparasites associated with Poultry at Zoological Garden, Owerri, South-East, Nigeria 2021-09-17T20:46:16+00:00 C. N. Ehisianya E. S. Ibe B. N. Ibediungha <p>The characterization of arthropod ectoparasites infesting poultry at the Nekede Zoological Garden (NZG) in Owerri was conducted from May to July, 2017.&nbsp; Arthropod sampling was done weekly by picking them from the bodies of their hosts after parting the feathers and/or by blowing of same. Lice and fleas were collected by applying concentrated ethyl alcohol-soaked cotton wool to anaesthetize the parasites. Mites were collected by scrapping the skin around their feet gently in order not to injure the bird. All the parasites collected were sorted and labeled based on sex, age and breed before they were transferred to the Laboratory of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Specimens were observed under a stereo-microscope, using x10 magnification power. Identification to generic and specific levels was done with the aid of pictures and taxonomic keys. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages. A total of 165 ectoparasites were collected belonging to five genera and five species. Irrespective of sex, age, breed, species or/and management level, &nbsp;lice infestation was highest (84.24%), followed by fleas (10.30%) and the least was mites (5.45%). Prevalence of the ectoparasites infestation was higher in females (89.10%) than males (74.44%), adults (93.98%) than young (62.50%), and local (86.96%) than exotic (80.15%) breed. No ostrich was infested with lice and no female exotic poultry was infested with flea.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Bioacumulation Potentials of Selected Tree Species in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil 2021-09-17T20:56:46+00:00 V. A. Olayiwola J. o. Azeez J. O. Afolabi C. I. Ihediuche <p>Bioaccumulation potentials of some selected tree species (<em>Tectona grandis</em>, <em>Gmelina arborea, Shorea roxburghii, Terminalia ivorensis </em>and <em>Terminalia superba</em>) were assessed from heavy metal contaminated soils in a screen house study. The experiment was a 3 × 5 factorial treatment laid out in Completely Randomized Design. The factors were three levels of contamination (control, double permissible and triple permissible) and five tree species. Data collected include; physical and chemical properties of the soil and metal accumulation in roots, stems and the leaves of the tree species. These were subjected to analysis of variance, while, significantly different means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (<em>P</em> ≤ 0.05). The results at 16 months after transplanting (MAT) showed that, <em>S. roxborghi</em> at the control level significantly (<em>P</em> ≤ 0.01) accumulated more Mn (76.38mgkg<sup>-1</sup>) in its stem compared to other species. A significant level of Pb (0.006mgkg<sup>-1</sup>) was also obtained in the leaves of <em>Terminalia ivorensis</em> at triple contamination level, while, <em>Gmelina arborea </em>accumulated highest concentrations (7.55mgkg<sup>-1</sup>) in its stem at the control level compared to other species. Moreover, highest accumulation of Cu (7.65mgkg<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained in <em>Terminalia ivorensis </em>at triple contamination level. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between Zn and Cd accumulated in the leaves, stems and roots of the tree species throughout the period of investigation. <em>Terminalia ivorensis</em>, therefore, has been found to possess a high metal accumulation potential especially at toxic contamination levels compared to other species considered.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Influence of Combined Biochar and Poultry Manure on Selected Soil Chemical Properties and Ginger Yield in an Ultisol of Umudike, South-East Nigeria 2021-09-25T19:02:32+00:00 B. C. Nwangwu E. O. Anedo <p>The study was carried out to examine the effect of different ratio combinations of biochar (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 t/ha) and poultry manure (0, 4 and 8 t/ha) in an ultisol of South-East, Nigeria. The 8 treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in the field. &nbsp;Surface (0-30 cm) soil properties were determined before and after planting, and ginger yield (t/ha) taken at harvest. Results showed that all the selected soil chemical properties and fresh rhizome yield of ginger significantly (p&lt;0.05) improved by the combined application of biochar and poultry manure. The combination of biochar (8t/ha) and poultry manure (8 t/ha) gave the highest yield (13.23 t/ha), followed by 6t/ha biochar + 8t/ha poultry manure with yield of 9.17t/ha. The study therefore, recommends treatment combination of biochar and poultry manure at the ratio of 8t/ha each for use in ginger production in ultisol or similar soils and for improving soil properties.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effects of Different Substrates and Temperature on the Growth and Yield of Oyster Mushroom (Lentinus sajor-caju Fr.) 2021-09-25T19:09:02+00:00 J. A. Ugwu M. O. Smart R. A. Osuolale M. Ramanenka O. R. Appah <p>The study evaluated the effects of three saw dust substrates on the growth and yield of <em>Lentinus sajor-caju</em> at the pathology laboratory of Forestry Research Institute of&nbsp; Nigeria (FRIN) under indoor and outdoor temperatures of 28.6ºC and 29.1ºC&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; The saw dust substrate includes;<em> Triplochiton</em> <em>scleroxylon,</em> <em>Gmelina arborea,</em> and <em>Cordia</em> <em>Millenii</em>. Wheat bran and lime (CaCo<sub>3</sub>) were incorporated to the substrates as supplements.