Nigeria Agricultural Journal <p>Published by the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, the <em>Nigerian Agricultural Journal</em> is the oldest agricultural journal in the country having been published since 1961. It is published bi-annually to quarterly, and contributions are accepted from anyone engaged in agricultural work in Nigeria and other countries in tropical Africa.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<span lang="NL"><a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> Agricultural Society of Nigeria en-US Nigeria Agricultural Journal 0300-368X Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. DETERMINANTS OF ADOPTION OF IMPROVED SORGHUM VARIETIES (Sorghum bicolor) AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study analysed the adoption of improved sorghum varieties among farming households in Niger State,<br>Nigeria. A Multistage sampling procedure was adopted to collect data from 100 farming households in Gbako<br>and Katcha Local Government Areas (LGA) with the aid of a well structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and<br>inferential methods were used to analyse the data. Logit model was used to estimate the factors affecting adoption<br>of improved sorghum varieties in the study area Results show that the coefficients for education and access to<br>credit were directly related to probability of adoption of improved sorghum varieties at 1% and 10% level of<br>significance. The coefficients of farm size and gestation period were negative and significant at 5% level each.<br>The study recommends targeted breeding and release of improved sorghum seeds with early maturing varieties to<br>farmers to enhance productivity and maximum use of land. Policies targeted at free and affordable education will<br>enable farmers' access and process innovations for enhanced sorghum production as well as provision of credit at<br>little or no interest rates.</p> M.K. Ndagana Copyright (c) 2020 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 189 194 SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis) CLONES TO MISTLETOE INFESTATION: A CASE OF RUBBER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, RUBBER ESTATE, EDO STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of different hevea clones to mistletoe infestation at the<br>polyclonal plantation of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) Rubber Estate, Iyanomo, Edo State,<br>Nigeria which lies on longitude 50o 27″E and latitude 60o 23″N. Four clones: NIG 800 and NIG 804 (both<br>indigenous), and PR 107 and GT 1 (both exotic/foreign), laid out in a plot (block) of 21 x 23m comprising 483<br>rubber trees per clone were studied. Three hundred and twenty two (322) rubber trees in each plot were randomly<br>selected and assessed for the disease incidence using standard procedures. The result obtained showed NIG 800<br>had the highest percentage (77.95%) of infection (251 trees infected), NIG 804- 74.53% (240 trees infected),<br>RRIM 707- 42.83% (138 trees infected) and GT 1- 36.34% (117 trees infected). Therefore, mistletoe infestation<br>was severe on the indigenous clones compared with the exotic clones. Thus, more research is needed on the<br>development of indigenous resistance clones to enhance high latex yield. Regular pruning of affected tree parts is<br>also recommended.</p> K.O. Orumwense Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 195 198 ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study examined the food safety knowledge of households in Akwa Ibom State. Using a structured<br>questionnaire, primary data was collected from 457 respondents, through a multi-stage sampling procedure.<br>Specifically, study described the prevalence, margin and intensity, given three critical indices, of food safety<br>knowledge. It additionally, identified the factors influencing the probability of households having food safety<br>knowledge. Results show that average age of respondents is 41years, with household size of 5persons, monthly<br>income of N94973, and number of children below five years and adults above 65 years as 1 each. The results, with<br>mean of 0.70 as critical index showed that 55.36% of households are informed about food safety. At critical index<br>of 0.7, there is a gap of four (4) knowledge items between the informed and uniformed. Education, household<br>income and confidence in safety labels are significant factors influencing the probability of household's having<br>food safety knowledge. The study established and provided a more incisive look into the gap between the<br>informed and uninformed, with respect to food safety knowledge. It, therefore recommends that this margin be<br>bridged by awareness programmes which could be propagated by government or non-government organisations.</p> E.S. Udoh Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 199 206 COCOYAM GENOMICS: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES <p>Cocoyams (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) are functional food crops grown in many agroecological<br>zones around the world. The crop is mostly cultivated by subsistence farmers and serves as food and<br>source of income for millions of people. Based on importance, it ranks third among the root and tuber crops<br>grown in sub-Sahara Africa. Despite its cultural importance, world production and yield continue to dwindle. In<br>addition to the several physiological and biological constraints contributing to production decline, cocoyam<br>research is underfunded to the point of neglect. There is very little understanding of the complexities of cocoyam<br>genetics and its genome which has severely hampered conventional efforts at improving the crop. Compared to<br>crops like yam and cassava, cocoyam genomic research is limited. Despite this, over the years, molecular<br>technologies have been applied in cocoyam research to develop molecular markers, genetic linkage maps,<br>conduct functional genomic analysis and develop molecular diagnostic tools. Cocoyam transformation and<br>tissue culture protocols have been developed for certain cocoyam varieties. These tools have provided a better<br>understanding of the crops origins, genetic diversity within available germplasm and the pathogens that affect it,<br>rapid detection of major diseases, conservation and genetic improvement of complex traits including disease<br>resistance and improved yields. With reducing costs in next-generation sequencing, further efforts need to be<br>directed towards funding genomic research that allows for novel gene discovery, molecular pathway analysis,<br>genetic engineering and molecular breeding in non-model organisms like cocoyam.</p> N.R. Okereke Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 207 212 EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE PROXIMATE AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF CASSAVA ROOTS AND DRIED CHIPS <p>Evaluation of proximate and anti-nutritional composition analysis of three varieties of cassava roots (TMS<br>30572, TMS 98/0505, and TMS 01/1368), and dried chips were carried out using standard methods. The result<br>shows that soaking + sun drying improves and retains the proximate composition of the dried chips when<br>compared with the fresh pulp across the varieties except moisture and fat for TMS 98/0505 which incurred loss of<br>4.2% in dried chips. Sun drying only improves and retains the proximate composition of the dried peels when<br>compared with the fresh peels across the varieties except moisture. Also, soaking + sun drying and sun drying<br>alone led to significant loss (p&lt;0.05) of anti-nutrients in the dried chips and the dried peels across the varieties<br>making the dried chips and the dried peels safe for human consumption and livestock feed respectively.<br>Significant variation (p&lt;0.05) in proximate and anti-nutritional composition exist between the fresh pulp and the<br>dried chips, fresh peels and the dried peels across the varieties.</p> N.O. Nwohu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 214 224 ANALYSES OF COMMERCIALIZATION AMONG PRO-VITAMIN A CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study was conducted among farmers in Abia State to assess the commercialization of Pro-vitamin A cassava.<br>Multi-stage sampling technique was used in the study to select one hundred and twenty (120) farmers for the<br>study. The farmers were interviewed by means of structured questionnaires to elicit information on pro-vitamin A<br>cassava commercialization. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (such as frequency<br>distribution, percentages, mean), and ordinary least square regression analysis. A five point likert rating scale was<br>used to describe the perception of farmers about pro-vitamin A cassava. The result shows that fufu quality of<br>yellow root cassava has the highest perception with the mean score of 4.22, followed by high market demand<br>(4.20), highly profitable (4.10), and high nutrient (4.00). The significant determinants of pro-Vitamin A cassava<br>commercialization include; education, age, distance to market, income, fufu quality, market value, price of<br>products and processing value. The study therefore call for policies aimed at promotion of value addition of provitamin<br>A cassava, and bringing markets closer to the farmers to reduce the transactions cost of<br>commercialization. Provision of free and affordable education to enable ease of access and ability to process<br>information on marketing innovations, including modern cassava processing clusters for farmer groups for<br>increased commercialization.</p> F.N. Nwakor Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 225 232 EFFECT OF PLANT SPACING ON GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF AFRICAN EGG PLANT (Solanum macrocarpon) IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNAH OF NIGERIA <p>Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of plant spacing on growth and yield of African<br>eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon) at the Teaching and Research farm of the Institute of Agricultural Research,<br>Ahmadu Bello University (IAR/ABU) Zaria, Kaduna State in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. The experiment<br>consists of five treatments (plant spacing of; 80 × 30cm, 80 × 50cm, 100 × 50cm, 100 × 60cm and 120×70cm inter<br>and intra-row). Data were collected on both growth and yield parameters. Results showed that close row spacing<br>of 80cm × 30cm significantly reduced number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, short plant and<br>wider leaf area. Plant spacing of 120cm × 70cm gave higher growth parameters (number of leaves and branches,<br>plant height and leaf area). Yield and yield components of African eggplant (32.4 and 35.3 for number of fruit per<br>plant, 212.4 and 247.0 for fresh fruit weight and 16.1 and 15.1t/ha for fresh fruit yield in 2017 and 2018<br>respectively) were obtained at spacing of 120 × 70cm. Based on the findings of this study, eggplant should be<br>cultivated at a spacing of 120cm × 70cm (inter and intra-row spacing) for optimum growth and fruit yield in<br>Zaria, Northern Nigeria.