&nbsp; The mycelial growth was faster at 28.6ºC giving full colonization at 3 weeks in all the substrates, while full colonization was observed in 4 weeks at 29.1ºC. <em>T.</em> <em>scleroxylon </em>substrate recorded best heights at both indoor and outdoor temperatures with 28.1±10.2cm and 14.6±4.40 respectively.&nbsp; <em>G. arborea</em> substrate gave the highest yield at both outdoor and indoor temperatures with 69.5±30.6 g 53.5±10.8 g respectively. There was no significant difference on the growth and yield of&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>L. sajor-caju </em>at the two temperature ranges<em>. </em>Based on the results obtained, <em>G. arborea</em> saw dust was the most suitable substrate and could be recommended for the cultivation of <em>Lentinus sajor-caju.</em></p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA An Innovative Design and Development of A Cassava Peeling Machine 2021-09-25T19:15:44+00:00 C. H. Kadurumba J. C. Aririguzo <p>The study was the design and development of a cassava peeling machine to reduce drudgery and improve the productivity of cassava processing into various foods. The cassava peeling machine consists of the peeling drum (with both knife and abrasive embedded), conveyor, electric motor, and speed reducer. The machine was designed using solid work software. The peeler was evaluated with cassava root length of about 300mm. The speed range of 90-120rpm was used to test the performance of the peeler. The average capacity of the developed machine was 450kg/h, with a peeling efficiency of 90%. The root loss of 5% and peel retention of 5% were obtained during machine test. The various shapes of cassava roots do not affect the machine's functionality as it functions well on the different shapes and sizes of cassava roots. Results also show that the machine is affordable and efficient and is recommended to improve the processing productivity of cassava food products. It is therefore, recommended that further research be carried out on cassava roots geometry and thickness to further improve the peeling efficiency of the machine. Modelling of the cassava peeling process should be studied, taking into consideration the physical parameters; towards identifying any flaw that needs improvement in the present design. More research should be carried on the utilization of alternative sources of energy like solar to power the machine at a minimal energy cost.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Production and Evaluation of Cookies from Composites of Sprouted Wheat, Sorghum and African Yam Bean Seed Flours 2021-09-25T19:27:26+00:00 D. C. Arukwe V. C. Ezeocha S. C. Ubbor <p>This study investigated the production of flours from sprouted wheat, sorghum and African yam bean seeds and evaluation of their proximate composition, blending of the composite flours and determination of the functional properties, and production of cookies from the blends and determination of the proximate composition and sensory properties. Flours were produced from sprouted wheat, sorghum and African yam bean seeds and their proximate composition evaluated. The sprouted wheat, sorghum and African yam bean flours were blended at the ratios of 100:0:0, 50:35:15, 40:35:25, 30:35:35, 20:45:35 and 10:55:35 each, where sample 100:0:0 served as control. The proximate composition of the sprouted seed flours showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in protein, fat, crude fibre, ash and carbohydrate contents. The functional properties of the blends showed that bulk density decreased, while water absorption, oil absorption, foam, emulsion and swelling capacities increased with increased ratio of incorporation of composite flours to wheat flour. The cookies proximate result depicted increased ash, fat, protein, crude fibre and reduced carbohydrate with increasing addition of composite flours to wheat flour. The sensory result showed that the sensory scores for appearance, taste, flavor, texture and general acceptability of the cookies deceased with increased inclusion of composite flour to wheat flour. However, the composite cookie sample 50:35:15 was more acceptable compared to the other composite cookies. Sorghum and African yam bean flour gave a good flour blend with wheat in cookie production.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Early Growth Response of Azanza garckeana (Exell & Hillc) as Influenced by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers 2021-09-26T21:19:32+00:00 V. A. Olayiwola F. O. Abiodun R. O. Ojedokun I. O. Kolawole C. I. Ihediuche <p><em>Thespesia garckeana</em> (also known by its synonym <em>Azanza garckeana</em>) is a tree in the family Malvaceae, found throughout the warmer parts of Southern Africa. The use of organic and inorganic fertilizer is a way of providing adequate nutrition to growing seedlings, while improving their quality, resistance and adaptation. The study was carried out at the screen house and laboratory of the Department of Soils and Tree Nutrition of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Ibadan (FRIN). The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD), with sixteen (16) treatments and replicated 4 times. The data collected include; stem girth (mm), plant height (cm) and number of leaves at interval of 2 weeks for a period of 16 weeks, while plant dry matter were obtained at the 16<sup>th</sup> week. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GenStat 9<sup>th</sup> Edition, while significant different means were separated using the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% probability level. The result showed that the experimental soil was loamy sand with low nutrient status, while the combination of compost and NPK 15:15:15 at ratio 1:2 (T13) in the soil showed a significantly higher mean height at the end of the study. Treatment T6 (NPK 15:15:15 at 125kgNha<sup>-1</sup>) maintained the widest stem diameter of 7.33mm among all the treatments and was significantly wider than that of T14 (NPK 15:15:15 at 33.3kgNha<sup>-1 </sup>+ AC at 66.6kgNha<sup>-1</sup>) with 5.24mm stem diameter, which was the least. The dry matter yield for the plant’s stem showed a significant higher influence from treatment T13 (NPK 15:15:15 at 66.6kgNha<sup>-1 </sup>+ AC at 33.3kgNha<sup>-1</sup>) with 1.84g, while treatment T6 significantly influenced root production (6.80g) compared to those of treatments T14 and T16 (0.39 and 0.12g respectively) with a combination of &nbsp;both organic and inorganic fertilizers. As shown in this study, a combination of NPK 15:15:15 at 66.6kgNha<sup>-1 </sup>+ AC at 33.3kgNha<sup>-1</sup> (T13) significantly increased plant height and stem dry matter yield compared to all other treatment combinations. Likewise, higher rate of inorganic fertilizer as seen in treatment T6 also significantly increased plant’s stem growth and root dry matter yield, while NPK 15:15:15 at 50 kgNha<sup>-1 </sup>+ AC at 50kgNha<sup>-1 </sup>also increased plant leaves dry matter yield. Therefore, for a productive early growth response of <em>Azanza garckeana, </em>the use of the combinations of NPK 15:15:15 and <em>Aleshinloye</em> compost is recommended.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Small Ruminant Farmers' Perception of Climate Change in Moro Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria 2021-09-25T19:54:31+00:00 I. K. Banjoko J. O. Ifabiyi S. W. Lawal S. A. Ahmed M. A. Isiaka S. E. Komolafe <p>This study examined the small ruminant farmers’ perception of climate change in Moro Local Government Area (LGA) of Kwara State, Nigeria. About 120 small ruminant farmers were selected for the study. Analyticall tools such as descriptive (frequency count, percentage, mean score) and inferential [Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC)] statistics were used to analyse the data. The result revealed that about 57.5% of the respondents were male, average age of 38.3years, income of <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">N</span>56633.33, and household size of about 5 persons. The average number of goat and sheep was 10 and 5 respectively. About 52% of the respondents utilized extensive system of rearing and 60.8% had access to extension services. About 77.5% of the respondents indicated Ministry of Agriculture as their main source of information on small ruminant production. The result revealed that planting of trees/erecting cover to serve as shades to reduce heat stress (90.8%) was the most frequently used adaptation strategies to climate change. About 59.2% of the respondents have high level/status of use of adaptation strategies. The highest ranked perception statement was increase in temperature (4.48), while disease outbreak and high mortality (2.78) ranked highest as factor affecting small ruminant production. It is therefore recommended that there should be provision of information on the adaptation strategies as climate change is now a reality that is not going away and provision of veterinary services to reduce disease outbreak.</p> 2021-04-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Haematological Indices of Broiler Chickens Administered Water Containing Medicinal Plant Leaf Methanol Extract 2021-09-26T21:22:29+00:00 D. N. Onunkwo I. U. Udokwu J. Ezea E. O. Ekundayo <p>The discovery that the use of antibiotics in animal production is fueling the increasing problem of transmitting resistance bacteria from food animals to man has led to the search for an alternative to the use of antibiotics. Therefore, the response of broiler chickens fed various medicinal plants methanol extract as a replacement for antibiotics was investigated. The plant extracts encompass four available leaves; <em>Gercinia kola</em> (Bitter Kola), <em>Alchornea cordifolia</em> (Christmas bush), <em>Pterocarpus santalinoides</em> (Red scandal wood) and <em>Chromolera Odorata</em> (Hagony or Siam weed). A total of 180 unsexed Ross strain broiler chickens were randomly assigned to these dietary treatments which had 30 birds each. The treatments were replicated thrice with 10 birds per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Feed and water were provided <em>ad libitum</em> throughout the experiment which lasted for 56 days. Haematological indices of broiler chickens were evaluated. Significant differences (p&lt;0.05) were observed in the mean values of all the hematological parameters measured across the treatment groups, except Packed cell volume and White blood cell. The result values obtained in this present study were within the standard range of PCV of normal birds with the reference range of 25.0 - 45.0%. However, the values obtained did not reveal any health problem. The findings of this study conclude that the medicinal plant methanol extracts have considerable potentials as component of broiler chicken diet. <em>Alchornea cordifolia</em> plant methanol extract can successfully be used to replace antibiotics at 1g/litre of drinking water for broiler production. Further research should be carried out on <em>Alchornea cordifolia</em> and other medicinal plants to examine their potentials and inhibitory characteristics.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Economic Analyses of Performance of Watermelon Marketing Among Marketers in Owerri Municipal Council Area, Imo State, Nigeria 2021-09-25T20:38:13+00:00 Z. O. Egesi F. E. Ebe <p>This study analyzed the performance of water melon marketing among marketers in Owerri Municipal Council Area of Imo State. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 70 marketers for the study. Data were collected through primary source. The data were analyzed using cost and returns, marketing margin and efficiency index. The findings of the study indicated that both marketers (wholesalers and retailers) had positive net profit, depicting that the watermelon marketing was economically viable. The result further showed that the market returned N1.37 and N1.17 for every N1.00 invested in the business at the wholesale and retail levels respectively. The market had marketing margins of 58.97% and 30.56% and marketing efficiencies of 36.71% and 16.16% among the wholesalers and retailers respectively. This shows that the watermelon marketing in the study area was still economically profitable but not efficient at both wholesale and retail levels. The values of expense structure ratio were 0.3 and 0.1 for wholesalers and retailers indicating that 30% and 10% of the total costs in the wholesale and retail levels respectively were made of fixed capital. Therefore, new entrants with little capital can easily enter into the business especially at the retail level as it is not fixed capital intensive. The study therefore, recommends the need to encourage more marketers to trade in watermelon as well as more entrants into the trade. This will help to enhance efficiency of the market and improve the standard of living of the marketers as their means of livelihood will equally increase. Some unemployed youths in the area should be encouraged to join the watermelon business especially at the retail level as the business is profitable.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Nutritional Knowledge and Food Vending in Selected Markets in Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2021-09-25T21:05:26+00:00 W. E. Egwu <p>Food vending is a vital business operation that helps to ensure the food security and well-being of thousands of people in developing economies. This study analyzed food vendors' sales and nutritional knowledge in selected markets in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The study was carried out using a multistage random sampling technique. A total number of 50 respondents (food vendors) were used for this study (20 in <em>Abakpa</em> main market, and 15 each in <em>Kpiri-kpiri</em> and <em>Eke-aba </em>markets in Abakaliki metropolis). The findings showed that the food vendors had a limited understanding of nutrition requirements, even though the food vending industry found to be very profitable, with a gross margin of 52,891 per month and a net return of 47,408.33 per month among the vendors, suggesting a high degree of profitability. Several constraints restricted the food vendors' ability for increased sales. The constraints include an unfavorable (space) market climate, insatiable customer taste preferences, and inadequate funds to expand the business. Although food vendors' nutritional awareness was found to be positively correlated to their sales, efforts should be made to educate them on the fundamentals of nutrition, as this will also expand their knowledge of hygiene requirements and increase their sales.</p> 2018-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Blood Profile of Finisher Broiler Chickens Fed Diet Containing Leaf Meal Composite as Alternative To Commercial Broiler Premix 2021-09-25T21:26:29+00:00 D. N. Onunkwo M. A. Udeme J. Ezea B. N. Ezenyilimba <p>The need to explore and harness the potentials of green vegetable plants as part replacements for the more expensive conventional vitamin-mineral premix is of great importance.&nbsp; One hundred and eighty (180) starter broiler chickens were used in a four weeks experiment to determine the effect of varying levels of Leaf Meal Composite (LMC) as an alternative to vitamin-mineral premix using <em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> (fluted pumpkin), <em>Vernonia amygdalina,</em> (Bitter leaf),<em> Piper </em><em>g</em><em>uinenses</em> (<em>Uziza</em>) and <em>Ipomea batat</em><em>a </em>(Sweet patato) on the haematology and serum biochemical profile of Starter broiler chickens. The chicks were allocated to six dietary treatments, each having thirty birds, replicated thrice with ten birds per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design. The birds were fed formulated diet, the test materials were ground into meal and was introduced from the first day, feed and water were provided <em>ad libitum </em>&nbsp;The composite leaf meal inclusion level was at 0.00 (0.25% premix), 0.125 (0.125% premix), 0.63 (0.0% premix), 0.125 (0.0% premix), 0.188 (0.0% premix) and 0.25% (0.0% premix) at the expense of a commercial premix and designated diets T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3, </sub>T<sub>4</sub>, T<sub>5</sub> and T<sub>6 </sub>respectively, with T<sub>1</sub> as the control. Data was obtained for analysis. The result reveals that the LMC was not toxic to the birds, had superior disease fighting ability and not anaemic. All the treatment levels were significant for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Aspartate amino transferase <strong>(</strong>AST) and Alkaline phosphatase ALP reduced with increasing concentration of LMC, the test material was not toxic to the liver. Total Globulin and Glucose level reduced with increasing concentration of LMC. Leaf meal is effective in reducing fat deposition. Therefore, LMC had no detrimental effect on the haematology and serum biochemical profile of starter broiler chicken and can be used to replace commercial vitamin-mineral premix.