</p> M.K. Ndagana Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 233 236 IMPACT OF VIRUS INFECTION ON YAM (Dioscorea rotundata POIR) PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA <p>Yam is important for food security in Nigeria. The trial was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design<br>(RCBD) with seven treatments (seven local varieties), and three replications to assess the impact of virus<br>incidence and severity on performance of yam varieties in the field during three growing seasons (2014, 2015 and<br>2016). The performance indicator that was studied was yam yield and virus symptoms used for evaluation were<br>mosaic and mottling, vein-clearing, and vein-banding. Plants that grew from virus-negative seed yams expressed<br>the presence of virus symptoms on the field. Germination percentage was lowest in Gbakumo yam variety and<br>played a greater role in the determination of yam yield in all yam varieties. The presence or absence of virus in the<br>seed yam before planting affected the level of yam germination and yam yield. Virus incidence, which increased<br>yearly, was negatively correlated to germination and yield. Average tuber weight was positively correlated to<br>germination count (%) in some varieties. For the three years, the varieties; Mailemu, Bangwasi and Allushe<br>showed evidence of tolerance to virus infection with high performance in terms of germination and yield. New<br>local yam varieties therefore need to be further investigated for inclusion in food security staples in Nigeria.</p> S.W. Asala Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 237 243 BOTANICAL CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH CASSAVA CHIPS IN UMUAHIA MARKETS, SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA <p>Laboratory experiment was carried out in the College of Crop and Soil sciences, Michael Opkara University of<br>Agriculture, Umudike to determine the level of contamination of dry Cassava chips from local markets in<br>Umuahia metropolis. Potato Dextrose Agar was used to isolate the fungi involved in the contamination of chips.<br>Through serial dilution, plating the frequency of occurrence of the major fungi was obtained. Fungi which<br>include: Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatum, Rhizopus stolonifer and<br>Penicillium digitatum were observed and 80% frequency of occurrence recorded. Three fungi: Aspergillus niger,<br>Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium digitatum were the most consistently recorded in the three markets sampled.<br>The least recorded was Penicillium digitatum at 49.36%. The average total fungal counts were 26.2 x 105<br>(Aspergillus niger); 12.0 x 105 (Rhizopus stolonifer) and 19.2 x105cfu/g (Penicillium digitatum). Aqueous<br>extracts of Newbouldia laevis gave the highest inhibitory effect (91.067%), on Aspregillus niger. The inhibitory<br>effect of Newbouldia laevis was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher than that of Vitex doniana. Newbouldia laevis<br>demonstrated antifungal potential on cassava chips spoilage causing fungi and can be recommended for use as<br>natural fungicide on cassava chips in storage.</p> E.U. Opara Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 244 252 ADOPTION SCALE ANALYSIS OF CASSAVA VALUE ADDITION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ONICHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study provides empirical findings on adoption analysis of cassava value addition technologies (CAVAT)<br>among rural women in Onicha LGA, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling technique was used<br>to select 120 respondents for the study in 2019. The study analytically adopted descriptive statistics, Lickert<br>Rating Scale and multiple regression analyses to analyze the data. The result shows that the respondents were still<br>strong and active, had mainly formal education with large households, many years of farming experience and are<br>married. The results on level of adoption shows that cassava flakes, flour and doughnut were adopted<br>technologies at varying levels. The determinants of adoption of cassava value addition shows that coefficients for<br>age and education were positive at 1% and 5% level of probability for cassava flakes and flour respectively.<br>Household size was negative for cassava flour and doughnut at 10% and 5% level respectively and positive for<br>flakes at 1% level, while income were positive and significant at 5% and 10% level of probability for cassava<br>flour and chin-chin. The coefficients for experience were also positive and significant for all products; expect<br>chin-chin at varying levels, while marital status was significant and negative for cassava doughnut at 5% level,<br>and positive for chin-chin and flakes at 5% and 1% respectively. This implies that increase in these variables will<br>lead to corresponding increase or decrease in adoption of cassava value addition products. The results also shows<br>that inadequate funding, unsteady electricity supply, inadequate value addition facilities and inadequate transport<br>facilities were the most important constraints militating against cassava value addition adoption in the study area.<br>The results therefore call for policies aimed at provision of accessible education and more extension contact to<br>enhance their access and ability to process information on CAVATs. There is also need for availability of<br>infrastructural amenities such as stable electricity supply, storage facilities and processing machines in the study<br>area, not only to boost food production but also to create more employment opportunities and enhanced<br>livelihoods.</p> R.I. Kanu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 253 258 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A GINGER HARVESTING MACHINE <p>In this study, experimental field trials were conducted at National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI),<br>Umudike, on a flat land with sandy clay loam soil, to evaluate the performance of the machine at two different<br>tractor forward speeds of 4km/h and 8km/h. The following field parameters were recorded: operation speeds,<br>number of ginger rhizomes harvested, number of un-harvested ginger, number of ginger rhizomes with cut,<br>effective/theoretical field capacity and efficiency. Harvesting of ginger rhizomes in Nigeria is done manually by<br>the use of fork, spade and other farm implements. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used to<br>design the experiment and analyses carried out with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). From the results, the tractor<br>forward speed of 4km/h has the highest number of ginger rhizomes harvested at 88.7%, while the speed of 8km/h<br>has the highest number of un-harvested ginger at 31%, and number of ginger with cut at 33.7%. The harvester<br>gave a satisfactory performance as it was able to carry out harvesting operation of ginger, with the effective field<br>capacity, theoretical field capacity and field efficiency of 0.0261ha/h, 0.000505ha/h and 52% respectively.</p> C.V. Agu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 259 262 PESTICIDE USE AND HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG COCOA FARMERS: EVIDENCE FROM ONDO AND KWARA STATES OF NIGERIA <p>The study investigated the health implications of pesticide use by cocoa farmers in Ondo and Kwara States of<br>Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 260 cocoa farmers in the study area. Data<br>were collected with the aid of questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate probit<br>(MVP) regression model. Results from the study indicated that the cocoa farmers were getting aged with a mean<br>age of 50 and 55 years and educational level of mainly primary school in Ondo and Kwara States, respectively.<br>The predominant health effects experienced by the cocoa farmers resulting from pesticide exposure in the study<br>areas were skin irritation (70.7%), breathing difficulty (69%) and eye irritation (65.9%). The results of the MVP<br>revealed that total pesticide dose used increased the probability of the cocoa farmers experiencing eye irritation<br>(p&lt;0.05), skin irritation (p&lt;0.01), dizziness (p&lt;0.05), breathing difficulty (p&lt;0.05) and stomach cramps<br>(p&lt;0.01), while reading and adherence to instructions on pesticide labels and manuals reduced the probability of<br>the cocoa farmers experiencing eye irritation (p&lt;0.05), dizziness (p&lt;0.05), breathing difficulty (p&lt;0.01) and<br>stomach cramps (p&lt;0.05). The study recommended that pesticide labels should be made comprehensible to<br>farmers with little or no education through the use of pictorials on how to use and apply pesticides. This should<br>accompany pesticide packages at the point of sales.</p> F.O. Aminu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 263 273 EVALUATING SWEETPOTATO SEEDLINGS POPULATION FOR NUMBER OF ROOT YIELD POTENTIAL, ROOT FLESH COLOUR VARIABILITY AND CANOPY ARCHITECTURE <p>A field study was conducted at the western farm of National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike,<br>Umuahia, Abia State in the rainforest of Southeast Nigeria to evaluate the newly developed sweetpotato<br>seedlings for storage root yield potential, determine the storage root fleshed colour variation and canopy<br>architecture of the sweetpotato seedlings. Three thousand seeds from both controlled and diallel mating were<br>collected from 12 families and raised in poly-bags that measured 4 x 6cm in size. The seedlings were later<br>transplanted to the field at six leaf stage (that is two months after planting) in polybags at planting distance of 30<br>x100cm for field evaluation. The following data were collected at harvest based on single plant bases: presence of<br>storage roots, number of storage roots per plant, flesh colour of storage roots and vine length of each plant.<br>Results obtained indicated that seedlings with high number of large storage roots per plant may be selected as<br>having high storage root yield potential. Sweetpotato parents used as females intend to influence their progenies<br>in certain morphological attributes in terms of flesh root colour characteristics and seedlings discriminated into<br>types of storage root flesh colours could be regarded as varieties and as such could be put into different domestic<br>and industrial utilization, while the sweetpotato canopy structure that differentiated the seedlings into<br>erect/bushy types and spreading types could be incorporated into different farming systems of the people.