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Differentials in Adoption of Improved Fish Farming Technologies among Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria: A Gender Analyses 2021-09-25T21:24:26+00:00 G. O. Mbah J. I. K. Njoku <p>Women are key players in fish farming and their participation is critical to achieving food security and economic well-being. The study was designed with the purpose to address the gender gap in the adoption of fish farming technologies and output in Imo State, Nigeria. The study described the socio economic characteristics of fish farmers, investigated level and determinants of adoption of fish farming among the respondents in the study area. Multistage and purposive sampling techniques were used for the selection of Sixty (60) respondents interviewed for the study. Descriptive statistics and Tobit regression procedure were used to analyze the data obtained. Results indicate that 43.3% and 30.0% of male and female fish farmers respectively, were within the age group of 41-50 years. Majority (72.2%) of the male fish farmers inherited their land, while 80% of female fish farmers had theirs through lease. About 70% of the males had 1-2 number of extension contacts, and 50.0% of the female farmers also. Results showed that male fish farmers dominated in the adoption of 5 improved fish farming technologies compared to their female (3) counterparts. Stocking density had the highest mean level of adoption (3.97) for the male fish farmers, while, feed formulation had the highest (3.67) for the female fish farmers. Important factors influencing the probability and intensity of adoption of improved fish farming technologies among the farmers include; education, extension, farm size, access to credit, membership of cooperatives, and environmental attribute. The results therefore, call for the need for policies aimed at free and affordable education, especially targeted at women to enable them access and process information on improved fish farming technologies. There is also need to increase the number of extension visits to enhance gender balance in adoption of fish farming technologies in the study area. Fish farmers should be encouraged to belong to or form cooperatives/groups to enable them ease of access to inputs and resources, especially credit and information that will enhance adoption.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effect of Drying Methods on the Nutritional Composition of Some Selected Yam Varieties Cultivated in Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria 2021-09-25T21:41:11+00:00 J. O. Nwafor O. D. Onyegbula V. N. Ezebuiro N. A. Onwuneme <p>Yams are widely grown and consumed in various forms; these tropical food crops are abundant at a particular period. Since these food crops are highly perishable after harvest, drying is a common practice for preserving them. White yam (<em>Dioscorea rotundata</em>) and water yam (<em>Dioscorea alata</em>) were collected from (National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike) yam barn. The study investigated the effect of sun-drying and oven-drying methods on the nutritional composition of water yam and white yam varieties. Oven-drying was done at 60°C for 72 hrs, while sun drying was for 3 days, until a constant weight was obtained. &nbsp;The functional properties, proximate composition, mineral contents and pH were determined to investigate the effect of dry methods on the nutritional value of the yam flour. It was observed that all parameter examined were affected by the dry methods as they varied in composition with two different processed samples (sun and oven dried). The result showed that the proximate composition for samples sun dried were 5.01%, 3.45%, 1.93%, 0.65% and 85.63%, while samples oven dried were 6.46%, 1.23%, 2.26%, 1.60%, 0.77% and 87.35% respectively. Bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, swelling power and gelation temperate for samples sun dried were 0.66%, 3.54%, 2.73%, 4.22% and 70.58<sup>b</sup>% respectively. The results of the experiment shows that sun dried yam flour retained the highest value in protein, ash, fiber, CHO and bulk density, and also in minerals (Ca, Mg and P), compared to oven dried method except moisture content which had a higher value than samples sun dried. Therefore, sun dried yam flour had the highest value, thereby retaining the best nutritional composition of the samples.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Quality Characteristic of Kunu Produced from Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato for Empowerment of Rural Women in Nigeria 2021-09-26T21:25:02+00:00 M. A. Ofoeze U. J. Ukpabi J. G. Adiele K. Sanjeet <p><em>Kunu</em> is a non-alcoholic beverage consumed in Nigeria, and originated from the northern part of the country. It is being hawked by mostly women to earn a living, and originally produced using grains like millet and sorghum. Following the popularization of orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), <em>Kunu</em> was produced using variety 440293 of OFSP obtained from National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike.&nbsp; The production of <em>Kunu</em> from orange fleshed sweet potato was done at different fermentation periods of 0 hrs (Sample A), 6 hrs (Sample B), and 12 hrs (Sample C). The biochemical, microbial, sensory characterizations and cost analysis were carried out.