</p> I.I.M. Nwankwo Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 274 280 TARO LEAF BLIGHT: THREAT TO TARO (Colocasiae esculenta L. Schott) PRODUCTION <p>Taro (Colocasiae esculenta) is the third most important root and tuber after cassava and yam cultivated in sub-<br>Saharan Africa, but its global yield is severely threatened by the disease- Taro Leaf Blight (TLB). The disease is<br>associated with the oomycete P.colocasiae which attacks every part of the plant, especially when it is a<br>susceptible variety. More than 80% of taro losses are due to the impact of TLB and it accounts for why many<br>growers neglect the crop, resulting in major changes in dietary patterns and cropping systems in affected areas.<br>Lack of funding geared toward taro research is also a major contributing factor to the crops neglect. A better<br>understanding of P.colocasiae isolate in affected region, better informs disease management strategies, which<br>over the years have included the use of resistant cultivars, chemical and biological controls, and cultural<br>practices. The literature reviewed to describe TLB as a grave threat to taro production was retrieved from<br>computerized databases. This paper provides an overview of the disease origin, epidemiology, and impact on<br>cultivation, and highlights opportunities new offer of biotechnologies to reduce losses of this neglected tropical<br>food crop. For many, this ancient crop is of cultural significance and addressing the TLB scourge is of the utmost<br>importance.</p> N.R. Okereke Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 281 286 INCOME DISTRIBUTION AMONG FOREST-DEPENDENT RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study analysed income distribution among forest-dependent rural households in Delta State, Nigeria. A multi<br>stage random sampling techniques were used to select 198 forest-dependent rural households using cross<br>sectional data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Gini Coefficient. The results were presented in<br>3 categories using the entire income of the forest-dependent rural households, income of forest resource owners<br>and lastly non-owners of forest resources. Results gave a Gini index of 0.54 for the entire sample indicating that<br>size distribution of forest-dependent rural household income was quite inequitable in pattern. However, the<br>income of forest resource owners gave a Gini index of 0.34 indicating that there was low inequality in income<br>distribution among them. The non-owners of forest resources had a Gini index of 0.55 which showed high income<br>inequality. About 20% of the population of non-owners of forest resources earn less than 3% of the income while<br>60% of the population earn less than 20% of the income. The study therefore calls for policy shift that will allow<br>non-owners of forest resources in the rural areas access to both government and private owned forest reserves for<br>the collection of products. Education and enlightenment of rural households is necessary to help sustain<br>availability of forest products, harvesting, processing and marketing for better value and income. Rural<br>households should participate in the formulation of forest policies and programmes.</p> P.I. Nwandu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 287 292 SUBSTITUTION VALUE OF COOKED SANDBOX (Hura Crepitans) SEED MEAL FOR SOYA BEAN MEAL IN LAYERS DIETS <p>Mature sandbox (Hura crepitans) undecorted seeds were boiled for 1 hour at 100oC, sundried for 3 days and<br>crushed in a hammer mill with a sieve size of 3.36mm to produce cooked undecorted sandbox (Hura Crepitans)<br>seed meal. A 12-week feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the substitution value of cooked undecorted<br>sandbox (Hura Crepitans) seed meal for soyabean meal in layers diets. Four experimental layers diets were<br>formulated such that cook sandbox seed meal so prepared substituted soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 15% and 20%<br>dietary levels respectively. Two hundred and forty (240) Shika Brown laying hens (already 6 months in lay on<br>deep litter) were divided into four groups of sixty (60) hens each, and randomly assigned to the four treatment<br>diets in a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment group was further subdivided into three (3)<br>replicates of twenty (20) hens each. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. The hens were weighed at the<br>beginning of the experiment and weekly thereafter, while feed intake was recorded daily. Eggs were collected<br>twice daily (9.00 am and 3:00pm) and weighed. Five eggs from daily collections from each treatment were<br>randomly selected and evaluated daily for external and internal egg characteristics. At the end of the feeding trial,<br>five (5) hens per replicate were deprived of feed but not water for 24 hours, weighed, slaughtered and eviscerated<br>for organ weight analysis expressed as percentage of live weight. Data Collected were subjected to analysis of<br>variance. Results show there were no significant (P&gt;0.05) differences among the treatment groups in all the<br>parameters measured, except in body weight gain and Haugh unit of the laying hens. Feed intake, feed conversion<br>ratio (g.feed/g.egg), hen-day egg production (%), and egg weights of the groups on the substitution levels<br>compared favourably with the control group. The organ weight analysis and egg quality characteristics (external<br>and internal) of the hens were also comparable with the control group. The results of this experiment suggest<br>therefore, that cooked undecorted sandbox (Hura Crepitans) seed meal could partially substitute soybean meal in<br>layers diets at 20% dietary level, however for optimal egg production, 10% dietary substitution level is<br>recommended.</p> E. Ozeudu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 293 297 GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FRESH FISH PRODUCTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR FARMERS ACCESS TO CREDIT FACILITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study analysed gender differentials in fresh fish production and the implications for farmers' access to credit<br>facilities in Delta State, Nigeria. Two agricultural zones of the state were purposively selected for the study and<br>45 respondents selected based on intensity of production. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to<br>analyze data generated. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents showed that male (75.56%)<br>dominated the fish business with many (68%) married and educated to tertiary level (62.22%). The mean<br>household size and age of the respondents were about 7 persons and 53.67 years respectively. The result also<br>showed that male farmers had more access to credit facilities than their female counterparts and had credit<br>facilities with provision of collateral security. In addition, respondents average farm income was N658,823.53<br>and N472,727.27 for the male and female farmers respectively. The difference of N186,096.26 was significant<br>at the 5% level. The results show that coefficients for age, gender and farm income were directly related to<br>probability of access to credit and significant at 10% level, as well as education, marital status and farming<br>experience at 5% level and household size at 1% level. The results therefore call for policies aimed at provision of<br>free and affordable education to enable the fish farmers access and process information on credit in the study area.<br>There is also need to encourage women and experienced fish farmers to increase production by adequate credit<br>incentives to enhance income.</p> G.F. Okwuokenye Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 298 304 ASSESSMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITY EFFORTS IN GULLY EROSION CONTROL IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study examined rural community efforts in gully erosion control in Imo state, Nigeria. The study identified<br>the erosion control activities, ascertained the level of participation in gully erosion control activities, examined<br>the perceived effects of gully erosion on rural community development and identified factors militating against<br>the efforts of rural communities in gully erosion control. Multistage random sampling procedure was used in<br>sampling 180 respondents. Data for the study were collected with the use of a well structured questionnaire. Data<br>collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation).<br>Findings showed that long ridges across slope or the ground (55.0%) was the major gully erosion control activity.<br>Respondents participated poorly in erosion control activities (1.7) and strongly perceived the effect of gully<br>erosion on community development (3.26). Factors militating against rural community efforts on gully erosion<br>control were soil properties (81.1%), topography (80.0%), and shape and size of watershed (72.8%). The study<br>also showed that the rural communities participated poorly in efforts to control gully erosion menace as only long<br>ridges across the slope was their major effort in controlling gully erosion. The study therefore recommends that<br>water should be properly channeled by constructing drainages especially within the residential areas.</p> S.E. Onu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 305 309 RISK ATTITUDE AND RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AMONG AGRIBUSINESS ENTREPRENEURS: CASE STUDY OF COCOA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study empirically analyzed the risk attitude and risk management strategies among cocoa farmers in Abia<br>State, Nigeria. A Multistage sampling technique was used in the selection of sixty (60) cocoa farmers for the<br>study. Descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correction and Ordinary Least Square Regression<br>analyses were used to analyze the data. The results of the descriptive statistics showed that the respondents had a<br>mean age of 42 years, majority (88.3%) of them are male, many (75%) of whom were married, with household<br>size of about 6 persons, farm size of 5 hectares, farming experience of 17 years, and majority (98.3%) literate. The<br>respondents had average farm income of ₦433,381, non-farm income of ₦64,337, extension contact of about 3<br>times, and cocoa output of 10 bags of 200kg. Majority (78.4%) of the respondents were also risk-takers. The most<br>common risk management strategies used by the respondents were precautionary savings, intercropping and offfarm<br>jobs. The major challenges faced by the respondents were: bad roads, pests and diseases, high cost of inputs<br>and agrochemicals, and problem of middlemen. The results of the correlation analysis indicate a negative linear<br>correlation between cocoa farmers' risk attitude and their risk management strategies in the study area. The<br>results of the regression analysis showed that age, farm size, farm income, extension contact and credit were the<br>significant determinants of cocoa farmers' output. The study therefore, calls for land reform policies to make<br>more land available to cocoa farmers for increased output and income. Need to strengthen extension to enable<br>farmer's access and process information on innovations that will enhance output of cocoa</p> C.I. Ibeawuchi Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 310 317 SPATIAL IMPACT AND VARIATION OF FARM INCOME AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA <p>The significant influence of location on agricultural production has not been largely investigated. Due to the<br>paucity of empirical evidence of this influence, this study was designed to analyze the impact of spatial difference<br>on farm income among farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. A multi stage randomized sampling procedure was used to<br>select 80 farming households in two Agricultural Zones (Ohafia and Umuahia) in the State. Primary data were<br>collected by the use of the cost route approach with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed<br>using descriptive statistics, multiple regression and Chows' test. The results showed that the income of farmers in<br>Ohafia Agricultural Zone (OAZ) was higher than the income of farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone (UAZ).<br>Chow's test showed that the difference in income of the farmers was due to spatial difference between the two<br>zones. The results of the multiple regression also showed that education, labour availability and farm size were<br>significant drivers of farm income. A consideration of spatial differences in the environment of agricultural<br>production is important in the design, development and introduction of improved agricultural technologies and in<br>the planning and implementation of agricultural development programmes.</p> I.C. Onyebinama Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 318 324 EFFECT OF PRODUCER INVESTMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VALUE ADDED CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA <p>This study analyzed the effect of producer investment on performance of value added cassava production in<br>South East Nigeria. Data used for the study were obtained from 180 respondents using multi-stage sampling<br>technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis and simple<br>regression technique. Findings showed that the initial capital invested in the enterprises averaged ₦107,635.64<br>(gari), ₦99,623.48 (fufu), and ₦71,159.39 (abacha) and sourced mostly from personal savings. The gross<br>margin was ₦326814.53, ₦353978.00 and ₦267791.69 for gari, fufu and abacha enterprises respectively, while<br>the BCR was 2.17:1.00, 1.77:1.00 and 2.44:1.00 respectively for the enterprises. The correlation analysis showed<br>that there was a strong relationship between capital invested and performance. The regression analysis showed<br>that the amount of capital invested positively influenced the level of profit. The study therefore recommended the<br>provision of credit support to investors in cassava processing not only as agricultural loans but as part of small and<br>medium scale enterprises (SMEs) development grant to expand their capacity, improve scale of operation and<br>income. The amount of credit used by the processors in most of the cases had significant effects on their<br>performance. Therefore the relevance of credit in strengthening the processors is important.</p> B.A. Ahamefule Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 325 329 ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND PROFITABILITY OF FISH HATCHERY ENTERPRISES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study examined the economic efficiency and profitability of fish hatchery enterprises in Osun State, Nigeria.<br>Primary data were obtained from 189 fish hatchery farmers with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire, using<br>simple random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed by the use of descriptive statistics, stochastic<br>frontier profit function and budgetary analysis. Results showed that mean age, household size and years of<br>experience of the fish hatchery farmers were 46 years, 6 persons and 9 years respectively. The study also found<br>that the age, educational qualification, household size, fish hatchery experience and membership of cooperative<br>society were factors affecting farm-level profit efficiency in the use of resources. Economic efficiency of fish<br>hatchery enterprise ranged from 0.30 to 0.99, with average efficiency level of 0.85. This implies that, on the<br>average, farmers are able to obtain 85% of potential profit from a given mix of inputs. Results show that net farm<br>income was ₦86,940.74, and benefit cost ratio of 1.58. Although the enterprises were found to be profitable,<br>young individuals should be motivated either by provision of soft loans without or low interest rate to venture into<br>the enterprise for sustainable fish production.</p> S.S. Ashley-Dejo Copyright (c) AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 337 345 COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF GARI AND FUFU MARKETING IN UMUAHIA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study comparatively assessed the marketing of gari and fufu in Umuahia North Local Government Area<br>(LGA) of Abia State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 120 processors/marketers used for the<br>study. Descriptive statistics, net return and multiple regression technique were employed to analyze the data<br>collected. Results of analysis showed that majority of gari (73.33%) and fufu marketers (93.33%) were females.<br>Majority of the respondents were married middle aged marketers, with moderate household sizes, had formal<br>education, and average marketing experience of 22.12years and 21.99years respectively. The marketers sourced<br>their cassava tubers from the farm gate, wholesalers, retailers and owned farm. The result further indicates that<br>processing cassava tubers into gari was more rewarding since the return to investment was higher for gari<br>compared to fufu. There was significant difference between profitability of gari and fufu marketers in the study<br>area. The coefficients of household size, storage cost and transportation cost were negatively related to<br>profitability of gari marketing and significant at 5%, 1% and 10% levels respectively, and marketing experience<br>and price of gari which were positive and significant at 1% and 5% level respectively. The coefficients of<br>household size, price of fufu, and education were directly related to profitability of fufu marketing, and<br>significant at 1%, 5% and 10% level respectively, as well as transportation cost and handling cost which were<br>negative and significant at 10% level each. The study recommends that the marketers should be encouraged to<br>form cooperatives association to help reduce cost of marketing while taking advantage of economies of scale.<br>Policy on price control mechanisms is advocated to mitigate price volatility for enhanced profit. Trainings,<br>workshops and seminars should be organized for the marketers to update their basic skills in cassava by-products<br>marketing.</p> J.O. Uzuegbu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 346 356 EFFECT OF VOLUME OF MICRO-CREDIT ON FARMERS ANNUAL TURNOVER IN EDO STATE NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOAN REPAYMENT <p>The study examined the effect of volume of loan received on farmers' annual turnover and loan repayment. Multistage random sampling procedure was used in selecting 150 arable crop farmers in the study area. Data collection was facilitated by means of a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings from the study show a positive relationship between volume of loan received and farmer's annual turnover at 1% level of significance. Farmers who received higher volume of loans recorded higher annual turnover than their counterparts who received less. The analysis of loan repayment performance of the farmers in Edo State showed an average repayment rate of 90.1%, which can be attributed to efficient loan utilization and the need to qualify for loan next time. The Coefficients of loan received, and educational level were directly related to loan repayment and significant at 1% level and farm size and annual income at 10% level. The coefficient of household size had an indirect relationship with loan repayment and significant at 10% level. The results underscore the need to scale up loan sums advanced to farmers by micro-credit institutions who presently are constrained by low capital base. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and International NGOs should come up with an intervention fund for informal micro-credit organizations to shore up their capital base. There is also need for policy aimed at free and affordable education to enable farmers access information on better fund management and land re-form policies to enable them more access to land for increased output to enhance loan repayments.</p> J.A.L. Effiong Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 330 336 DETERMINING THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF RICE STRIPE NECROSIS VIRUS ON RICE (Oryza Sativa L.) IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA <p>A survey was conducted in September 2019 in Abuja, to assess the incidence and severity of rice virus disease<br>across 24 rice fields. The samples collected from the survey were used for molecular indexing. All data collected<br>were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 17 and mean separation was done using Duncan<br>Multiple Range Test. Out of 360 leaf samples collected from the survey, Bwari Area Council had the highest<br>incidence (35.5%), while Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) had the lowest (13.3%). Gwagwalada had the<br>highest severity (31.1%) and AMAC recorded the lowest (20%). After testing in the laboratory using Polymerase<br>Chain Reaction (PCR), the samples did not test positive to the virus. This study is the first research on RSNV in<br>the FCT, Abuja and further survey is recommended for the FCT and other parts of Nigeria.</p> O.O. Folarin Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 357 361 EFFECT OF ADOPTION OF IMPROVED CASSAVA VARIETIES ON HOUSEHOLD INCOME IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study was carried out to analyze the effect of adoption of improved cassava varieties on household income in<br>Oyo State, Nigeria. A Multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to select 200 respondents for the study. The<br>study employed descriptive statistics and multinomial Logit for data analysis. The results revealed that 73.5% of<br>the respondents were male, 66.5% were within the age range of 40-60years, 88% married, 56.0% had household<br>size of 6-10 persons, 9% had no formal education and 40.5% sourced their fund from the cooperative societies.<br>The estimated multinomial logit model for effects of factors influencing income from improved cassava varieties<br>revealed that among all the variables considered in this study, educational level of the respondents, household<br>size, and the level adoption of improved varieties were all positive and significant at 1%, while farm size was<br>significant at 5%. The non-adopters indicated inadequate credit facility (18.8%), poor communication (18.1%),<br>and lack of market (17.7%) as factors militating against the adoption of improved cassava varieties. Hence,<br>considering other pertinent factors, the adoption of new and improved varieties of cassava presents farming<br>households the opportunity to increase their income generation. There is also need for educational policies to<br>enable the farmers access and process information on innovations that will enhance cassava productivity and<br>hence income.</p> A.S. Adetunji Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 362 369 ANALYSES OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF SELECTED SACHET WATER BRANDS IN NNEWI, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study analyzed the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of five sachet water brands mostly<br>consumed in Nnewi. The researchers used respective meters for the physical parameters, an atomic absorption<br>spectrophotometer machine for the heavy metal determinations and streak-plate method for the determination of<br>microbiological parameters. The five sachet water brands that were used for this study were elicited from<br>respondents in Nnewi using a well-structured questionnaire. The study estimated the pH, electrical conductivity,<br>total solids, heavy metal contents, total count bacteria and microbial isolates of the microbiological parameters of<br>selected sachet water brands. Averaged results of the physicochemical parameters showed that pH estimated at<br>5.928, electrical conductivity-0.2636μS/m, turbidity-0.0092NTU, total dissolved solids-44.64mg/L, and total<br>suspended solids-30.54mg/L. In addition, averaged results of the heavy metal parameters showed that lead was<br>estimated at 0.012mg/L, cadmium-0.0576mg/L, copper-0.0252mg/L, iron-2.496mg/L, zinc-0.85mg/L,<br>chromium-0.051mg/L and cobolt-0.8602mg/L. Results of the microbiological parameters showed that for total<br>count, Christo was estimated at 24 x 104MPN/100ml, Carter- 22 x 103MPN/100ml, Uru- 22 x 104MPN/100ml,<br>Aqua-Rapha- 21 x 103MPN/100ml and Chem-Paully- 78 x 103MPN/100ml. The study recommends that sachet<br>water regulatory agency should ensure that sachet water brands are produced under hygienic environment in<br>order to safeguard the public health of residents.</p> I.G. Okpara Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 370 374 EFFECT OF LIVELIHOOD FACTORS ON CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PRACTICES AMONG FARMERS IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA: QUANTITATIVE APPROACH <p>The study investigated livelihood factors that affect climate change adaptation practices of farmers in Southeast<br>Nigeria. Primary data were used in the study, and analysed using descriptive statistics, activity-based adaptation<br>index (AAI) and multiple regression. The farm practices of the farmers were 74% effective for climate change<br>adaptation, while water management was their most effective (82%) climate change adaptation strategy. Their<br>level of climate change adaptation was 64%, which was significantly influenced by the occurrence of natural<br>disasters, farm size, access to healthcare centres, credit facilities, age, farming experience, membership of<br>cooperatives and income. The study recommends the adoption of more effective climate change adaptation<br>practices, and increased farmers' access to more lands for farming, extension contact, credit at little or no interest<br>rates and healthcare centres.</p> O.G. Oti Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 375 382 EFFECT OF COCOYAM VALUE ADDITION ON THE LIVELIHOOD OF RURAL WOMEN PROCESSORS/MARKETERS IN ISIALA NGWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study analysed the effect cocoyam value addition on the livelihood of cocoyam rural women<br>marketers/processors in Isiala Ngwa North Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. One hundred and<br>twenty cocoyam processors/marketers were randomly selected with the use of a multi-stage samling procedure<br>for the study. Results showed that majority (65%) of the respondents were young, 58% of them were married,<br>while 98% were literate. Rural marketers/processors in the study area mainly processed cocoyam into flour, fufu<br>and crisps. The processors sourced their cocoyam cormels from the farm gate, wholesalers, retailers and owned<br>farms. The study showed that labour and cocoyam cormels were the most expensive cost items in cocoyam<br>processing, while the depreciation cost was the least. However, the result of the rate of returns on investment<br>shows that cocoyam processing is an income earning venture. The result further indicates that processing<br>cocoyam into flour is more rewarding since its returns on investment (0.22k) is higher for flour compared to fufu<br>(0.19k) and cocoyam crisps (0.21k) for every one naira invested. Labour cost, cost of processing equipment, cost<br>of cocoyam cormels, credit access, income and household size were the significant variables influencing<br>cocoyam value addition. However, age, household size, marketing/processing experience, quantity of cormels<br>bought, selling price, and cocoyam value addition were the significant factors affecting the profit level and hence<br>the income of the cocoyam processors. The result further showed that cocoyam value addition had a positive<br>effect on the income/livelihood of the cocoyam farmers. The study recommends that processors/marketers have<br>access to storage facilities to ensure that by-products processed in excess quantities are stored in order to make<br>them available throughout the year at affordable prices. Efforts should also be made to ensure that the<br>marketers/processors be provided with the necessary resources and facilities/equipment to ensure enhanced<br>processing/marketing of cocoyam by-products.</p> J.O. Uzuegbu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 383 390 LAND SUITABILITY EVALUATION OF BASALTIC SOILS FOR CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA <p>Pedological study was conducted in soils derived from basalt parent material in Ikom, Cross River State, South-<br>South Nigeria to assess their suitability for sustainable cassava production. A total of 500ha of land was surveyed<br>using the rigid grid format and three mapping units were delineated based on similarities and differences<br>observed in the morphological properties. Profile pits were dug in the identified mapping units. The Pits were<br>sampled according to genetic horizons and taken to laboratory for analyses. From the analytical results the<br>characteristics of the soils ranged as follows: soil texture, Sandy clay loam to Clay, pH, 4.3 to 4.4; Organic C, 11.6<br>to 28.0 g kg-1; total N, 0.8 to 1.7g kg-1; available P, 6.67 to 13. 96 mg kg_1; CEC, 5.91 to 10.59 cmol (+) kg_1 and Base<br>saturation, 45.91 to 75.11 %. Land Suitability classification was evaluated using the Productivity Index method<br>which shows that the actual productivity index of the soils ranged from 53.20 to 63.04 %. This is an indication,<br>that all the mapping units were moderately suitable for production of cassava. For the soils to be highly suitable<br>(potential suitability) for sustainable cassava production, the fertility status of the soils needs to be improved on.</p> I.N. Onyekwere Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 391 398 IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE RHIZOSPHERE OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.): BASIC MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES <p>The rhizosphere of plants harbours diverse communities of microorganisms which play important roles to the plant<br>and other living organisms. This study was aimed at isolating and characterizing fungi associated with the<br>rhizosphere of Zea mays L. using both traditional cultural techniques and basic molecular methods. Fungi were<br>isolated from the soil around the root of maize plant obtained from University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The<br>fungal DNA was extracted using Zymo Fungal/Bacteria DNA Miniprep Kit and amplified using the primer pair:<br>ITS4 and ITS5. Internal Trnascribed Spacer (ITS) sequences of the isolates were blasted on National Centre for<br>Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and identified as Aspergillus pseudonomius and Penicillium sp.<br>Phylogenetic tree was constructed to access the relationship between the isolates obtained from this study and other<br>isolates on GenBank. The sequences of the isolates have been deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers:<br>MN187251 for Aspergillus pseudonomius and MT723948 for Penicillium sp. The molecular techniques used in<br>this study were sufficient in classifying the fungal isolates. This study has given insight into some of the fungi that<br>inhabit the rhizosphere of Zea mays.</p> N.G. Iyanyi Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 399 405 ASSESSMENT OF GENDER ROLES IN FISH FARMING ACTIVITIES AMONG RURAL FARMERS IN AFIJIO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OYO STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study was conducted to assess rural farmers' involvement in fish farming activities in Afijio Local<br>Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 103<br>respondents for the study. The data collected were analyzed with the use of descriptive and inferential statistics to<br>draw inferences between variables. The results showed that majority (70.9%) of the respondents were males<br>whom are within the age range of of 30-49 years. Males mainly engaged in technical aspects of post-harvest<br>practices such as filleting, gutting, and sticking, whereas, majority of the women engaged in frying, smoking, and<br>marketing of fish. The study revealed that age (χ²=9.25, P&lt;0.05) and household size (χ²=9.256, P&lt;0.05) were<br>related to involvement in fish farming. The result also revealed that there was significant relationship between<br>farmers' involvement in household activities (r= -0.317, p&lt;0.01), post-harvest activities (r= 0.614, p&lt;0.01) and<br>fish farming. The result also showed that farmers' post-harvest activities significantly correlated with their level<br>of involvement in fish farming. The major constraints militating against fish farming were lack of collateral<br>security, high cost of fish feed, and inadequate extension services. The study therefore, call for policies aimed at<br>more enlightenment campaigns to improve socio-economic well-being of farmers. Gender equality should also<br>be mainstreamed into fish production through effective training programs for rural farmers in Afijio LGA, Oyo<br>State, Nigeria.</p> A.S. Adeoye Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 406 412 COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS MORINGA EXTRACTS (LEAF AND POD) AS FOLLIAR FERTILIZER ON COCOYAM YIELD <p>The use of aqueous moringa extract (leaf and pod) as a foliar fertilizer was studied in the cocoyam research farm,<br>National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State. The study was aimed at determining the effect of<br>the extracts on the yield of two cultivars of Cocoyam. Extracts were produced by milling moringa leaf and pod<br>separately, and diluted with water at the ratios of 1:1 and 2:1(v/v) each. The experimental design was a 5x2<br>factorial in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. The factors are; five treatments (control,<br>AMPE 1:1, AMPE 2:1, AMLE 1:1 and AMLE 2:1), and two Cocoyam cultivars (NCe 001 and 012). Each<br>replicate had 10 treatment combinations. Treatments were applied on plant leaves at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after<br>planting. Data collected were growth (number of plant stands at harvest), and yield (weight and number of corms<br>and cormels). The results indicate that the AMPE gave better yield than AMLE. When compared with the control,<br>all the treatments gave higher yield, with AMPE 2:1 having higher yield of about 20% on NCe 012 and AMPE 1:1<br>with about 50% on NCe 001. Amongst the two cultivars, there were significant differences in their yield, with<br>better performance from NCe 012. Results showed that moringa extract can be considered as a good organic<br>foliar fertilizer for enhanced yield of Cocoyam. This is attributed to its composition of growth hormones and<br>nutrients which are present in sufficient quantities and suitable proportions, capable of increasing growth and<br>yield of various crops.</p> N.E. Ebido Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 413 417 INTENSIVE CASSAVA PRODUCTION: CROP FOR THE FUTURE <p>Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple food in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), providing an important<br>source of calories and options for food security for the increasing population. It is a warm season crop, with<br>unique and useful environmental physiological traits, including the ability to produce in marginal soils, and yield<br>even under conditions of extreme drought. Analysis of literature was carried out to understand the crop's yield<br>potential, since there is wider recognition of cassava as a crop of choice for climate change adaptation strategies<br>and to increase food security in the near future, particularly in (SSA). Literature study includes: cassava<br>physiology, yield potential, crop characteristics for potential yield, understanding the nutrient dynamics, and<br>modelling of cassava growth and yield. The study indicates that cassava has a high yield potential of over 90 tons<br>ha-1 of fresh storage roots (32 t DM ha-1) in a year, and high nutrient use efficiency. This suggests that some crop<br>parameters used currently in cassava growth simulation models require modification. Good estimates of potential<br>yields provide important benchmarks for realistic yield targets and understanding of yield gaps with local<br>relevance. The increasing demand for cassava offers farmers the opportunity to intensify production, earn higher<br>incomes, and boost their food supply. Therefore, the use of inorganic fertilizers, following 4R nutrient<br>stewardship (right amount, right time, right place and right source), is inevitable to sustainably improve<br>productivity in the future. Also, understanding the dynamics of nutrient requirements and the impact of uptake<br>limitations of cassava during the growth cycle enables prediction of cassava yields under nutrient limited<br>conditions, and may provide insight in best management practices to improve nutrient use efficiency. Knowledge<br>of nutrient (N, P and K) demand and uptake patterns under deficient conditions in cassava can be used to develop<br>a simulation model. After testing the model, it may be used for many purposes, including: generation of crop<br>responses for series of years in order to characterize cassava growth and nutrient uptake, provide locationspecific<br>fertilizer recommendation, and extrapolate from the studied area to other areas where less detailed<br>information is available. Increasing cassava yield requires an in-depth understanding of limitations in growth.<br>Therefore, researchers need to adopt a wholesome approach in developing useful technologies for good<br>agronomic practices that will support sustainable cassava production and bridge the large yield gap.</p> J.G. Adiele Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 418 424 EVALUATION OF SELECTED SOIL ORGANIC AMENDMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF COCOYAM ROOT ROT BLIGHT COMPLEX (CRRBC) IN UMUDIKE <p>Soil-borne diseases are the second most important limiting factor on crop yield after water insufficiency.<br>Xanthosoma spp production systems in particular are plagued by many intractable soil-borne diseases, like<br>cocoyam root rot blight complex (CRRBC). A trial was conducted in Umudike, South-East Nigeria to determine<br>the effect of selected organic amendment composts on the growth and yield parameters of Xanthosoma<br>sagittifolium (NXs 002-Ede Uhie) and to evaluate their effect on CRRBC incidence and severity under Umudike<br>conditions. The experiment was set up in a split plot treatment fitted into a randomized complete block design<br>(RCBD), at the Western Farm of National Root Crops Research Institute's (NRCRI) Farm, Umudike, South-East<br>Nigeria. Organic amendment composts [poultry manure compost (PMC), cow dung compost (CDC), swine dung<br>compost (SDC), and rice mill waste compost (RMWC)] occupied the main plots, while rates of amendment (0, 4,<br>8 t/ha) occupied the sub-plots. Treatments were replicated three times. Planting was done on plots measuring 2m<br>x 4m and at a spacing of 0.50m within rows and 0.50m between rows. Composted organic amendments<br>treatments were applied 2 weeks after sprouting. Blanket application of inorganic fertilizer (400kg/ha, NPK<br>15:15:15) was applied 6 weeks after planting (WAP). Plots were manually kept weed-free. Relevant agronomic<br>and pathological data were collected. All compost amendments improved growth parameters better than RMWC.<br>Tallest plants were obtained from control plots which were attributed to improved plant nutrition by the blanket<br>application of inorganic fertilizer. Highest corm yield and reduction in disease levels occurred in CDC amended<br>plots. Application of 8 t/ha CDC improved yield and yield parameters, and reduced CRRBC incidence and<br>severity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (NXs 002 Ede Uhie) under Umudike conditions.</p> C.C. Nwokocha Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 440 444 DIETARY DIVERSITY AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES OF AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA <p>The study assessed the dietary diversity among female students in public universities of Akwa Ibom State,<br>Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the frequency of consumption of food groups within the recall period,<br>the prevalence, margin and intensity of dietary diversity of the respondents. A two-stage sampling procedure was<br>used to select 182 respondents. Data were collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire and analyzed<br>descriptively. Majority of the respondents were single (61%), and (64%) received a monthly allowance of<br>₦15000. Many consumed starchy staple foods, beans and peas, vitamin A-rich vegetables and other vegetables<br>and fruits. About 55% of the respondents were dietary diverse, based on the average as critical index.<br>Disaggregated mean prevalence pair for dietary diverse and non-dietary diverse female students, is 0.85 and 0.51.<br>Mean margin, expressed as a function only for those who are not dietary diverse, with the mean and 2/3 of the<br>mean as critical index respectively are 0.19 and 0.26 respectively. The study concluded that there is a margin<br>between dietary diverse and dietary non-diverse students, and recommends that the gap between these two<br>categories be bridged by programmes geared at encouraging more dietary diversity. This can be done with policy<br>advocacy on production, purchasing and consumption decisions with special emphasis on dietary needs.</p> E.S. Udoh Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 425 433 DETERMINANTS OF MARKETING EFFICIENCY OF BEE HONEY ENTERPRISE IN UMUAHIA AGRICULTURAL ZONE, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study was conducted in Abia State in 2019. It was undertaken to investigate the determinants of marketing<br>efficiency of bee honey enterprise. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 120 bee honey farmers/<br>marketers from two Local Government Areas; Umuahia- North and South in Umuahia Agricultural Zone of Abia<br>State. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary data were collected using a<br>structured questionnaire administered to the respondents, and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential<br>statistics. The results indicate that majority (60%) of the respondents was males, many (41.77%) were middle<br>aged and 46.67% attained tertiary education. Results also show that many of the respondents (50%) used personal<br>savings as source capital and honey for medicinal use each, 66.67% revealed that they do not belong to any<br>farmers' association. The findings from the study also showed that some of the factors that affect honey<br>consumption were color (25%), taste (45%) and low quality of honey (45.83%). Furthermore, the study showed<br>that many of the respondents (37.5%) sold honey to retail shops. The result of the regression analysis showed that<br>coefficients of household size, Marketing Experience, Depreciation value, Transportation, Education, Purchase<br>price, Interest rate and labor costs were all significant at varied levels and magnitudes. Decrease in output,<br>increase in cost of production, seasonality of honey were major constraints identified. It is advocated that there<br>should be a collective action among beekeepers/marketers to enhance honey marketing competitiveness,<br>development of a honey market information system that provides up to date information to both beekeepers and<br>honey traders. Bee honey Keepers and marketers should also avail themselves of opportunities of trainings to<br>keep abreast of technologies and strategies of modern beekeeping enterprise. There is also need for rehabilitation<br>of rural road networks to reduce the transactions cost of transportation, as well as provision of soft loans to honey<br>farmers at little or no interest rates for enhanced marketing efficiency.</p> N.U. Uchechukwu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 445 452 EVALUATION OF SOME SEMI-ARID BROWSE FORAGES AS FODDER FOR RUMINANT LIVESTOCK <p>An experiment was conducted to determine the feed of an indigenous browse plats is Borno State of Nigeria.<br>Sixteen bucks of mixed breeds (Borno white x Sokoto red) weighing an average of 12.0 +0.31kg was divided into<br>four groups with four animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments<br>in a Latin Square Design (LSD). The diets compared were Acacia nilotica, Balanite aegyptiaca, Khaya<br>senegalensis and Ziziphus muaritiana. The results showed that the average daily gain (ADWG), dry matter intake,<br>per metabolic weight (0.07kg day-1, 641.37kg day-1, 74.58g day-1) and feed conversion ratio (0.12) were<br>significantly (p&lt;0.05) better with animals on diet T (Ziziphus mauritianna). The result also revealed that T had 4 3<br>the best in terms of feed cost per kg gain (N60.49), and percent reduction in feed cost (N53.04%). From the results,<br>it can be concluded that feeding of Ziziphus mauritiana to growing goats at 30% level of inclusion is beneficial.</p> A.A. Njidda Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 453 459 CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SOILS OF AMANGWU-EDDA, EBONYI STATE FOR SUSTAINABLE RICE PRODUCTION <p>The study was conducted at Amangwu-Edda in Afikpo-South Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State,<br>Nigeria, to characterize the soils of the area and give management options for sustainable rice production. Two<br>hundred and fifty hectares of land was surveyed using the rigid grid method, based on the differences and<br>similarities of the morphological properties. Three (3) different mapping units were identified, and soil profile<br>pits dug and described morphologically, then samples were collected based on horizon differentiation from<br>bottom to top. The samples were prepared and subjected to routine laboratory analysis for selected physical and<br>chemical properties. Data generated were analysed using suitable statistical tools. The analytical results showed<br>that the percent clay had mean values of 26.47% for soil mapping unit 1, 31.80% for soil mapping unit 2, and<br>25.73% for soil mapping unit 3. The soil pH was strongly acidic (3.8 – 4.9) in all the soil mapping units studied.<br>The coefficient of variation showed that pH (H O) had low variation in all the soil mapping units, while organic 2<br>carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (N) had high variation in all the soil mapping units. A low to moderate variation<br>was recorded for percent sand, silt and clay for the three soil mapping units. Management options for yield<br>increase and sustainable rice production were suggested for rice growers in the study area.</p> N.N. Oti Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 460 470 CHARACTERIZATION AND LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus) PRODUCTION IN BASEMENT COMPLEX SOILS OF SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA <p>To end persistent and widespread hunger and malnutrition by 2030, more lands need to be open for inclusive and<br>sustainable food production. Detailed survey of soils derived from basement complex in Abeokuta, South-West<br>Nigeria were carried out using the free traverse method. The soils were characterized, classified, and evaluated<br>for pineapple production using both the non-parametric and parametric methods of suitability assessment. The<br>delineated five mapping units classified as Alfisols and Inceptisols were well drained with loamy sand to sandy<br>loam surface horizons overlying sandy loam to sandy clay loam subsurface horizons. The soils were moderate in<br>bulk density (1.12 – 1.54g/cm3), low saturated hydraulic conductivity (0.96 – 4.01cm/hr), moderate to slightly<br>acid pH (5.38 – 6.81), low to moderate OC (3.90 – 23.11mg/kg), low CEC (4.01– 8.61cmol/kg), high base<br>saturation (84.04 – 91.69%), and low ESP (5.85 – 9.21%). When assessed by the non-parametric method,<br>potentially, all the mappings units were moderately suitable (S2) for pineapple production. But currently, they<br>were marginally suitable (S3). From the computed values of the current productivity index (40.3 – 46.9) using the<br>parametric method, all the mapping units were marginally suitable (S3) for pineapple production. However, the<br>values of the potential productivity index (63.1 – 76.4) revealed that all the mapping units will be moderately<br>suitable (S2) for production. The limiting factors identified include; low soil fertility, especially CEC, and soil<br>physical characteristics in terms of texture. With the adequate application of appropriate fertilizers and suitable<br>soil management, the productivity of the land will be optimally enhanced for pineapple yield and quality.</p> O.A. Osinuga Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 476 486 SOURCES AND PREFERENCE DIFFERENTIALS FOR CASSAVA SEED AMONG SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN OBINGWA LGA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study examined various sources and preferences for cassava seed among smallholder farmers in Obingwa<br>Local Government Area (LGA) in Aba Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria. This study utilized primary data<br>from cassava farmers and a well-structured questionnaire to elicit information. A multi-stage sampling procedure<br>was adopted for the study; two communities and two villages from each of the selected communities were<br>purposively selected in the area for the study based on intensity of cassava production. Fifteen (15) cassava<br>farmers were randomly selected from each of the selected villages, giving a total number of Sixty (60)<br>respondents for detailed study. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Rsults show that many<br>(58.3%) of the respondents were females, still in their productive years (75%), married (63.3%), attained formal<br>education (88.3%), with small household sizes (58.3%). Many (61.7%) of the respondents used both Family<br>labour and hired labour, with long years of farming experience (96.7%) and small farm sizes (55%) and used their<br>personal/inherited land for cassava production (41.5%) Results show that majority (71.7%) planted improved<br>varieties, intercropped (61.1%), sourced for improved varieties (62.5%), indicated termites/pest infestation as<br>their major reason for seed replacement in the study area (52.2%), process their roots (60.8%), and specifically<br>processed into gari (73.9%). The study therefore, recommends for policies to reduce the cost of improved<br>cassava seeds, thereby making it available to the farmers and at affordable prices. Also awareness creation and<br>distribution of improved cassava seeds should be prompt and on time. Farmers should be empowered to go into<br>improved cassava seed production as a business for income generation, and availability to other farmers.</p> N.C. Onyemauwa Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 482 489 QUALITY ASSESEMENT OF AMANGWU-EDDA STREAM AND ITS TRIBUTARIES FOR RICE PRODUCTION UNDER IRRIGATION <p>Rice is one food that has solved the food security problems of many densely populated countries like China,<br>India, Thailand and South Korea, etc. Inadequate and uneven distribution of rainfall and declining soil fertility<br>are among the major challenges militating against increase in rice production in Sub-Sahara Africa. The<br>problems associated with rainfall can be addressed through irrigation, a concept that involves the artificial<br>application of water to the land in accordance with 'crop requirement', throughout the 'crop period', for fullfledged<br>nourishment of the crop. Water sources to be used for rice production under irrigation in Amangwu-Edda,<br>Afikpo-South Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, South-East Nigeria were evaluated for their<br>quality in terms of salt content. Laboratory results revealed that the water samples had mean pH value of 7.04 and<br>Ca, Mg and Na values of 18.03mg/l, 6.07mg/l, and 1.75mg/l respectively. Similarly, mean SAR, K, SO CL, TDS, 4,<br>and EC were 0.913meq/l, 2.05mg/l, 202.5mg/l, 99.715mg/l, 1,001.4mg/l and 6.3x10-5respectively. The result<br>indicates that the water quality is safe for irrigated rice production. Similarly the mapping units studied are<br>predominantly clay loamy, which is very ideal for irrigated rice production, but primary nutrients were generally<br>low, and should be supplemented with organic or inorganic fertilizer.</p> N.N. Oti Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 490 494 MODULATING EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL AND CLUSTERED TREATMENTS OF MIRACLE FRUIT PLANT (Synsepalum dulcificum) STEM CUTTINGS WITH QUICK DIP ROOTING HORMONE <p>Hormone application has been more of individual application. To ascertain the best application technique,<br>Synsepalum dulcificum cuttings were used for this study. The experiment was a 2 x 5 factorial treatment laid out in<br>a completely randomized design. Two quick-dip methods (cluster and individual) as one factor, and Indole-3-<br>butyric acid (IBA 200 mg/l and 250 mg/l), and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA 200 mg/l and 250mg/l) as the other<br>factor. Distilled water was used as control, and cuttings assessed two months after planting. Data collected were<br>statistically analysed using two factor ANOVA procedure. Treatment means were separated using Least<br>Significant Difference procedure at 5% probability level. Results show that 1BA 200mg/l had a better effect on<br>number of roots per cutting (2.38), and roots length (4.4), followed by NAA 200mg/l (number of roots per cutting<br>as 2.75, while roots length was 1.42cm). Although NAA 200mg/l cuttings had a higher number of roots, but IBA<br>200mg/l treated cuttings will perform better considering their root lengths. Also, clustered treated cuttings<br>recorded appreciable increase in number of roots, new leaves and roots length than individual treated cuttings.<br>Cluster treatment is thus, recommended for the much needed vegetative propagation of S. dulcificum and<br>probably for other species.</p> E.C. Odozie Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 495 499 SYSTEMIC FUNGAL INFECTION ON Jatropha Curcas L. ACCESSIONS CAUSED BY Lasidioplodia theobromae (Pat.) GRIFFON AND MAUBL IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA <p>Jatropha curcas L. (Physic nut) is a species grown around the world for its great potential for the production of<br>biodiesel and other useful industrial and medicinal purposes. Lasiodiplodia theobromae was implicated in<br>systemic infection of the oil-bearing plant, physic nut causing high disease incidences and severities of leaf<br>chlorosis, collar and root rots, wilting and eventual death of plants.Investigation and isolations were made from<br>observed symptoms on four jatropha accessions under field and screen house conditions. Pathogenicity test using<br>Koch's postulate was completed by re-isolating L. theobromae fungus from the developed symptoms after<br>artificial inoculations on four weeks old seedlings raised in the screenhouse. Results show high incidence of<br>symptomatic and systemic infection on Jatropha curcas caused by the pathogen, L. theobramea. The most<br>observed symptom was root rots with least disease incidence recorded on Ex-Misau accession (38.5%). Disease<br>severity was not statistically different in all the accessions tested. Vascular damage on the seedlings with evident<br>symptoms of rots and foliar chlorosis led to eventual death. This study infers that sustainable disease<br>management strategies should be intensified to compliment the efforts made to maximize the production and<br>yield of this biodiesel species; without which growing this plant may serve a threat to other food crops grown as<br>companion crops with the species.</p> J.O. Nwogwugwu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 500 503 EFFECT OF OIL PRE-TREATMENTS ON THE STORAGE QUALITY OF CHICKEN FRESH SHELL-EGGS <p>Shell eggs undergo significant quality deterioration during storage. Inexpensive, yet effective methods for their<br>preservation are needed. The effect of oil pre-treatments on the quality of stored fresh shell-eggs was studied.<br>These involved coating with cold vegetable oil (COTE), antibiotics in oil (AOTE), and hot oil treatment (HOTE),<br>while untreated eggs served as control (UNTE). The stored eggs were analyzed for their physical, nutrient,<br>functional, microbial and sensory properties. The results showed a significant (p&lt; 0.05) reduction of egg weight<br>in UNTE (59.13-50.63g), with increased airspace (1.10-3.80mm) compared to untreated eggs. Among the treated<br>eggs, COTE had the highest reduction in haugh units (85.10-65.28) and UNTE had lowest moisture content<br>(43.25%).The protein content of UNTE (21.43-16.31%), and pretreated eggs (22.04-19.10%) decreased at the<br>end of storage. The decline in foam (101.10-9.33%) and emulsifying (45.00-24.52%) properties were more<br>severe in the control (UNTE). Coliforms were detected in UNTE and COTE (&lt; 101Cfu/ml)) at the end of egg<br>storage. The overall sensory acceptability showed preference for COTE (5.75) and AOTE (5.25) egg samples.<br>Treatment with cold vegetable oil gave the best protective effect in most parameters evaluated.</p> J. Ndife Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 504 512 RESPONSE OF SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] VARIETIES TO INOCULATION AND SOWING DATE IN GUINEA SAVANNA, NIGERIA <p>Nigeria, being the largest producer and consumer of soybean in sub-Saharan Africa, requires stable and sustained<br>production of the crop to meet its increasing demand for human consumption, and source of feed for the poultry<br>industry. A field trial was conducted during the 2018 rainy season at the research field of International Institute of<br>Tropical Agriculture, University farm of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria at Samaru,in the Northern Guinea<br>Savanna, and International Institute of Tropical Agriculture research farm, Kubwa, Abuja in the Southern Guinea<br>Savanna of Nigeria. The treatments consist of four varieties of soybean (TGx 1904-6F, TGx 1951-3F, TGx 1955-<br>4F and Sambaiba), two sowing dates (late June and early July), and two levels of inoculation (inoculation and<br>without inoculation). The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), replicated<br>three times. The results revealed that the rhizobia inoculated treatments had significantly (P≤ 0.05) taller plants<br>(89.97 cm), and higher grain yield per hectare (2145kgha-1). Plant height, days to 50% flowering, and grain yield<br>per hectare (2035.7kg kha-1) responded significantly (P≤ 0.05) to sowing date. Late June sowing outperformed<br>early July sowing in these parameters. The results also indicated that the varieties TGx 1951-3F (2172.18kgha-1)<br>and Sambaiba (2240.3kgha-1) out yielded the other varieties at Kubwa and Samaru respectively. Based on the<br>results obtained from this study, it can be concluded that application of rhizobia inoculant, late June sowing date,<br>use TGx 1951-3F and Sambaiba varieties produce the highest grain yield per hectare in the Guinea Savanna of<br>Nigeria.</p> A.A. Sadiq Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 513 520 PROTEIN PROFILE STUDY OF Sarotherodon melanotheron FROM SOUTH-WEST NIGERIAN WATER BODIES <p>Sarotherodon melanotheron is a Cichlid specie with good nutritional, economic and aquaculture potentials. The<br>genetic difference among S. melanitheron populations in South-West Nigeria was investigated using 12%<br>Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Three populations from Pepe,<br>Ugbonla, and Badagry were considered for the study. Thirty fish samples were analyzed; ten per location for the<br>protein profiling. The banding pattern from sarcoplasmic protein indicated variation among the populations.<br>Molecular weight of the protein bands varied from 10-250kDa. Ninety eight (98%) of genetic variation that was<br>found among populations reflects a high inter-population differentiation. The protein profile produced three<br>clusters, indicating divergence and also suggests high level of genetic variation among the studied populations of<br>S. melanotheron. The existence of genetic diversity among these populations has made them suitable for use in<br>future breeding programs for the development of improved S. melanotheron species.</p> I. Megbowon Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 PRE-SOWING TREATMENTS FOR ENHANCED SEEDLING EMERGENCE OF PINK SHOWER (Cassia nodosa Buch. –Ham. Ex Roxb.) SEEDS IN NURSERY <p>Pink shower (Cassia nodosa: Fabaceae family) is a flowering shade tree used in landscape garden and park<br>planting. Seeds of C.nodosa experience dormancy which delays germination and early seedling establishment,<br>and there is limited information addressing pre-sowing treatment of the species. The experiment investigated<br>effects of some pre-sowing treatments(soaking for 3, 6 and 12 hours; two water temperature regimes – 60o and<br>80oC) on Seedling Emergence (SE) of C. nodosa.A3 x 2 factorial experiment in completely randomised design<br>with five replications was used. Treatments were applied on both mechanically scarified and non-scarified seeds.<br>Daily and total SE counts were taken for 84 Days After Sowing (DAS). Data were analysed by use of simple<br>statistics and ANOVA at p&lt;0.05. Results showed that days to first SE ranged from 4.4 to 5.8 DAS in scarified<br>seeds, and 5.2 to 8.6 DAS in non-scarified seeds. The scarified seeds given various pre-sowing treatment<br>combinations progressed beyond 50% SE at 84 DAS. Scarified seeds pre-soaked in 60°C water for 3 hours gave<br>relatively highest cumulative SE (76%±8.9), while least SE (32%±11.0) was obtained from non-scarified seeds<br>pre-soaked in 80°C hot water for 3 hours. In conclusion, the combination of mechanical scarification of seeds and<br>soaking in 60°C water for 3 hours enhanced seedling emergence of Cassia nodosa.</p> J.U. Ogbu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena) CULTIVARS <p>A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of NPK fertilizer rates on growth and yield of eggplant<br>(Solanum melongena) cultivars. The experiment was laid out in a 3x4 factorial in a randomized complete block<br>design (RCBD). The treatments used were four rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg NPK ha-1) and three<br>cultivars of eggplant (dark green, white-green striped and light green), and replicated were four times. The<br>parameters studied were plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, days to 50% flowering, number of<br>fruits, weight of fruits, and total yield. Results showed that plant height, number of leaves, number of branches,<br>number of fruits, weight of fruits and total yield increased as the NPK fertilizer rate increased from 0 kg NPK ha-1<br>to 150kg NPK ha-1. Dark green cultivars proved superior over white green striped and light green cultivar on<br>growth characteristics, while white-green striped cultivars produced the highest weight of fruit and total yield.<br>The lowest weight of fruit and total yield were recorded by dark green cultivars. The interaction between the<br>treatments indicates that 150kg NPK ha-1 and dark green cultivar gave the highest vegetative growth while<br>vegetative parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, number of branches and days to 50% flowering<br>recorded were lowest at 0kg NPK ha-1 and Light green cultivar. White-green produced the highest fruit weight,<br>and total yield per hectare at fertilizer rate of 150kg NPK ha-1. Therefore, based on the result, the use of 150kg<br>NPK ha-1 and white-green cultivar for profitable eggplant production in the study area are recommended.</p> G.N. Nwokwu Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 530 537 EFFECT OF ADOPTION OF IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF YAM FARMERS IN GHANA <p>yam farmers in Ghana. The study applied mixed methodological approach in both data collection and analysis.<br>Econometric and qualitative tools such as Two Stage Least Square IV regression model was used to analyse the<br>effect of adoption of IATs on the productivity of yam famers. The focus group discussion transcripts were<br>subjected to thematic analysis to understand the themes that run across the data. These were used to complement<br>the quantitative data. The results show that the adoption of IATs has a positive and significant effect on the<br>productivity of yam farmers in the study area. The study recommends that yam be included in the list of root and<br>tuber crops in the priority crops of the government of Ghana, since it has the potential of enhancing the food<br>security and livelihood of the rural poor, and increase the foreign exchange earnings of Ghana, being the foremost<br>exporter of yam.</p> S. Onwuka Copyright (c) 2020 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 51 2 538 544