&nbsp; The results showed that β-carotene content of <em>Kunu</em> was still retained compared to the fresh tuber sample. The sensory evaluation showed that sample B and C were most preferred to sample A in general acceptability, however, sample A ranked highest in appearance. The microbial analysis revealed that the microbial load of <em>Kunu</em> was low with 1.01CFU/mL x 10<sup>6</sup>, 1.03 CFU/mL x10<sup>6 </sup>and 1.04 CFU/mL x10<sup>6 </sup>for A, B and C respectively. The cost analyses showed that <em>Kunu</em> from OFSP would be helpful in improving the income of rural women in Northern Nigeria.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effect of Integrating Chemical and Manual Weed Control Methods on Sweetpotato Yield and Profitability in Nigeria 2021-09-25T21:54:05+00:00 D. S. Korieocha <p>One of the main factors responsible for the observed low productivity in sweetpotato is inadequate weed control. A study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of integrating different chemical and manual weed control methods on sweetpotato yield in the rain forest (Umudike) and humid savannah agro-ecologies (Otobi) in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. Treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. There were five treatments which includes; Atrazine/metolachlor at 2.5kg ai/ha<sup>-1</sup>, Diuron at 3.0 kg ai/ha<sup>-1</sup> + one hand manual weeding at 8 WAP (weeks after planting), Atrazine/metolachlor at 2.5kg ai/ha<sup>-1</sup> + one hand manual weeding at 8 WAP, Manual weeding at 4 and 8 WAP and unweeded check. Application of Atrazine/metolachlor at 2.5 kg ai/ha<sup>-1</sup> with manual weeding at 8 WAP enhanced season long weed suppression and also gave the highest root yield of 30.01 t/ha<sup>-1</sup> and 31.08 t/ha<sup>-1</sup> in Umudike and Otobi, respectively. Application of Atrazine/metolachlor at 2.5kg ai/ha<sup>-1</sup> integrated with one manual hand weeding gave a net revenue and cost ratio of N2.05 and N2.10 to every one naira invested at Otobi and Umudike, respectively. The treatment; Atrazine/metolachlor at 2.5 kg ai/ha<sup>-1</sup> with one manual hand weeding at 8 WAP is therefore, recommended.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effect of Plant Population Density on Growth and Weed Smothering Ability of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) 2021-09-25T22:01:00+00:00 A. I. Woghiren R. O. Awodoyin D. M. Taiwo O. R. Olatidoye <p><em>Akidi</em> (cowpea), a landrace of <em>Vigna unguiculata</em>, was grown at densities of 30,121 (D1), 40,323 (D2), 50,000 (D3), 60,976 (D4), 80,645 (D5), and 0 (D6) plants/hectare in a randomized complete block design to assess the effect of intraspecific (between cowpeas) on its performance and weed smothering ability in the instance of utilizing it in intensive fallow management. At 10 weeks after sowing (WAS), the low-density plants (D1) were shorter (127.55 ± 1.84cm), produced highest stem diameter of 11.59 ± 0.86mm, and shoot dry weight/plant (12.46 ± 0.70g). The high-density cowpea treatment (D5) had the longest vines (197.93 ± 1.54cm) and relatively low shoot dry weight/plant (9.22 ± 0.64g). The D5 treatment was significantly better than other treatments in weed control and dry matter yield per unit area. <em>Tithonia diversifolia </em>and<em> Sida acuta</em> which are heliophytes were encountered in low-density treatments of D1 and D3, where the highest light intensities reached the soil.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Performance Evaluation of a Ginger Harvesting Machine with Four Different Tractor Forward Speeds 2021-09-25T22:05:06+00:00 C. V. Agu <p>Ginger is a potential agricultural commodity to be developed in Nigeria. Harvesting of ginger rhizomes in Nigeria is done manually by using hoes, fork, spade and other farm implements. The farmers are constrained with scarce labour for harvesting leading to increased labour cost and harvesting time. Experimental field trials were conducted at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, primary school field on a bed of sandy clay loam soil, to evaluate the performance of the machine at four different tractor forward speeds; 4km/hr, 8km/hr, 12km/h and 16km/h. The field parameters recorded are the operation speeds on the number of ginger rhizomes harvested, weight of ginger harvested, number of ginger un-harvested, number of ginger rhizomes with cut, weight of ginger with cut, effective/theoretical field capacity and efficiency. The machine was tested at four tractor forward speeds to investigate the effect of tractor forward speed on ginger harvesting. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used to test for significant differences at 4 tractor speeds. From the results, the tractor forward speed of 4km/h has the highest harvested rhizomes of 85.7%; while speed of 12km/h has the highest number of ginger un-harvested (41%) and number of ginger with cut (38.7%). The speed of 16km/h gave the lowest weight of harvested ginger rhizomes (3.4kg) and highest weight of cut (1.23kg). The ginger harvesting machine performed satisfactorily with effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity and field efficiency of 0.0261ha/h, 0.000505ha/h and 52% respectively.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Assessment of Wastewater and Microbiological Characteristics from Selected Hospitals in Umuahia Metropolis 2021-09-25T22:10:21+00:00 Chioma Nwakanma Chijindu Ogbajie <p>There is an increasing universal awareness of environmental problems arising as a result of COVID- 19 pandemic and pollution especially in Nigeria. Among the source of this problem is effluent discharge from industries, particularly hospitals in arable farmlands and environs. Two outstanding hospital were purposively selected; Madonna Catholic Hospital and Abia Specialist Hospital in Umuahia, Abia State. Their wastewater samples were collected from three different wards; maternity, general private, and general out-patients department (GOPD) wards. Results obtained show significant variation in physiochemical properties in some wards and heavy metals across all wards. Seven bacteria species; <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klesbsiella pneumonia</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>, <em>Bacteriod sp</em> and <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em> and one fungi specie- <em>Candida albican</em> were recorded from the samples. The bacterial load in Madonna ranged from 209.04 to 232.95cfu/ml in January, February, and March each and was statistically the same in the three wards (p&gt;0.05). Fungi load ranged from 1.58 to 2.35cfu/ml in January, February, and March each and also significantly different at (p&gt;0.05). The frequency of microbial characteristics isolated in the two hospital wastewater ranged from 33 to 100% with 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in all the wards, while other species varied significantly between 67 and 33% each. The results of the isolated bacteria from hospital wastewater showed resistivity to the tested antibiotics, and as therapeutic agents. Therefore, results call for need for urgent attention to be given to the discharge of wastewater from hospitals to ensure that food production around the environment is not contaminated.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Performance and Haematological Parameters of Yankasa Sheep Fed Ficus sycomorus as Substitute to Groundnut Cake 2021-09-26T21:27:33+00:00 A. A. Njidda I. K. Al-Habib J. Oloche <p>The effect of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with <em>Ficus sycomorus</em> foliage on the performance of Yankasa rams was studied. Sixteen (16) Yankasa rams with an average weight of 14.25 ±0.2kg were divided into four groups with four animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). The diets compared were 0% (Control), 5%, 10%, and 15% <em>Ficus sycomorus</em> levels of inclusion designated as T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, and T<sub>4</sub> respectively. Result shows significant (P&lt;0.05) differences in all the parameters studied for chemical composition of the experimental diets. The control had the highest values for dry matter (DM), cellulose, acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) each. The body weight gain, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolic weight were higher for the 10% inclusion than other treatment groups. The nutrients digestibility were significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected by the substitution level. Dry matter (DM) and the fibre fraction digestibility were generally low. Nitrogen intake and Nitrogen retained as % Nitrogen intake were not significantly (p&gt;0.05) affected by the substitution level. The results showed no significant (p&gt;0.05) effect on the haematological parameters except for the white blood cell differentials (Lymphocytes, Neutrophils and Monocytes) which showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05) among treatment groups. Serum metabolites results were significantly (p&gt;0.05) not affected by the substitution level, except for urea, protein, globulin and alkaline phosphatase; which showed significant (p&lt;0.05) difference among treatments. Results therefore, show that <em>F. sycomorus</em> can be used to substitute groundnut cake; though decrease in fibre digestibility should be taken into consideration, and the best level of substitution was 10% for <em>F. sycomorus</em><strong>.</strong></p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Effects of Adoption of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties on Farm Income and Output among Growing Households in Ebonyi and Abia States, Nigeria 2021-09-27T18:01:39+00:00 M. A. Ben-Chukwu P. E. Amadi E. S. Mgbebu I. I. Nwankwo S. O. Afuape <p>The study comparatively analyzed the effect of the adoption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) varieties on farm income and output of growing households in Ebonyi and Abia States, Nigeria using a well-structured questionnaire on 256 OFSP farmers from four agricultural zones. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as means, percentages, tables and frequency, adoption score index (of 7 point likert-type scale) and Z-test. The result on socio-economic characteristic showed that the average age of the sweet potato farmers in Ebonyi and Abia States was 47.11 and 49.86 years, respectively, with females dominating in Ebonyi, while males dominated in Abia. Farmers’ average farm size was 2.10ha and 1.71ha respectively, and years of farming experience of 8.52 and 9.65 years. The level of adoption of OFSP varieties showed that in Ebonyi, farmers were at the evaluation stage for UMUSP0/3 (X=2.78) and trial stage for UMUSP0/I (X=3.04), while in Abia<sub>,</sub> the farmers were at the trial stage for UMUSP0/1 (X=3.63) and UMUSP0/3 (X=3.78). The Z-test result showed that there were significant differences in farm income and output of OFSP farm households at 1.0% probability levels in both States. Sweet potato farmers in both Ebonyi and Abia States were seriously constrained by low extension visit, inadequate credit facilities and poor government support. The study therefore recommended that OFSP farmers should be strategically given more support to generally boost OFSP adoption, income, output and productivity across the country.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Differentials in Performance among Ginger Marketers in South-East, Nigeria 2021-09-27T17:37:11+00:00 C. Kadurumba R. O. Mejeha J. C. Nwaru <p>The study analysed the performance of ginger marketers in South-East, Nigeria, using a multi-stage sampling procedure in the selection of hundred sixty eight (168) respondents for the study. A well-structured questionnaire was used in collecting data from the respondents and the data collected analyzed using simple statistical tools like frequency tables, percentages and cost and return analysis. The result revealed that majority (62%) of the ginger marketers were females, mean age of about 44 years and 62.50% married. Majority had little or no contact with extension (1.36), had large households (6persons) and non-members of cooperative society (56.48%). The results of the performance indicators shows the net return as N24,089.66 per week. This suggests that the business was profitable and capable of continuing in both the short and long run. However, higher margin implies a higher profit. It is therefore recommended for policies that will encourage new entrants into the business since is profitable and those already in it to scale up. Awareness campaigns should made to popularize the crop and it benefits, this is expected to increase their livelihoods.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Anti-Nutritive Factors, Mineral Profile, In Vitro Gas Production and Fermentation Characteristics of Ten Browse Forage Leaves 2021-09-27T16:54:32+00:00 A. A. Njidda I. K. Al-Habib J. Oloche <p>The nutritive values of leaves from ten (10) different browse plants were analyzed using the <em>in vitro </em>gas production. Crude protein (CP) contents in the browses plants ranged from 114.90 to 173.90g kg<sup>-1</sup> dry matter (DM). Ranges of 30.60 to 51.60g kg-1 DM were recorded for EE values for the eight browse plants. The NDF, ADF and ADL were 412.10 to 688.10, 211.60 to 265.60, and 88.30 to 140.30g kg<sup>-1</sup> DM respectively. The values reported for anti-nutritive factors ranged from 0.08 to 0.39 for TCT, 0.31 to 0.71 for phenolics, 1.08 to 2.99 for Saponin, 4.58 to 8.00 for Oxalate, and 2.22 to 7.33 for phytate. The values reported for minerals showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05) for all the macro minerals; this followed a similar pattern for the trace minerals except for cobalt and nickel. The <em>in vitro</em> gas production was highest (28.33ml / 200g DM) and lowest (3.66ml / 200g DM). The fermentation characteristics a, b, a+b, c, t, Y were highest at 3.67, 25.00, 28.33, 0.057, 18.00, and 11.33 respectively. All the gas production parameters differed significantly (P&lt;0.05). Based on chemical composition and <em>in vitro </em>gas production, results show that the leaves of the browse forages have nutritive value and therefore, may serve as potential supplements for ruminants in Nigeria.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA Evaluation of the Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Soy-agidi Fortified with Alternanthera brasiliana Powder 2021-09-27T18:17:29+00:00 N. L. I. Nwanagba A. N. Obetta U. R. Isaac A. N. Nwachukwu <p>Weaning foods are nutritionally balanced foods introduced to infants after six months. High cost of nutritious proprietary weaning foods such as SMA promilk, and Similac; that are beyond the reach of most less privileged families in developing countries like Nigeria. Therefore, this has necessitated the fortification of locally available weaning food such as <em>agidi</em>. In this study, chemical composition and sensory properties of soy-agidi fortified with <em>Alternanthera brasiliana </em>were investigated. Maize grains and soybean seeds used were purchased from Ubani Main market in Umuahia North Local Government Area, while fresh leaves of <em>A. brasiliana</em> was obtained from a farm in Umudike, all in Abia State. One (1) kg of maize was sorted and steeped in portable water for 5hrs intermittently. The steeped maize was wet milled in a milling machine, sieved using a clean muslin cloth, decanted and pressed with cheese cloth to obtain maize slurry. Exactly 1kg of soybean seeds were sorted, blanched and soaked into 5% NaHSO<sub>3</sub> solution for 6hrs with change in water at intervals. The hulls were removed by water floatation and cotyledons obtained were milled into paste. The <em>A. brasiliana</em> leaves were sorted, washed, dried in oven at 50<sup>o</sup>C for 5hrs and ground to obtain <em>A.brasiliana</em> powder. Agidi samples were formulated with different blends of maize, soybean and <em>Alternanthera brasiliana</em> powder respectively (100:0:0, 80:10:10, 70:20:10, 60:30:10, and 50:40:10). The blends were mixed with 300ml of water each, cooked in 1000ml of boiling water for 10min. Agidi sample prepared from 100% maize served as control. The chemical composition and sensory properties of the Agidi samples were evaluated with standard methods. Results obtained showed that the chemical composition of the Agidi samples ranged from 16.36 to 19.84%, 10.64 to 29.05%, 0.81 to 3.46%, 3.98 to 9.83%, 0.87 to 2.42%, 38.88 to 63.86%, 3.64 to 4.77mg/100g, 33.55 to 45.08mg/100g, 3.02 to 6.64mg/100g, 163.34 to 302.02µg/100g, 0.72 to 13.37mg/100g for moisture content, crude protein, crude fibre, fat, ash, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C respectively. Agidi sample from 100% maize was the most preferred, followed by sample from 80% maize, 10% soybean and 10% <em>A. brasiliana</em> in that order.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA