Nigeria Agricultural Journal <p>Published by the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, the <em>Nigerian Agricultural Journal</em> is the oldest agricultural journal in the country having been published since 1961. It is published bi-annually to quarterly, and contributions are accepted from anyone engaged in agricultural work in Nigeria and other countries in tropical Africa.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <span lang="NL"><a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> Agricultural Society of Nigeria en-US Nigeria Agricultural Journal 0300-368X <p>NAJ supports free online communication and exchange of knowledge as the most effective way of ensuring that the fruits of research and development practice are made widely available. It is therefore committed to open access, which, for authors, enables the widest possible dissemination of their findings and, for readers, increases their ability to discover pertinent information. The Journal adopts and uses the CC: BY license and is open access. This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the Journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Copyright for articles published in this Journal is retained by the Journal.</p> Analysis of Physicochemical Characteristics of River Benue, Nigeria <p>World Health Organization (WHO) published the guidelines for drinking water to protect aquatic life and public health. The study, therefore, assessed the water quality of River Benue in Makurdi, Nigeria to ascertain its suitability for human consumption vis-à-vis the health of aquatic organisms. Water samples were collected in four distinct stations to evaluate the contents of pH, temperature, total hardness CaCO<sub>3</sub> (TH), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate (NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub>), fluoride ion (F<sup>–</sup>), nitrite (NO<sup>–</sup><sub>2</sub>), ammonia (NH<sup>+</sup><sub>3</sub>), sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>) and magnesium (Mg<sup>2+</sup>) using standard methods. Statistical analysis of the laboratory results shows that the highest values of TDS (470.03±9.24 mg/L), TSS (673.03±7.96 mg/L), turbidity (496.60±4.90 NTU), TH (52.02±0.03 mg/L), NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> (5.80±2.90 mg/L), Mg<sup>2+</sup> (40.96±7.33 mg/L), Na<sup>+</sup> (79.18±10.8 mg/L), NH<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> (3.49±0.95 mg/L) and NO<sup>-</sup><sub>2</sub> (52.36±5.5 mg/L)&nbsp; were recorded in water samples collected at the major storm drain station while the highest values of pH ((9.18±0.09), EC (24.76±8.00 µs/cm), BOD5 (43.13±1.29 mg/L) and COD (1174.08±28.79 mg/L) were recorded at the Wurukun abattoir station. The highest value of DO (14.31±1.60 mg/L) was recorded in the control area. The values of physicochemical parameters tested in this study were within the permissible limits recommended by WHO and FMEnv except for TSS, pH, turbidity, temperature, fluoride, BOD5 and COD. Consequently, periodic monitoring of the water quality of River Benue is vital to ascertain its suitability for human consumption, irrigation agriculture and the safety of aquatic life.</p> O.C. Egesi O. Alum-Udensi N.N. Ugor P.C. Ogbonna Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 1 13 Seed Source and Productivity of Sweetpotato Farmers in South East, Nigeria <p>This study provides empirical evidence on the effect of seed source and productivity of sweetpotato farmers in South East Nigeria. The study identified sweetpotato seed sources used by farmers and the level of productivity; estimated the effect of seed source on the productivity of the farmers; and determinants of the choice of sweetpotato seed source. The result showed that the farmers in the study area sourced sweetpotato seeds from their farms (46%), fellow farmers (24%), Research Institutes RI/ Agricultural Development Programme ADP (16%) and markets (14%). The regression analysis showed that the coefficients of membership in the cooperative society, the area cultivated with sweetpotato and productivity had a direct relationship with seeds sourced from the fellow farmer, other than from the market, while the price of the seed was negative. Coefficients for gender, extension contact, price of seed and farm income had a negative relationship with seeds sourced from RI/ADP and positive for membership of cooperatives, variety type and productivity. Extension contact and farming experience were directly related to the probability of seeds sourced from their farm and negative for membership of cooperatives, price of seed and variety type. There was a significant difference in the productivity of the different seed sources in the study area. The results call for policies aimed at formalizing the sweetpotato seed system and increasing farmers’ orientation in the use of quality seed through informal education.</p> A.C. Okoye C. Daniel-Ogbonna E. Anedo F.U. Okoye C. Eluagu B.N. Onunka Copyright (c) 2023 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 14 20 Comparative Analysis of M Progenies against Two Cassava Parents for Improved Food Qualities <p>Polyploidy cassava seeds produced by two varieties raised from colchicine-treated materials (TMS98/0505 and TMS98/0581) at three levels of concentration:<em> 0, 2 and 4ppm</em> with their parents were established in the field at the National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. The study aimed to evaluate the level of genetic variability developed in the progenies compared with their parents. In the study, 25cm Stakes of each variety were cut and planted on ridges in a 4 x 5m plot, at a spacing of 1m x 1 m apart in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. The biological seeds derived from the crosses between two varieties were planted in a single-row design at a spacing of 1m intra and 0.3m inter-row. The plots were kept weed-free and NPK fertilizer was applied at the rate of 400kg/ha. The proximate analyses of the roots were carried out using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method and analyzed using the SPSS statistical package and means were separated using the Duncan multiple range test. The result of the proximate analysis of physicochemical characteristics from the parents and their progenies revealed higher variations in their nutrient quality than the progenies. The higher average range of the starch content of the progenies shows that there is the possibility of developing cassava varieties that are high in starch content from induced mutation. The result also showed that there is zero phenol level in the progenies against the range (0.11 – 0.50%) in the parents, indicating that these developed materials meet the industrial requirement for baby formulae.</p> N.J. Amanze S.P. Abah Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 21 25 Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) on Some Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats <p>The study aimed to investigate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Adansonia digitata on some haematological <br>and biochemical indices of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-five (25) male albino rats (mean weight; <br>130±0.1 g) were divided into five (5) groups (n=5). Diabetes was induced in rats with 150 mg/Kg of alloxan <br>(Group 2, 3, 4 and 5). Group 1 was the normal control and received only feed and water. Group 2 was untreated <br>and received feed and water after induction. Group 3 was treated with glibenclamide; Group 4 was treated with <br>200mg/kg of plant extract, while Group 5 was treated with 400mg/kg of plant extract. Treatment was done for <br>twenty-one (21) days, after which animals were bled and blood samples collected and used for parameters <br>analysis. Results revealed a significant (p&gt;0.05) decrease in body weight, Blood Glucose level, WBC, MDA and <br>Total Protein level of group 2 compared with the normal control, while no significant difference was observed in <br>the parameters in group 4 and group 5 as against group 1. The result suggests that the aqueous leaf extract of A. <br>digitata was capable of normalizing some haematological and biochemical abnormalities associated with <br>diabetes in rats. It was further suggested that leaf extract of A. digitata could be prescribed as an adjunct to dietary <br>therapy and main therapy for diabetes.</p> E.N. Uhuo T.N. Nelson P.O. Alaebo J.C. Amaliri K.O. Godwin Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 26 30 Impact of Access to Extension Services on Yield and Income of Cooperative Members in South-East, Nigeria <p>Adoption of improved agricultural technologies is encouraged by access to extension services. This study evaluated the effect of having access to extension services on the income and output of members of agricultural cooperative societies in Abia and Anambra states of Nigeria. One hundred and twenty respondents were chosen from the cooperative societies using a multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to gather primary data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Frequency tables, percentages, and mean thresholds of four- and five-point Likert scale measurements were employed as descriptive statistics while simple linear regression was used as inferential statistics. Only 38% of the respondents had extension contact in the year under review, according to the findings, and the majority (53.3%) only visited once in year. Additionally, the findings showed that the respondents had a high level of utilization of cassava production and value-addition technologies as well as sweet potato production and value-addition technologies. The low extension farmer ratio, the distance from the farm to the extension office, the high cost of transportation, insecurity, credit availability, cultural obstacles, inaccessible roads, and poor communication were the main challenges to accessing extension in the study area. At 5% and 1% levels of significance, access to extension had a positive and significant impact on the farmers' yield and income respectively. To close the low extension agent-farmer gap, the study advocated policies focused on the deployment of more logistical, financial, and human resources to improve agricultural extension delivery services through the ADPs.</p> J.O. Nwaekpe H.N. Anyaegbunam I.N. Nwokocha M. Ogbonna Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 31 35 Assessment of Factors Influencing Level of Adoption of National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) Vaccine among Cattle Farmers in North Central Nigeria <p>Millions of Nigerians rely on their livelihood from livestock enterprises, a significant part of the country's economy. Studies have shown that animal disease is the most prominent among the numerous challenges animal production faces due to the lack of vaccination against common diseases in north-central Nigeria. This paper aims to evaluate cattle farmers' perceptions and the factors that affect how widely they use the NVRI vaccination. In Northwest Nigeria. Combined support from the livestock sector of ADPs in each state, animal health workers and NVRI staff, a total of 300 cattle beef producers were randomly selected. The permission of potential participants was obtained to circumvent coercion and forms of pressure on them when deciding to participate. Using analytical tools including descriptive statistics, Logit, and Tobit regression models. Primary data were gathered and analyzed. The perception of cattle producers shows that NVRI vaccines were readily available (3.1) to cattle farmers, cheaper than imported vaccines (3.5), protect against disease (3.4), and are economical and inexpensive for small-scale livestock farmers (3.7) compared to imported. Using Logit and and Tobit regression models, the coefficients of variables that contribute to the decision to adopt the NVRI vaccine: herd size (0.097); access to extension agent (5.981); and income (0.004) differ statistically and significantly by structure, magnitude, and probability level from factors that influence the intensity of adoption of NVRI vaccine such as herd size (0.991); access to extension (0.237); income (2.340) and location (0.868) by cattle farmers. Since extension is a factor for intensity for adoption, there is a necessity for supplementary extension aid in terms of staff capacity building and mobility to improve farmer coverage staff.</p> M.M. Makoshi Y.U. Oladimeji G.Z. Rekwot A.S. Hussaini Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 36 41 Use of Adaptation Strategies to Climatic Change Crop among Farmers in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun-State, Nigeria <p>Crop production is one of the most important agriculture enterprises vulnerable to climate change. Several studies have assessed the climate change impact on different crops and other livelihood in Ogun state, but Information on adoption strategies employed by crop farmers to climate change in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State has not been adequately documented. The study therefore examines crop farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 120 farmers were selected through a multistage sampling procedure and data were collected through the use of a well-structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, and percentages and inferential statistics such as the logit regression model were used to analyze the collected data at p=0.05. The results revealed that the majority were within the age range of 31-50 years, (65.0%) male (77%), married (80.0%) and education (90.0%).&nbsp; Many (67.0%) were small-scale farmers, had a household size of 6-10 members (53.0%),&nbsp; (90.0%) were engaged in farming as their primary occupation with 48% having 6-30 years of farming experience and practice, Muslim (54.0%). Radio and neighbouring farmers (24.0% and 50.0%) were the major sources of climate information. Farmers practised continuous cropping to mitigate the adverse effects of climatic change. The logit regression model analysis revealed that the adaptation strategies of respondents to climate change were significantly influenced by farming experience (0.242), farming type (1.759), education (0.503) and household size (0.382). The level of adaptation strategies of crop farmers in the study area was low despite their long years of experience in farming. Government and NGO agencies should provide adequate information on climate change at the grassroots through deliberate extension education and radio campaigns.</p> A.S. Aina E.O. Balogun B.S. Ayejuyo Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 42 49 Evaluation of the Effect of Sodium Azides on Growth and Yield of Pepper (Capsicum spp. L) <p>The study was conducted to investigate the effect of sodium azide on the growth and yield parameters of Pepper (<em>Capsicum </em>spp. L).&nbsp;&nbsp; Pepper Seeds were purchased from the National Seed Council Umudike, Abia State. The experiment was set up at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Screen House. The experiment was set up in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The seeds were put inside six different beakers, each containing 20 seeds. The seeds were pre-soaked in distilled water for 3 hours and the floating seeds were eliminated during this period. Various concentrations of sodium azide (0.0%, 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.05%, 0.06% and 0.07%) were prepared. The pre-soaked seeds were later soaked in different concentrations for 3 hours and then placed on the Petri dish for germination percentage and we planted the seeds in our experimental site. The data for germination percentage, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, stem girth and the number of fruits were obtained and were subjected to the ANOVA test and the mean was separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at the statistical significance of 95 % confidence interval. From the result obtained, sodium azide significantly reduced the germination percentage, plant height, stem girth, leaf area, number of leaves and number of fruits of pepper with increasing concentration. However, there are possibilities of having better results in the second mutant generation (M<sub>2</sub>) since the second generation was not assessed in this work.</p> O.F. Udogu F.A. Nkaa D.N. Njoku Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 50 55 Effect of Detasseling on Grain Yield Stability of Maize Grown Under Increased Plant Density <p>Competition for resources increases abiotic stress for maize planted at high planting density, while tassel removal has the potential to increase grain yield and minimize the negative effects of pressure occasioned by high plant population. A split-split plot experiment arranged in a randomized block design (r=3) was established at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation Ibadan in the years 2017 and 2018, respectively. Treatment included four maize varieties (V) (DMRLSR-W, SUWAN-1, OBASUPER-1 and OBASUPER-2), two plant densities (D) 80,000 pl ha<sup>-1</sup> and 53,333 pl ha<sup>-1</sup> and detasselling. Data were collected on the number of rows and kernels per cob, 100-grain weights, grain moisture content (GMC %), and total grain yield (GY).&nbsp; From the results, tassel removal has no significant effect on the total grain yield (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). Grain moisture content was higher in grains obtained from detasselled plots (27.91%) than grains from non-detasselled plots (27.19%), Tasselling and Density interactions on GMC were also significant. A significant interaction was observed between the maize varieties and tasselling, such that the GY of the maize varieties in the detasselled plots except SUWAN-1 were significantly higher than maize grain yield from the non-detasselled maize plots except SUWAN-1. Detasseling did not impact positively on the GY in this study. However, genotypic differences were observed among the varieties of detasselling and non-detasselling treatments. Non-beneficial role of detasselling on GY was not seen in this experiment due to the availability of resources and that 80,000 plants ha<sup>-1</sup> may not be high enough to induce competition among the plants for resource utilization.</p> F.B. Anjorin A.O. Ajagbe Q.O. Oloyede-Kamiyo A.B. Olaniyan Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 56 61 Nutritional Evaluation of Eight Accessions of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent Leaf) Collected from Abia State, Southeast Nigeria <p>Knowledge of the chemical constituents of the plant is necessary for disclosing new sources of economic materials and this cannot be achieved without much information on the phytochemicals, proximate, vitamins and mineral constituents, hence the study focused on the evaluation of nutritional constituents of accessions of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> collected from different Local Government Areas of Abia state. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomization design replicated three times and data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. Results showed that vitamins, minerals, proximate and phytochemicals varied significantly (p&lt;0.01) among the accessions. They had high amounts of Vitamin C (169.610 (AB/06/OBIKABI) – 185.170 (AB/08/AHABA) mg/100g) and were rich in carotene (18.390-23.560 mg/100g) and Vitamin E (17.640-22.660) respectively. All the accessions contained high amount of minerals but the most abundant was potassium (387.37 (AB/02/NGWAROAD) – 512.59 (AB/08/AHABA) mg/100g), followed by calcium (277.62 (AB/06/OBIKABI) – 319.56 (AB/05/UMUDIKE) mg/100g), sodium (156.77 (AB/08/AHABA) – 179.75 (AB/02/NGWAROAD) mg/100g), phosphorus (119.48-132.76 mg/100g) and magnesium (96.77-108.21 mg/100g) respectively. Dry matter content ranged from 85.24% (AB/06/OBIKABI) to 89.4 2% (AB/15/NDUME) while carbohydrate ranged from 45.49% (AB/06/OBIKABI) to 50.67% (AB/10/ELU). Protein contents varied from 16.71% (AB/11/OSISIOMA) to 19.61% (AB/02/NGWAROAD) while moisture levels were low, ranging from 10.58% (AB/15/NDUME) to 14.76% (AB/06/OBIKABI). Ash ranged from 10.35% (AB/11/OSISIOMA) to 8.43% (AB/10/ELU). Crude fibre varied from 9.27% (AB/11/OSISIOMA) to 7.17% (AB/15/NDUME). Fat content varied from 2.86% (AB/04/AMAMBA) to 4.17% (AB/15/NDUME). Flavonoids varied from 3.44 (AB/02/NGWAROAD) to 4.87 (AB/04/AMAMBA); glycoside ranged from 1.47% (AB/08/AHABA) to 1.90% (AB/10/ELU) while Alkaloid ranged from 2.87 (AB/11/OSISIOMAI) to 3.88% (AB/04/AMAMBA). Phytochemicals (especially flavonoid, alkaloid, glycoside and saponin) were slightly higher when compared to most plants.</p> C.M. Okoronkwo F.A. Kalu L.N. Chinatu C.J. Harriman Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 62 68 Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Inflows on Nigeria's Economic Performance (1981 to 2020) <p>The ARDL was used in this study to examine the impact of foreign direct investment inflows on Nigeria's economic performance from 1981 to 2020.&nbsp; The analysis starts with examining the stationarity of the data set using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test. The Bounds test confirmed the existence of a negative association between FDI and the economy in the long run while in the short run, Portfolio Investment and Balance of Trade had a negative relationship on the economy and FDI maintained a positive relationship with the economy. Therefore the recommendations from this study are as follows Firstly, the government should ensure that the right economic and political environment is put in place for there to be some meaningful inflow of portfolio investment, secondly, the authorities in control should evaluate Nigeria's ease of doing business; currently, Nigeria ranks low; a higher ranking will encourage increased foreign involvement by bringing more FDI to Nigeria and thirdly government needs to grow the real sector of the economy. This will encourage export earnings, and improve our trade balance.</p> C.G. Ogbonna J.A. Chukwuma-Ogbonna E.U. Nwachukwu C.N. Uzoma Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 69 75 Operational Constraints Associated with Artisanal Fisheries Value Chain along Ogun River Basin, Ogun State, Nigeria <p>Artisanal fish production and marketing constitute the major business activity of the fish communities of Ogun River in Ogun State Nigeria. This study profiled the revenues and constraints of the value chain actors along the Ogun River basin, Ogun State. A two-stage multi-sampling procedure was adopted in selecting 86 fishers, 29 fish marketers and 36 fish processors from five fishing communities (Oyan, Alamutu, Lafenwa, Oriyanrin, and Akomoje). Data were collected with an interview schedule and analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and analysis of variance. Results revealed that more than two-thirds (67.4%) of the fishers made use of gillnets, followed by cast net (50.0%), hook and line (41.9%) and gura net (38.4%). The mean annual revenue of fishers was N5,996,083.72 while the fish marketers and fish processors earned average revenues of N1,015,040.00 and N587,241.38 respectively. The most severe constraints faced were lack of funding for business expansion, lack of modern equipment and inadequate preservation facilities.&nbsp; The difference in total revenues of value chain actors was significant (F = 28.730, p&lt;0.01). The mean difference in revenue of fishers and marketers was significant (mean difference = N5009239.28, p&lt;0.01), and the difference in mean revenue of fishers and fish processors was significant (mean difference = N5408842.34, p&lt;0.01). It was concluded that artisanal fishing has constrained value chains, the fishers earned higher revenues from fishing activities than the other value chain actors.&nbsp; It was then recommended that educated persons especially young graduates are encouraged to engage in fisheries enterprises such as actual fishing, processing and marketing of fish, improved fisheries technologies, diversification as well as non-fisheries related enterprises by fisher folks should be adopted by the value chain actors. This could minimize the risks associated with over-dependence on nature-based occupations which are easily affected by changes in weather conditions.</p> O.M. Adeosun W.G. Ojebiyi Y. Akegbejo-Samsons O.J. Olaoye E.O. Fakoya F.I. Adeosun Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 76 87 Analysis of Cassava Product Marketing in Abia State, Nigeria <p>The study was designed to analyze cassava product marketing in Abia State, Nigeria. The researcher used a multistage sampling technique to obtain a representative sample of 90 respondents (30 garri marketers, 30 fufu marketers and 30 abacha marketers). We collected data from respondents via a standardized questionnaire. The study found that the average age of garri marketers was 47 years; fufu marketers was 44 years; and abacha marketers were 42 years. The majority had completed secondary education respectively. On average, the marketing experience of garri marketers, fufu marketers and Abacha marketers was 11 years,&nbsp; 7 years and 8 years respectively. The average monthly revenue of N99,000.00, N21,000.00 and N18,200.00 was recorded for garri, fufu and abacha marketers respectively. The average total cost of garri, fufu and abacha marketers were N79,393.94, N16,777.69 and N10,929.96 respectively. The net profit of Garri, fufu and Abacha marketers were N19,606.06, N4,222.31 and N7,270.04 respectively. Age, household size, marketing experience, storage cost, selling price and transport cost had significant effects on the net profit of garri marketers. Household size, storage cost and selling price had significant effects on the net profit of fufu marketers. Household size, education, marketing experience and selling price had significant effects on the net profit of Abacha marketers. It is therefore necessary for public goods like roads, storage facilities, and electricity to be put in place by the government and non-government organizations to reduce the costs of transportation and storage cost for cassava product marketers.</p> B.O. Okpara B.A. Ahamefula I.O. Obasi U.J. Udokure Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 88 93 Assessment of Cropping Systems and Soil Amendment Strategies Used By Farmers in Etche L.G.A of Rivers State <p>Research was undertaken to assess the cropping system and soil amendment strategies used by farmers in Etche L.G.A of Rivers State. Data was collected for the study using a structured questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select crop farmers in the study area. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents were female with no formal education. The average age of farmers was 35-45 years. The majority of the respondents cultivate less than one hectare of land. A greater number of farmers (72%) use inorganic fertilizer (NPK), and 15% use organic fertilizer such as poultry manure. Eighteen percent of the farmers do not apply any soil amendment. However, none of the farmers interviewed neither used agricultural lime or agrolyzer micronutrient fertilizer. Twenty percent of the farmers declined to use, and knowledge of biofertilizers and lime. On the choice of cropping system practice by farmers, the majority (87%) of the farmers in Etche L.G.A practice mixed intercropping with a higher percentage of farmers intercropping vegetables, and maize with root and tuber crops. In line with the findings, it was observed that farming operation in Etche L.G.A is subsistence and characterized by poor use of soil amendment which is a result of unavailability of such amendment and information gap. Therefore the research suggests the need to carry out a comprehensive capacity building of farmers on the best nutrient management options suitable for mixed intercropping system for the zone.</p> B.U. Agah J.O. Omeke Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 94 98 Effects of Different Grafting Techniques and Time of Grafting on Cassava Flowering and Related Characteristics <p>By examining factors related to the timing and method of grafting as well as morphological changes during the initial stages of graft development, a field experiment was carried out to identify the grafting approach promoting high compatibility. At the National Root Crops Research Institute's experimental station in Umudike, Nigeria, the study was carried out from May to December 2015. Three components and eight replications made up the factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) used to set up the experiment. ANOVA was used to compare the differences between data in all tables, and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to compare the means of quantitative features. The findings indicated that the grafting success rate increased with rootstock age. The evaluation of the cleft grafting procedure revealed that this technique had a greater grafting success rate than whip grafting. The evaluation of nighttime grafting treatment revealed that this period provided a larger proportion of grafting success than did morning grafting. The increased grafting success rate at night may be attributed to the high levels of humidity, which allow for the callus to form and stabilize the regeneration of the graft union surface between rootstocks and scions. A scion that was grafted at the age of four months produced the most seeds. The cleft grafting technique at night with rootstock between the ages of four and three months produced the optimum grafting compatibility.</p> S.P. Abah J.C. Agu F. Ewa C.N. Egesi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 99 103 Evaluation of Three Varieties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on Yield and Yield Components in Jalingo Metropolis, Northern Guinea Savanna Ecological Zone of Taraba State, Nigeria <p>A field experiment was conducted in the dry seasons of 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the performance of three wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum </em>L.) varieties on yield and yield components in the Jalingo metropolis, northern Guinea savanna ecological zone of Taraba state, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The three wheat varieties used in the experiment were Cettia, Lifen and Reyna-28. They were sourced from the Lake Chad Research Institute (LCRI), Maiduguri, Nigeria. The treatments were replicated three times. The plot size was 3 m x 2 m (6 m<sup>2</sup>). The seeds were sown by dibbling at a row spacing of 30 cm x 25 cm on the 15<sup>th</sup> of November each year. All the required agronomic practices were carried out. Data were collected on the number of spikes per m<sup>-2</sup>, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, biomass yield, grain yield, straw yield and harvest index. All the data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) appropriate to randomized complete block design and means were separated using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) procedure. The results revealed that there were significant differences (P<u>&lt;</u>0.05) among the varieties in wheat yield and yield components. Reyna-28 produced the highest number of spikes m<sup>-2</sup>, number of spikelets spike<sup>-1</sup>, number of grains spike<sup>-1</sup>, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield per hectare, biomass yield per hectare and harvest index while Linfen recorded the highest value of straw yield per hectare. In conclusion, Reyna-28 proved to be the best wheat variety for higher grain yield and most of the other traits tested. Therefore, Reyna-28 is recommended for irrigated wheat production in the study area.</p> M.M. Akaangee D.T. Gungula B.B. Jakusko B.B. Meer Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 104 109 Integration of NPK 15:15:15 Fertilizer and Poultry Manure on Production and Profitability of Orange Flesh Sweetpotato/Garden Egg Intercrop in Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria <p>The study was conducted at National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike farm in two cropping seasons, to determine optimum organic and inorganic fertilizer rates for orange flesh sweetpotato (OFSP)/garden egg intercrop. The experiment was 2 x 3 x 2 factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments consisted of sweetpotato and garden egg applied sole and intercropped together, &nbsp;three rates of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (0kg/ha, 300kg/ha, 600kg/ha), two levels of poultry manure (5t and10t/ha). Data were collected on soil physico-chemical, growth and yield attributes and using. Results indicated that intercrop significantly (P&lt;0.05) reduced garden egg growth but did not affect most sweetpotato attributes. Garden egg fruit yield and orange-fleshed sweetpotato root yield were reduced by intercropping. Application of fertilizer at 300kg/ha and poultry manure at 5t/ha increased garden egg fruit yield while application of 300kg/ha NPK fertilizer increased sweetpotato. The land Equivalent Ratio in all the crop mixtures was above unity (1) with the application of 300kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer + 5t/ha PM giving the best result. This treatment was the best, based on gross monetary returns.</p> C.N. Ebeniro C.P. Obasi G. Amadi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 110 116 Job-focused Emotional Labour and Service Performance: Evidence from Food Service Market in Owerri, Imo State <p>This study determined the influence of job-focused emotional labour on service performance in the food service market in Owerri, Imo State. It was a survey that was guided by three objectives and three research hypotheses. Frontline service providers served as respondents while the sample size was 200. A 17-item questionnaire on a 4-point scale which a reliability test produced a coefficient of 0.79 served as the research instrument and an accessibility sampling technique was used in the administration of the instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics on SPSS version 23 were used to analyze the data generated. Findings revealed that frequency of acting has a positive/insignificant association with service performance (R = 0.0135; Pr = 0.4727); strength of acting has a negative relationship with service performance (R = -0.0049; Pr = 0.7629) while the diversity of acting has a positive and significant association with service performance (R = 0.3699; Pr = 0.0000). On the strength of the findings, it was concluded that frequency of acting and diversity of acting are positively associated with service performance while the strength of acting is negatively related to service performance in the study area, therefore, it is recommended that operators of food service companies must among others ensure that would-be service providers with appropriate emotional quotient and passion for the job are recruited, trained regularly on emotion management skills, and promote policies that make service providers take pride in their jobs while making the work more flexible.</p> I.B. Anyanwu E.K. Agina V.C. Okpalaeke Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 117 123 Responses of Bi-Parental Mapping Population to Cassava Green Mite (CGM), Cassava Bacteria Blight (CBB) and Other Important Agronomic Traits <p>Several biotic factors constrain cassava production in the cassava-cultivating regions of Africa. In Nigeria for instance, cassava bacterial blight (CBB) and cassava green mite (CGM) are among the major constraints that cause significant yield losses to cassava growers. Cost-effective mitigation measures for these constraints include adopting and using improved resistant varieties. In this study, 262 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross were evaluated at Otobi, Benue state Nigeria to determine their responses to CBB, CGM and other important constraints. The experiment was laid out in an alpha lattice design with two replications. Results revealed that CBB and CGM severity scores at 3, 6 and 9 months did not vary significantly among the assessed clones. However, CBB incidences at three and nine months varied significantly (p&lt;0.05) among the genotypes. CGM incidence also varied significantly (p&lt;0.01) among test genotypes. CBB mean severities ranged from 1.6 to 2.2, and the mean severity for CGM was 2.01. Plot-based broad-sense heritability estimates for CBB severity ranged from 0.01 to 0.04, while CBB incidence ranged from 0.08 to 0.11. The genotypes also differed markedly (p&lt;0.001) for specific gravity and dry matter, with mean values of 1.12 and 35.3 respectively. After the assessment, twenty clones were selected using a non-weighted summation selection index for further screening. It is expected that the study will aid in the development of CBB and CGM-resistant/tolerant cassava genotypes, for cultivation in the guinea savanna region of Nigeria.</p> J.O. Mbe M. Okoro C.U. Ano F. Ewa C.N. Egesi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 124 129 Perceived Value of Food Services through the Prism of Reliability, Tangibles, and Responsiveness <p>This study determined the influence of reliability, tangibles and responsiveness on perceived value in chain fast food companies in South East Nigeria. It was a survey and three research hypotheses guided the study. Customers of chain fast food companies in the study area formed the population while the sample size was 323. The research instrument used for data collection was a 17-item questionnaire on a 4-point scale which was subjected to a reliability test that produced a co-efficient of 0.79 proving the usability of the instrument. Accessibility sampling technique was used in the administration of the instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics on SPSS version 23 were used to analyze the data generated. Findings revealed that reliability has a positive/significant relationship with perceived value (R = 0.267); responsiveness has a positive/significant relationship with perceived value (R = 0.315) while tangibles have a positive but insignificant relationship with perceived value (R =0.016). On the strength of the findings, the study concluded that reliability and responsiveness have positively significant relationships with perceived value while the relationship between tangibles and perceived value is not positively significant. Given the findings, it is recommended that managers of these establishments must ensure that service offerings delightfully meet customer expectations, customer service must be made a top priority, effective feedback framework must be developed to regularly track the customer satisfaction index to avert avoidance tendency and finally, human capital training must be made a policy thrust for competitiveness.</p> I.B. Anyanwu V.C. Okpalaeke E.K. Agina Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 130 135 Awareness and Adoption of Potato Disease Control Technologies by Farmers in Jos Plateau Nigeria and the Impact on Their Livelihoods <p>Two major potato diseases namely late blight caused by <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> and bacterial wilt caused by <em>Ralstonia solanocearum</em> are among the major causes of low yield obtained by potato farmers in Nigeria. This study was undertaken in 2022 in Jos South, Ryiom, Barkin-Ladi, Bokkos, and Mangu LGAs in Jos Plateau of Plateau State to ascertain the level of awareness and adoption by farmers in the Jos Plateau of Nigeria of the control technologies for these diseases disseminated over a decade ago by the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike. Data were collected from one hundred and twenty (120) potato farmers using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Results obtained indicate that there was a high awareness of late blight and bacterial wilt control technologies disseminated by NRCRI. There was a high adoption of early planting and the use of fungicide for late blight disease control; while the use of clean seed, rouging, and farm sanitation were adopted for control of bacterial wilt disease. There was however low adoption of the use of resistant or tolerant varieties for controlling both diseases. The educational status, marital status, and farm size of the respondents had significant positive effects on the level of adoption, while farming experience and membership in cooperative society had significant negative effects on the adoption of the reference technologies. Amongst the constraints to adoption assessed, low knowledge of innovation ranked the highest while cattle menace was the least. Despite the high adoption, there was a generally low impact of reference technologies on the livelihood of respondents. This could be attributed to the poor application of the technologies, the ineffectiveness of available fungicides for late blight, and the unavailability, or the breaking down of resistance in hitherto resistant varieties resulting in farmers not getting the desired result from applied technologies. We, therefore, recommend the development and deployment of potato varieties resistant to late blight and bacterial wilt; reassessment of available fungicides for the control of late blight for recommendation to farmers; and re-training of farmers and extension officers on the appropriate application of the technologies.</p> G. Amadi U.B. Ukonu E.C. Agoh Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 136 143 Customers Preference for Composite Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato Bread over Wheat Bread in Anambra State, Nigeria <p>Breeding of orange-fleshed sweetpotato in any country of the world can contribute to a reduction of malnutrition because of its beta-carotene content and is highly appreciated by local consumers. Because of this, the study investigated customers' preference for orange-fleshed sweetpotato bread over wheat bread. The specific objectives of the study were to assess the factors that determine the customers’ shift from wheat bread to orange-fleshed sweetpotato bread and the constraints working against orange-fleshed sweetpotato bread production. Multistage sampling techniques were used for the study. 120 customers were sampled using 5 different major cities in the state due to their consumption rate of bread. Data collected were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and regression analysis. Findings indicated that the majority (66.7%) of the customers were females while 33.3% of the rest were males. This implies that females dominated the activities of bread marketing in the study area. The mean age, years of business experience and household size were 32 years, 20 years, and 8 persons respectively. Out of the 13 variables investigated as regards the factors influencing customers’ preference of orange-fleshed sweetpotato bread over wheat bread, six (6) variables were found to be statistically significant based on the factors influencing personal and socio-economic characteristics of the customers. Those variables were health benefits from the bread, colour of the skin, taste of the bread, cost reduction of the bread, aroma of the bread and meeting up with consumers’ needs.&nbsp; However, the constraints working against orange-fleshed sweetpotato bread production were; the high cost of roots, transportation cost, low knowledge of OFSP bread by some customers, lack of capital to expand the production, inadequate processing equipment, limited number of farmers to produce OFSP root and inadequate storage facilities. This paper recommended that there should be a proper dissemination of information about OFSP bread and its health benefits to people through extension agents. Government at all levels should encourage OFSP processors thereby helping them to secure processing equipment that can boost OFSP bread production in the state and youths should engage themselves in sweetpotato farming to make roots available to the processors.</p> J.C. Udemezue A.N. Kanu A.C. Okoye C.I. Mbanaso D.O. Enibe I.S. Obiajulu Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 144 150 Controlling Late Blight (Phytophtora infestans) of Tomato Using Silver Nitrate and Azadirachta indica (Plant Extract) <p>Tomato is an important vegetable crop that is grown and consumed globally, there are various diseases attached to this crop, <em>Azadirachta indica</em> and Silver Nitrate have also been known to control the effect of many fungal and bacterial infections on agricultural plots, the objective of the study is to determine the effect of Silver Nitrate and the extract of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> on growth indices of tomato, disease incidence and severity of late blight of tomato as well as the yield of tomato on the field. Two tomato varieties chosen were ROMAN VF and 82 B, Tomato seedlings were raised on sterilized soil for four weeks in the screen house, and a young tomato plant was transplanted to the field where there is an epidemic of Late blight. Routine practices such as weeding and watering were carried out on the young tomato plants. Plant extract <em>Azadirachta indica</em> 25% was prepared as treatment 1 and 0.1M Silver Nitrate as Treatment 2. The prepared treatments were applied to the plant every week. The data were taken for plant height, number of leaves per plant, and incidence and severity of late blight on tomato plants. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significantly different means separation was done by using the Least Significant Difference at p&lt;0.05 (LSD). The weight of Tomato fruit was 381.76g on Silver Nitrate while the lowest number was recorded on control to be 64.77 on the Roman VF variety of tomato while on 82 B variety of tomato, the highest value recorded for the weight of fruit was on Silver Nitrate as 414.80g while the lowest was recorded on control as 117.38g. Plant extract and Silver Nitrate aid in promoting plant height and formation of new leaves but late blight incidence and severity are better controlled by the application of plant extracts rather than Silver Nitrate for the tomato varieties used, Plant extract is better applied to control incidence and severity of leaf blight in Tomato, and Silver Nitrate gave highest number of leaves and quality yield.</p> O.O. Oyelakin S.A. Ganiyu R.A. Oloyede E.O. Idehen A.K. Agboola A.R. Popoola Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 151 154 Fermented Cassava Processing Effluents as Soil Conditioners Modulate the Growth and Biochemical Compositions of Black Nightshade <p>This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of cassava processing effluents (25, 50, 75, and 100%) of Lafun effluent (LE), Gari effluent (GE) and Akpu effluent (AE) and distilled water (control) on growth and nutritional compositions of black nightshade. Sodium (128.75mg/100g), calcium (68.15mg/100g), potassium (56.50mg/100g) and magnesium (29.70mg/ 00g) were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in GE compared with other levels of effluents. Plant height (48.17cm) was higher (p&lt;0.05) in the black nightshade applied with 25% GE as well as the number of leaves (89.67) in control. Leaf area (228.05cm<sup>2</sup>), specific leaf area (116.25m<sup>2</sup>kg<sup>-1</sup>), leaf area index (16.90m<sup>2</sup>m<sup>-2</sup>), relative growth rate (0.214 mg-1day-1), net assimilation rate (0.009 gm<sup>-2</sup>day<sup>-1</sup>) and leaf area ratio (0.83 m<sup>2</sup>kg<sup>-1</sup>) showed significant increase in the vegetable applied with 100% GE. Also, 75% of AE produced higher fat (0.22%) ash (0.93%), crude fibre (1.83%), crude protein (2.21%) and carbohydrate (1.78%). Niacin (0.99 mg/100g), ascorbic acid(12.81mg/100g) and tocopherol (0.91 mg/100g), as well as sodium (11.89mg/100g), potassium (439.10mg/100g), calcium (45.07 mg/100g), magnesium (41.28 mg/100g) and phosphorus (106.91mg/100g), showed significant increase in the vegetable applied with 75% LE. In conclusion, 25 % GE and control improved morphological parameters while 75 % AE and LE enhanced the physiological and nutritional attributes of the vegetables.</p> A.W. Ojewumi J.F. Sanusi J.F.O. Sanusi T.H. Olawale R.O. Tope-Akinyetu K.T. Omolokun Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 155 161 Integrated Cocoa Pod Compost Affect Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Yield of Okra in a Derived Savanna of Obubra Nigeria <p>Degradation and mineralization of organic materials are limited by their Carbon/ Nitrogen ratio. A study was carried out at the Cross River University of Technology, Calabar in 2020 and 2021. The experiment was aimed at integrating cocoa pod husk (CPH), moringa leaves (MLB) and poultry droppings (PD) into a compost (CMP) for Okra production. Three compost types: CPH+MLB+PD as CMP1, CPH+MLB as CMP2 and CPH+PD as CMP3 were composted for 60 Days in a ratio of 3:1:1, 3:1 and 3:1 respectively. Each compost was applied at the rates of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>with a zero control and NPK 20.10.10 at 200 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>as an inorganic check. Treatments were 14 which were laid out in RCBD and replicated 3 times. Results of the post-cropping indicated bulk density reduction from 1.33g/cm<sup>3</sup> of pre-treatment soils by all compost-applied soils to a range of 1.11-1.17g/cm<sup>3</sup> and increased porosity of 55.8% - 58.1% with highest bulk density of 1.3g/cm<sup>3</sup> from control. All rates of compost increased OM and available P above their critical level. Total N was above critical levels by all compost manures at rates of 7.5 and 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. Exch. K, Mg, Ca and ECEC were increased with a reduction in exchangeable acidity over the controls. CPH+MLB+PD at 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest yield of okra pods (8.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). CPH +MLB + PD compost at 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> is best suited for soil properties improvement and optimal yield of okra in the study area.</p> M.A. Kekong Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 162 170 Climate Change Adaptation Needs of Arable Crop Farmers in Ido Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria <p>Adaptation is second to none in adjusting to a changing climate. The study was conducted to assess the climate change adaptation needs of arable crop farmers in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State. A Multistage sampling procedure was employed to select one hundred and seventy respondents.&nbsp; An interview guide was used to collect data and analyse using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study indicated that the mean age of the respondents was 55.3 years and the majority (80.0%) of the respondents were males, married (81.8%) with an average of 5 persons per household, and had a mean of 27.6 years of farming experience. The respondents cultivated an average of 1.4ha for arable crops and generated a mean income of #158, 288.24k per annum while most &nbsp;(98.8%) of the farmers had no access to farm credit loans. Furthermore, radio (x̄ = 2.94) and family and friends (x̄ = 2.39) were the major sources of information on climate change adaptation. The respondents observed an increase in rainfall (x̄= 2.79), occurrence of flood (x̄= 2.48) and, drought (x̄=2.38) while temperature (x̄=2.38) was observed to reduce.&nbsp; The pressing adaptation needs of the respondents were loans for livelihood diversification (x̄=4.78), early maturing varieties (x̄= 4.60), irrigation facility (x̄=4.44) and drought-resistant varieties (x̄=4.43). Results of the Chi-square analysis showed that age (χ<sup>2</sup> = 0.017, p = 0.826) and religion (χ<sup>2</sup> = 0.654, p = 0.721) had no significant relationship (P&gt;0.05) with climate change adaptation needs of respondents, whereas, climate change adaptation barriers (r = 0.399**, p = 0.000) has a significantly weak relationship with climate change adaptation needs. It is therefore recommended that arable crop farmers should be granted access to loans for diversification.&nbsp; Also, there should be favourable policies on the availability of subsidized improved seeds for prompt adaptation to ensure sustainable production.</p> K.O. Ogunjinmi O. Adetarami B.A. Oyebamiji K.G. Adeosun T.D. Adebayo P. Obasa Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 171 177 Microbiological Evaluation of Water and Chemical Composition of Fish and Sediment in Surface Water <p>Anthropogenic activities is the major source of organic and inorganic contaminants carried by surface runoffs and fluvial transport to aquatic bodies. The building-up of these contaminants can make water bodies unfit for inhabitation of living organisms as well as man that relied on these resources. Thus, this study analyzed the microbiological content of water and chemical composition of fish and sediment collected at four distinct stations in River Benue using standard methods. The results indicated that highest levels of nitrite (0.01±0.00–5.10±0.14 mg/L), nitrate (1.01±0.01–3.75±0.07 mg/L), and Na (17.15±2.21–186.10±10.14 mg/L) in cat fish gills exceeded FAO/WHO standard. The highest values of bacteria load (2.61 x 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/ml), fungal counts (2.41 x 10<sup>4</sup> CFU/ml), coliform load (25.02 x 10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml) and fecal coliform load (17.06 x 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml) were recorded at Wurukun abattoir station. Five bacterial isolates belonging to the genera were <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Bacillus subtillis</em>, <em>Salmonella sp</em> and three fungal isolates: <em>Aspergillus </em><em>niger</em>, <em>Penicillium </em>sp., and <em>Fusarium </em>sp were observed. Sixty percent were Gram negative (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, and <em>Salmonella </em>sp.) while 40 % were Gram positive (<em>Bacillus pumilus</em> and <em>Bacillus subtillis</em>). Prolong consumption of water and cat fish from River Benue may have adverse effects on people of Benue State as well as commuters (travelers) that buy fish as they traverse Benue State to other parts of the country. It is recommended that the abattoir should be relocated to an area that is not in proximity to River Benue so as to reduce the level of organic pollutants entering River Benue and people living along the banks should be enlightened on the danger associated with defecating and/or disposing domestic waste into river to reduce building up of potentially pathogenic bacteria and harmful fungus.</p> O.C. Egesi O. Alum-Udensi N.N. Ugor P.C. Ogbonna Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 178 188 Storage Effect on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour Processed Using Different Pretreatment and Drying Methods <p>Studies were carried out on the storability of flour processed from UMUSPO 1, a carotene-rich orange fleshed sweet potato variety newly released at National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike Nigeria. Changes in the proximate composition of the flour processed using different pretreatment methods (sulphiting with 0.5% sodium metabisulphite, blanching and control without treatment) and two drying methods (oven and sun drying) were investigated during storage. The processed flour was stored in low-density polyethylene packaging material for 1-3 months at an ambient temperature of 27°C and a relative humidity of 70%.&nbsp; There were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in the proximate composition of the samples during storage and this varied among pretreatment and drying methods. The samples showed a steady increase in the moisture content which ranged from 8.23% - 12.01% with sun-dried samples having the highest, however, the result obtained was still within the acceptable limit. There were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in carbohydrate (75.36%-83.62%), crude fibre (1.7% -2.65%), protein (6.50% - 8.00%), fat (0.47% -1.7%) and ash (1.63% - 1.89) content of the flour samples. A slight increase in the protein content of the samples was observed, however carbohydrate, crude fibre, fat and ash content of the sundried samples recorded more decreases during 3months of storage.</p> N.P. Ogunka A.N. Kanu Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 189 193 Comparative Analysis of Bread Samples Produced With Different Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sugar, Honey and Date Powder) <p>This study investigated the effect of different sweeteners on bread quality characteristics. The sweeteners, xylitol, sugar, honey and date powder, were used to produce bread and designated as A101, B201, C301 and D401 respectively. The functional, proximate, mineral, vitamin, physical and sensory properties of the samples were determined using standard analytical methods. There were significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in the functional properties of the flour samples. The proximate composition of the bread samples ranged from 28.24 to 29.46 % moisture, 5.32 to 7.34 % fat, 12.16 to 16.19 % protein, 2.03 to 3.33 % ash, 1.35 to 4.25 % crude fibre and 40.84 to 50.83 % carbohydrate, and 284.49 to 299.80 Kcal/J energy value. The volume, height, density and specific volume of the loaves varied from 570.07 to 760.77 ml, 48.50 to 52.50 mm, 4.76 to 6.90 g/cm<sup>3</sup> and 0.15 to 0.20 g/cm<sup>3</sup> respectively. The mineral content of the bread samples ranged from 88.55 to 124.26 mg/100g calcium; 121.24 to 141.64 mg/100g phosphorus; 206.43 to 271.12 mg/100g potassium; 9.66 to 16.43 mg/100g iron; 3.14 to 10.28 mg/100g zinc. Significant differences (p&lt;0.05) were observed in the vitamin content of the bread samples.&nbsp; Results of the sensory evaluation indicated that all the bread samples were generally accepted but the sample containing honey was most appealing to the panellists. Sample containing date powder was observed to be the most nutritious and provided the highest amount of protein, fibre, energy, minerals, and vitamins compared to the other samples, and therefore recommended for functional bread production.</p> D.C. Arukwe V.C. Ezeocha S.C. Okolue Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 194 201 Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of Defatted Emperor Moth (Cirina forda) Larvae meal: a nutritional food source rich in amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals <p>This study evaluated the nutritional and antinutritional composition of defatted Emperor Moth (<em>Cirina forda</em>) larvae meal as well as its functional properties. Freshly harvested larvae were blanched in warm water and oven-dried at 35<sup>o</sup>C for 72 hours, before milling to a fine powder, and analyzed for their crude fat and fatty acid profile, crude protein and amino acid profile, 9 minerals elements and anti-nutritional contents. Results revealed percentage proximate composition values of <em>C. forda</em> before defatting and after defatting as 56.26 ± 0.2 and 65.34 ± 0.02 for crude protein, 17.18 ± 0.15 and 8.69 ± 0.02 for crude fat, 6.16 ± 0.11 and 5.73 ± 0.01 for ash, 9.06 ± 0.03 and 8.42 ± 0.02 for crude fibre and 3.13 ± 0.02 and 4.41 ± 0.00 for carbohydrate respectively. Good levels of mineral contents including, calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, potassium, manganese, phosphorus, copper and zinc are present in adequate proportions indicating that they are a good source of micro and macro-mineral nutrients. The larvae are also a good source of essential and non-essential amino acids as well as an excellent profile of fatty acids. Antinutritional values of <em>C. forda</em> including tannin (average, 281.08 ± 0.04 mg/100g), phytic acid (average, 0.438 ± 0.01 mg/100g) and oxalate acid (average, 35.5 ± 0.07 mg/100g) also fell within tolerable levels, which is a non-toxic level. It was concluded in this research that, <em>C. forda </em>larvae contain a good amount of crude protein and a higher amount of it when defatted. They are also an excellent source of macro and micronutrients which can be exploited as an alternative protein source needed in the aquaculture, poultry or livestock feed industries.</p> B. Edah O.D. Owolabi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 54 2 202 207 Linear Body Parameters, Teat Measurements and Weight of Pregnant of West African Dwarf Goat Fed Cassava Leaf Concentrate Diet <p>A 52-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of a cassava leaf concentrate diet on linear body measurements, teat morphometric parameters and weight using twenty (20) pregnant West African dwarf&nbsp; (WAD) goats. Cassava leaf concentrate diets were fed at 0, 10, 20, and 30% replacement levels. The goats were equally and randomly allotted to the diets while water and other routine management practices were carried out throughout the study. Liveweight and Linear body parameters data were collected on body length (BL), height of withers (HW), heart girth (HG), rump height (RH), abdominal circumference (AC) and Linear body parameters and weight gain (WG) were collected at two weeks interval.&nbsp; Data on udder parameters (Distance between teat (DBT), Teat circumference (TC) Teat length (TL) and Height of teat from ground (HTG) were collected on every trimester (0, 50, 100 and 150 days) of the pregnancy period. Postpartum data which commenced 4<sup>th</sup> day of kidding were also collected on dams for 14 weeks of the postpartum period.&nbsp;Results showed that diet had a significant (P&lt;0.05) effect on rump height with 0%, 20% and 30% cassava leaf meal replacement levels having the highest value among the parameters observed. Diet had a significant (P&lt;0.05) effect on distance between teats (DBT) with the highest value recorded for DBT in pregnant Doe on 10% cassava leaf meal replacement. DBT value was the highest in pregnant does fed 30% cassava leaf meal inclusion. A high positive and significant (P&lt;0.05) correlation was obtained among the linear body measurement, weight and udder measurement with the highest correlation recorded between heart girth, weight and abdominal circumference.</p> A.O. Saheed N.A. Ojo E.A. Ojewusi D.P. Toviesi O.F. Akin-Aina A.O. Oni O.O. Adewumi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 208 213 Design and Performance Evaluation of a Parabolic Solar Cooker for Rural Communities in Eastern Nigeria <p>This study aims to design and construct a domestic solar cooker using locally available materials. The heat from the sun was concentrated on a parabola with a reflecting surface to a black casted Aluminum plate (absorber) located at the parabola's focal point. The heat absorbed was utilised for cooking. The research was designed to cook about 2.5kg of beans, a staple food requiring more heat energy than most foods. The design was to produce a cooker that can give 2616kJ of heat energy, considering the solar insolation of Owerri, the Eastern heartland of Nigeria. The Diameter of the dish that can trap this amount of energy is 1.7m. The focal distance where the pot was mounted was calculated to be 0.747m from the centre of the parabola. This work is modelled with Autodesk Inventor. Performance evaluation was done with different meals cooked and the heating rate calculated. The exact quantity of raw food cooked with other mediums and the heating rate were calculated. Comparisons were made, and it was obvious that the solar cooker was most suited for rural areas and people living in areas with high average solar intensity. The efficiency of the solar cooker is 33%. This invariably means that 33% of the energy in the solar cooker was used for cooking.</p> J.C. Aririguzo Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 214 222 Credit Use and Determinants of Economic Efficiency of Cocoa Seedlings Producing Entrepreneurs in South East Nigeria <p>This study examined credit use and the determinants of economic efficiency of cocoa seedlings-producing entrepreneurs in South East, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used in choosing the sample. Primary data collected from 180 seedlings-producing entrepreneurs comprising 60 formal credit users and 120 informal credit users were used for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Maximum Likelihood Stochastic (MLS) regression model. Findings showed that the majority (66.77) percent of entrepreneurs use informal credit sources. Results from MLS showed that for the pooled sample, the coefficients of education, access to credits, extension contacts, cooperative membership, type of seed and farm size all showed positive signs and at different levels of significance. For the Fpenal Cresit Using entrepreneurs, household size, extension contacts, cooperative membership, type of seed and farm size all showed positive signs at different levels of significance respectively. For the Informal Credit Using entrepreneurs, age, education, household size, experience, the volume of credit, extension contacts, cooperative membership and farm size all showed positive signs at different levels of significance. The study recommends that efforts should be made by the government and other investors in agriculture to first consider the various factors identified by this study that influenced the economic efficiency of cocoa seedlings-producing entrepreneurs in South East Nigeria and to ensure the availability of hybrid seeds as hybrid varieties play an important role in increasing income of producing entrepreneurs and overcoming poverty.</p> C. Timothy A.A. Chima J.C. Onwumere K.C. Igwe Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 223 229 Sustainability of Rice Enterprise and Its Determinants in South East Nigeria <p>Global rice production needs to double by 2050 to meet the projected demand at current market prices, this will put significant pressure on natural resources and the environment through sustainable development. Thus sustainability has grown in recognition and importance because the farms are trying to balance their performance among economic, environmental and social domains. This study therefore analyzed the sustainability of rice enterprise and its determinants in South East Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting two hundred and eighty (240) rice farmers in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as sustainability Index (SI) and Tobit regression. The result showed that the average sustainable index was 0.751, with about 23.75% of total respondents having a sustainability index of less than 0.65 units (poor sustainability level), and 10.8% had a sustainability index between 0.65 and 0.74 (deficient sustainability level). About 28.7% had a sustainability index between 0.75 and 0.84 (adjusted regularly to the sustainability goals). About 19.2% had a sustainability index between 0.85 – 0.94 (Well sustainability level). While 17.5% had a sustainability index between 0.95 – 1.00 (Very well sustainability level). Determinants of sustainability were labour used (p&lt;0.01), government support for rice production (p&lt;0.05), use of high-yielding rice varieties (p&lt;0.05), farming experience (p&lt;0.01), fertilizer used (p&lt;0.01), credit use (p&lt;0.1) and management practice (p&lt;0.05). The study therefore concluded that the rice farmers had a moderate sustainability level, which is regularly to the sustainability goals and has significant improvement potential. The study therefore recommends that government policies and interventions should focus on the development and rehabilitation of more land and the application of appropriate rice production technologies such as the use of improved high-yielding varieties, fertiliser and herbicides. Also, the Government should formulate and implement numerous field projects to improve rice-based production under regular and special programmes; for example, projects on rice extension, pre-processing, village storage and rice, processing; and a specialized effort to encourage, specialized field projects aimed at assessment of rice, at various stages of harvest and post-harvest operations in South East, Nigeria.</p> S.O. Aigbokie J.B. Simonyan K.C. Igwe Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 230 236 An Eco-Friendly Design and Development of Solar Steam Generator <p>Solar power and wind energy, amongst other renewable energy sources, are abundant in Nigeria's Southern rural regions. Devising ways and means of harnessing and tapping into these natural reserves ensures a regular and steady energy supply and significantly reduces pollution and CO<sub>2</sub> emissions into the atmosphere and environment. This research introduces an environmentally friendly method of capturing solar energy and using the same to boil water to generate steam for agricultural applications in rural areas where electricity is in short supply. The study aims to design, fabricate and evaluate solar steam generator performance. A parabolic dish reflects the sun's rays to a focal point, heating the water in the absorber at this focal position. The ambient temperature of the surroundings was 33<sup>0</sup>c when the water heating test was carried out, and the test result shows that at the focal point, the maximum temperature achieved was as high as 187°C.&nbsp; The solar cooker was able to raise the temperature of water to steam within 15 minutes. The results convincingly show that the solar steam generator is a reliable, efficient and alternative method of steam generation for subsistent agricultural applications in southern Nigeria with minimal impact on the Eco-system.</p> J.C. Aririguzo Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 237 246 Credit Use and Determinants of Economic Efficiency of Cocoa Seeds Processors in South East Nigeria <p>This study examined credit use and the determinants of economic efficiency of cocoa seed processing entrepreneurs in South East, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used in choosing the sample. Primary data collected from 180 seedlings-producing entrepreneurs were used for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Maximum Likelihood Stochastic (MLS) regression model. Findings showed that the majority (66.77) percent of entrepreneurs use informal credit sources. Results from MLS showed that for the pooled sample, the coefficients of sex and cooperative membership each showed a positive significance. For the Formal Credit Users entrepreneurs, age, processing experience and quantity processed showed positive and significant. For the Informal Credit Users entrepreneurs, age and cooperative membership showed positive and significant. The study recommends that government and formal financial institutions should make formal credit available to entrepreneurs as cocoa processing requires some level of capital investment, thereby creating more employment opportunities for youths who want to invest in agriculture.</p> C. Timothy A.A. Chima J.C. Onwumere K.C. Igwe Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 247 251 Effectiveness of Information and Communication Technologies for Learning Activities among Students of College of Agricultural Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the effectiveness of ICT for learning among students of the College of Agricultural Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 127 respondents in the study area. The questionnaire was used to collect data on respondents’ socio-economic characteristics, available ICT gadgets, extent of use of ICT among respondents, the effectiveness of ICT for learning activities and constraints militating against the effectiveness of ICTs. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentage and mean were employed in analyzing the data while inferential statistics such as Chi-square and PPMC were used in testing hypotheses at p≤0.05 level of significance. Results revealed that respondents had a mean age of 25.11 years and were male (66.9%). The majority (96.9%) were single with an average household size of 2 members. Projectors (90.6%), internet-enabled devices (87.4%) and computers (81.9%) were some of the available ICT gadgets. Internet-enabled devices (66.9%) were always used by respondents and ICT was effective (80.3%) in teaching and learning activities. Also, maintaining and upgrading students' intelligence (=2.28), save lecture time (=2.20) and ability to access information anytime and anywhere (=2.14) were the major indicators of ICT effectiveness. Furthermore, the unavailability of some ICT gadgets in school (=1.72) and lack of ICT equipment or infrastructure for office and administrative use (=1.60) were perceived constraints which rendered ICT ineffective. Respondents’ sex (χ<sup>2</sup><strong>=</strong>10.198) and age (r = 0.195 p&lt;0.05) were significantly related to the level of effectiveness of ICT in the study area. The study concluded that there was a high level of effectiveness of ICT in the study area. It is recommended that the government and other stakeholders provide the required ICT resources for improved learning activities in the study area.</p> R.A. Mufutau G.B. Ogungbayi M.A. Osunmakinde M.O. Fadipe S.A. Olanloye S.K. Shittu Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 252 258 Impact of Newbouldia laevis Root Extract on Liver Enzymes in Rats <p>This twenty-eight-day experimental study aimed to investigate the impact of <em>Newbouldia laevis</em> root extract on liver enzymes in rats. Sixteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of four rats. The first group, designated as the control, received only feed and water. Meanwhile, groups two, three, and four were administered the plant extract at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg, respectively. To assess the potential effects of the extract on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in rat serum were analyzed using the standard method. The AST level was significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower in the group that received 200 mg/kg of extract than in the group that received 600 mg/kg of extract. Additionally, after 28 days, the control group's AST levels were still considerably (p&lt;0.05) lower than those of the groups that received the extract. The ALT results at 14 and 28 days following the administration of the extracts did not significantly differ across the groups when compared to each other. Following 28 days of treatment, the 400 mg/kg extract group had much higher ALP levels (p&lt;0.05), but there was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) between any of the other groups. The findings contribute valuable insights into the possible biochemical effect of <em>N. laevis</em> extract.</p> S.C. Eluu A.O. Oko K. Eluu U.U. Onyekwere C.S. Okoye Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 259 264 Assessment of Women's Involvement in Poultry Production in Ogun State <p>This study assessed women's involvement in poultry production activities in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select a total of one hundred and forty (140) women involved in poultry production activities. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested with linear regression and Spearman-ranked correlation at p≤0.05 level of significance. Results revealed that the average age of the women was 40 years, married (87.9%) with average years of experience and household size of 9 years and 6 persons respectively. Women sourced poultry production-related information from poultry associations (94.3%), social media (85.7%) and family and friends (77.1%). The major factors influencing women's involvement in poultry production were greater financial independence (4.63), improved access to better health facilities (4.60) and self-reliance (4.51). The constraints associated with women's involvement in poultry production were limited access to modern technology (1.48), inadequate capital (1.43) and the problem of weather variability (1.41). Significant relationship existed between women involvement in poultry production and marital status (t=2.441), household size (t=5.541), amount realized from poultry business (t=-2.833), lack of access to credit and finance (r<strong>= -</strong>0.262) and incidence of pest and diseases (r<strong>= -</strong>0.179), improved household food and nutrition security (r<strong>= </strong>0.249), increased workload (r<strong>= </strong>0.179), less time for self-improvement (r<strong>= </strong>0.350), lack of submissiveness of some women to their husbands (r<strong>= -</strong>0.340) and less friction in the family with regards to resource management (r<strong>= </strong>0.175). In conclusion, women's involvement in poultry production activities was low. It was therefore recommended that women should be supported by the government through the provision of credit facilities for improved participation in poultry production activities.</p> R.A. Mufutau G.B. Ogungbayi M.A. Osunmakinde A.R. Ilori S.A. Olanloye S.K. Shittu Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 265 272 Effects of Rabbitry Technology Adoption on Income and Livelihoods of Rural Households in Bende Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria <p>The study investigated the effects of farmers’ adoption of rabbitry technologies on the income and livelihood of rural households in Bende L.G.A. of Abia State, Nigeria. One hundred farmers were selected randomly using the simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by the use of a pre-tested questionnaire. The data generated were subjected to descriptive (frequency, percentages, and inferential (regression) statistical analysis. The result revealed that 32% of the farmers fell between the ages of 26 – 35 years old. While the majority (72%) of the farmers were males. Forty-seven percent (47%) of the farmers made a monthly income of ₦100 - ₦899 from the sale of rabbits and other rabbit products. Information for the adoption of rabbits was obtained from neighbours/friends and other sources of information. The adoption level of the technological package was with a grand mean adoption score of 2.26. The regression analysis showed that age (X<sub>1 = </sub>0.013, P &lt; 0.05) and monthly income (X<sub>7 </sub>= 0.001, P &lt; 0.05) positively affected the adoption of the technologies. Rural households can significantly contribute to reducing poverty, enhancing their nutritional condition, and enhancing their standard of living by engaging in improved rabbitry production technologies. Improved rabbitry production had a significant contribution to the economic situation, way of life, and well-being of rural households. Females are to be encouraged in rabbit production as livelihood diversification. Also, banks, governments, and non-governmental organizations must offer farmers especially youths easily accessible and reasonable loan facilities as this will boost their revenue, promote adoption and reduce poverty levels among the masses/rural households. Training on forage production and storage is also recommended. Television viewing centres and Radio forums will also promote the adoption of improved rabbitry technologies.</p> E. Oti C.E. Ukonu Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 273 280 Effect of Sugar Substitution with Date Palm on the Quality of Mango Fruit Jam <p>Jam is a food product prepared by boiling fruit pulp with sugar, pectin, acid and other ingredients. This study aims to determine the effects of sugar substitution with date palms on the quality of mango fruit jam. Ten (10) kilograms of matured mango fruits were washed properly; peeled, sliced and pulped using an electric blender to get mango puree. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral, pH and sensory properties. Sample MJ0 had the highest moisture content (37.57%) while the Ash content of jam samples was 1.03 % to 2.40 % with sample MJ4 as the highest (2.40 %) while the fat content recorded 0.92% for sampleMJ4 as the highest value. Sample MJ4 had the highest value (3.91%) for protein content while sample MJ0had the SampleMJ4had the highest value (3.11%) for fibre while Sample MJ4 had the highest carbohydrate content (57.86 %). Calcium content was higher in sample MJ0 (4.675) while Iron content in the samples was significantly higher in sample MJ1 (3.296) and sample MJ3 (7.21) was highest in magnesium. Ascorbic acid content increased in the range of 0.214 – 0.269 from sample MJ0 to MJ4. The mean acidity value increased from 0.112mg/100g to 0.167mg/100g as the sugar replacement increased from MJ0 to MJ4. However, the PH ranges from 2.92 to 3.31 as sample MJ4 recorded the highest pH while MJ0 recorded the lowest. MJ0 was reported excellent in consistency, appearance (8.1±O.1.4), overall acceptability (8.1±O.1.3) and mouthfeel (7.4±1.3), compared to the rest of the samples.</p> J.K. Agomuo A.N. Anosike C.O. Ifeka Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 281 285 Bio-deterioration and its Management Techniques <p>Every natural or synthetic product is subject to some form of natural degradation over time under the right enabling environmental conditions. Bio-deterioration is one of the natural means of degradation. It is an unwanted change in the composition of a material influenced by biotic activities. This process of spoilage could either be a chemical or physical spoilage, usually caused by the entry of insects and creating pathways for the growth of identifiable organisms. Bio-deterioration is also complex and the factors that lead to the alterations in the physicochemical properties of an item depend most importantly on the item involved, the mode of action of the biotic agent, and a favourable environmental condition. The scope of bio-deterioration, products affected, causative agents, and mode of action were looked into and methods available to man to tackle this natural phenomenon were also evaluated. Some of the methods were from simply cultural practices to advanced techniques like nanotechnology.</p> Q.U. Ano C.O. Nwadili Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 286 291 Ethno-Botanical Survey of Potential Anti-Typhoid Fever Plant Species in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria <p>There is an urgent need to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used because of its dependency on oral transmission which is at the risk of extinction and the destruction of the natural habitat by anthropogenic activities causing rapid loss of the plant species. The study focuses on documenting potential Anti-typhoid fever plants among herbalists in Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted during the rainy season from April to September 2019. A total number of 80 herbalists were randomly selected from eight villages within the study areas. Well-structured questionnaires administered to the respondents on an individual basis in the local language (Yoruba) were used to collect information on the medicinal plant species used in the treatment of typhoid fever. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics. The results showed a total number of twenty-three (23) plant species from 18 families used in the treatment of Typhoid fever in the study area. Apocynaceae family had the highest number of plant species. Leaves formed the major plant parts used; decoction had the highest percentage of the mode of preparation while oral administration by drinking had the highest percentage of the route of administration/ application of the recipes. The study further showed that all the plants reported had inherent secondary metabolites known as phytochemicals which makes them active against typhoid causative agents. The study concludes that medicinal plants are potent in the treatment of typhoid fever with respondents having adequate knowledge of their uses.</p> O.C. Ariyo Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 292 309 Pathology, Haematology and Biochemistry of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chickens <p>Coccidiosis is the most economically important parasitic disease of poultry. Forty five day-old broiler chicks were used for this study. They were divided randomly into three equal groups (Groups A to C). Each group comprised 15 chicks with three replicates in each group. The groups were arranged as follows: Group A: Control (uninfected - untreated), Group B: Infected - untreated and Group C: Infected - treated. The feed intake in the two infected groups decreased but it was more severe in the Group B than in Group C by day 7 PI. By days 14 to 42 PI the two infected groups competed favourably and were higher in feed intake when compared to the control birds. But their weight gain were far below the control until the end of the experiment, this is due to the pathological changes the disease organism caused and was demonstrated by histopathological studies of the slide. The disease and its effect was severe in the group B. other parameters were in agreement that the effect was severe in group B and less severe in group C. Hence, coccidiosis negatively affected both the activity score and faecal score in the groups B and C. Coccidiosis presented clinical signs and pathologic changes in the affected birds and these affect profitability of the rural poultry farmers / industry. Hence, the disease is a real problem in the poultry industry and the gain of confronting the challenge posed by it is worth the investment.</p> C.E. Ukonu I.N. Ogo G. Daniel-Igwe I.N. Innocent C.O. Okereke Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 310 323 Impact of Newbouldia laevis Root Extract on Hematological Parameters in Rats: A Comprehensive Study on Dosage-Dependent Effects and Long-Term Dynamics <p>Haematological parameters serve as crucial indicators for evaluating essential data related to the body's response to illnesses and medications. This study aimed to investigate the impact of <em>Newbouldia laevis</em> root extract on the haematological parameters of rats. A total of sixteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, each comprising four rats. The control group, designated as the first group, received only feed and water, while groups two, three, and four were administered doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg of <em>N. laevis</em> root extracts, respectively. Upon assessing the percentage packed cell volume fourteen days post-extract administration, no significant variations (p &gt; 0.05) were observed among the groups. However, after administering the extract for 14 days, the control group and the 600 mg/kg-treated group exhibited significantly lower red blood cell counts and haemoglobin values (p &lt; 0.05) compared to the groups treated with 200 mg of the extract. Notably, at 28 days post-administration, there were no significant differences (p &gt; 0.05) in the percentage packed cell volume, red blood cell counts, or haemoglobin values among the groups, despite the observed disparities on the 14-day. Furthermore, a significant increase in percentage packed cell volume, red blood cell counts, and haemoglobin values was noted when the values were compared at 14 and 28 days. The study contributes significantly to our understanding of the plant extract's effects on the physiological components of the haematological system.</p> S.C. Eluu A.O. Oko K. Eluu C.S. Okoye U.U. Onyekwere O.A. Omoniyi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 324 329 Analysis of Palm Oil Marketing among Women Marketers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State <p>The study was conducted as an analysis of palm oil marketing among women in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 72 respondents for the study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical tools such as means, frequencies and percentages. A budgetary approach and multiple regression model were also used. Results of the analysis showed that women marketers participated in the assembling, storage, buying and selling of palm oil in the study area and did not participate in the transportation of palm oil. The total variable cost was estimated at ₦30,250.60, which is about 75.06% of the total cost. It also showed that the cost of palm oil bought formed the major cost, such that it was 50.25% of the total marketing cost. The respondents realized a total revenue of ₦94,440.50 and the total marketing cost was ₦ 40, 300.81. The profitability index estimate of 1.34 was recorded, implying that 134k was received as the net margin for every N1 received as the value of sales and this buttresses the profitability of palm oil marketing among women in the study area. More so, the marketing efficiency computation suggests that the palm oil marketing enterprise was 134.24% efficient in the study area. Age was statistically significant at a 1% probability level and had an inverse relationship with the marketing efficiency of the respondents. Education was statistically significant at a 1% significant level and positively related to marketing efficiency. Access to credit was statistically significant at a 1% significant level and positively related to marketing efficiency. The coefficient of cooperative membership was statistically significant at 1% and positively related to marketing efficiency.&nbsp; The most common constraints to palm oil marketing among the women in the study area in the order of their magnitude include bulkiness (94.44%), inadequate market information (93.06%), poor storage facilities (76.39%), bad road network (69.44%), lack of government subsidy/credit (62.50%), remoteness of markets (59.72%), high cost of transportation (56.94%) and poor pricing (55.56%). The study therefore recommended that transportation facilities and market infrastructure like good roads, vehicles, electricity and storage facilities should be made available in the study area by government and relevant stakeholders this would make participation in the transportation of palm oil and other relevant activities easier for women.</p> B.O. Okpara I.O. Obasi I.E. Offor Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 330 337 Analysis of Agribusiness Financial Statement of Presco Nigeria: 2010-2020 <p>The study was conducted in Presco Nigeria Limited. Single-stage sampling was used in selecting the sample size of the study. The purposive selection of ten (10) financial statements from the past ten years out of the financial statements of other years was used as the sample size of this study. Liquidity Ratios, Leverage Ratios, net worth formula and Profitability Ratios were used to analyze the financial status of Presco Nigeria Limited. Results indicated that Presco Nigeria Limited cannot effectively meet its short-term obligations since its ratios fell below the benchmark of 1.5 - 3.0 hence, the need to reduce its current liabilities or increase its current assets. It was recommended that the company should be very careful while recording financial figures. This is due to the numerous anomalies recorded in some financial figures, especially in 2016. The company should reduce its reliance on debts as it may be financially distressed in the future as indicated by its high Debt to EBITDA Ratios (greater than 3.0).</p> I.A. Okidim M.O. Obe-Nwaka E.C. Silas Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 338 344 Rabbit Wastes and Its Potential to Boost Agricultural Productivity: A Synoptic Review in Sweet Potato Farming <p>In recent years, the precarious global economy, rising food, fuel, and fertilizer prices, the deteriorating environment and health risks posed by humans have dramatically redirected lines of agricultural research. This increasing concern of consumers has driven the demand for food that is produced with sustainable approaches. The need to implement these sustainable practices such as the application of rabbit waste is a drive to climate-smart agriculture.&nbsp;Sweet potato cultivation with rabbit waste as its fertilizer and pesticide will enhance crop yield as well as improve the health and fertility of the soil. Rabbit waste also enhances crop resistance by repelling pests such as aphids, fall armyworms, etc., and thus reduces costs on plant protection products, due to the high level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contained in them.</p> Q.U. Ano E. Ekefan Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 345 353 Assessment of Socio-Economic Impact of Recreational Fisheries amongst Residents of Argungu Community, Kebbi State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the socio-economic impact of recreational fisheries amongst residents of the Argungu community of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Accidental and snowball sampling techniques were used to administer one hundred (100) questionnaires to the residents of the Argungu community. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents revealed more males (76.6%) than females (23.4%). Also, the age group 31-40 years recorded the highest (48.1%), followed by the age group 21-30 years (33.8%) while ≥50 years is the least (2.6%). Respondents with secondary school education recorded the highest (35.1%) while post-secondary education was the least (14.3%). Most of the respondents are Muslims (59.7%) while Christianity recorded 40.3%. Also, the majority of the respondents (46.8%) are farmers/fishermen while the student is the least (6.5%). Many (59.7%) of the respondents have stayed in the study area for ≥20 years. The majority (63.6%) of the respondents participate in the fishing festival. Perception of the host community towards Argungu fishing festivals indicated that the Fishing festival keeps culture alive recording the highest mean value of 4.42. Business opportunity, source of revenue/foreign exchange and expansion of the local market are the major socio-economic impacts of the fishing festival. The challenges facing the sustainable development of the fishing festival are poor funding, insecurity, political instability, gender inequality etc. The study recommends that the construction of accessible roads and provision of other infrastructural facilities like a regular supply of electricity will increase the influx of visitors to the Argungu festival.</p> J.O. Onihunwa A.J. Adeola O.A. Akande E.A. Irunokhai A.S. Wealth Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 354 359 Determinants of Rural Women Attitude towards Participating in Farmers Local Organizations: Challenges and Prospects in South-South, Nigeria <p>The study examined rural women's attitude towards participating in farmers' local organizations along with its challenges and prospects in South-South States, Nigeria. The sample size of 295 respondents was drawn using the multi-stage sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the objectives of the study while inferential statistics (Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient and Binomial test statistics). Results showed that the average age, household size, farm experience, farm size and years of membership in the social group were 39.76 years, about 6 persons, 6.71 years, 2.48 ha and 6.07 years. Statements like participation in the group have enhanced my farm output (56.61%) and participation in the group has improved my income (56.61%) were statements that showed favourable attitudes of the farmers which have improved the livelihood status of the respondents. Prevalence of corruption and dishonesty of leaders (mean = 4.13), membership poor response to loan repayment (mean = 4.08) and lack of government assistance (mean = 4.08) were some of the challenges limiting the farmers from participating in FLOs. Factors such as respondents age (r = 0.398; p = 0.000), level of formal education (r = -0.217; p = -0.002), household size (r = 0.443; p = 0.001) and membership of FLOs (r = 0.362; p = 0.000) were significant to rural women farmers attitude on participating in farmers local organizations. Based on the results, the study recommended that there is a need for the leaders of the FLOs to be up and doing and try to keep clean and transparent practices that can help to instil confidence amongst the people so that they can be encouraged to improve in their level of participation.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> G.F. Okwuokenye F. Onyemekihian Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 360 369 Cocoyam Emerging as a Cash Crop in Anambra East LGA of Anambra State, Nigeria <p>The survey was conducted to collect baseline data for the cocoyam multiplication and distribution campaign conducted by the National Root Crops Research Institute, Igbariam Sub-station, Anambra State, Nigeria. After the multiplication of the cocoyam experiment in the Igbariam sub-station. A total of 45 farmers and 60 traders were interviewed throughout May-September, 2022. In the three (3) sample areas of Igbariam, Nnado and Otuocha. In addition to contributing much to the food staple base in the households, cocoyam was found to be playing an increasingly important role as a cash earner not only in the household but also a cash earner in the rural economy of Otuocha, Nnnodo and Igbariam communities which have good access to urban consumer markets through a good network of roads. Farmers in these areas have pioneered the introduction and management of a high-yielding and palatable variety called ede ofe. Driven by an apparent increase in demand in urban areas, a good marketing system dependent on motor transport has been developed. Farmers seem to have reached a point of self-sufficiency as far as home consumption of cocoyam is concerned. Farmers are being encouraged to diversify utilization and processing to maintain demand and cash.</p> F.N. Aboajah P.I. Ekeledo Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 370 375 Intercropping Systems, Prospects and Challenges of Tea Production in Nigeria: A Review <p>This paper provides a comprehensive review of intercropping systems, examining the prospects and challenges associated with tea production in Nigeria. The analysis encompasses a global perspective on tea production, emphasizing Nigeria's position within the international landscape and elucidating key trends, challenges, and opportunities. Notable tea-producing regions in Nigeria, including the Jos Plateau in Plateau State, Mambilla Plateau in Taraba State, Gembu in Taraba State, and Obudu in Cross River State, are highlighted. The tea industry in Nigeria has experienced growth in terms of quantity, quality, variety, and consumption rates. The study identifies China, India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam as the top global tea-producing countries. Challenges faced by the Nigerian tea production industry encompass climate change, pests, diseases, labour issues, fluctuating prices, small production levels, inadequate infrastructure, limited access to finance, low productivity, and poor tea quality. Prospects for the industry include the development of new tea varieties, the introduction of lowland tea production, favourable climatic conditions, and increasing global demand for tea. Intercropping practices in Nigerian tea production involve the cultivation of crops such as maize, soybean, peanuts, and citrus alongside tea plants. The paper concludes that addressing the identified challenges and implementing strategic measures are essential for enhancing the productivity, quality, and market competitiveness of the tea industry in Nigeria.</p> Q.A. Ogunwolu I.A. Adewumi O. Aremu-Dele F.B. Mustopha R.A. Buhari K.A. Adesanya Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 376 381 Socio-Economic Determinants of Gender Participation among Sweet Potato Farmers in Anambra State of Nigeria <p>The study assessed the determinants of gender participation among sweet potato farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 120 farmers were selected across the state using a multi-stage sampling technique. Primary data were collected on the socio-economic characteristics and other quantitative variables relevant to the study using a well-structured questionnaire and personal interview. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression technique was used to analyse the determinants of gender participation. Results revealed that 70.8% of males participated in land preparation, while 29.2% took part in the same activity. Results also revealed that 100%, 43.3%, 33.3%, 40%, 53.3% and 31.7% of males participated in mound-making planting, fertilizer application, weeding, harvesting and marketing activities while 0%, 56.7%, 66.7%, 60%, 46.7% and 68.3% women participated in the same activities. Six variables were investigated as the determinants of socio-economic variables affecting gender participation among sweet potato farmers. Five (5) variables were found to be statistically significant as regards the factors influencing personal and socio-economic characteristics among sweet potato farmer’s participation. They are age (P&lt;0.05), level of education (P&lt;0.05), household size (P&lt;0.05), farming experience (P&lt;0.05) and farm size (P&lt;0.05). It recommends that research and extension should focus on both male and female sweet potato farmers with appropriate techniques to improve participation among sweet potato farmers, which would enhance their income and standard of living.</p> F.N. Aboajah P.I. Ekeledo Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 382 387 Effect of Post-Harvest Losses on Food Security among Yam Farmers in Nigeria <p>Nigeria is the largest producer of yam in the world, although postharvest loss leading to wastage in farm produce, inputs and investments could impact negatively yam farmers’ income and consequently, food security. Studies are limited on postharvest loss of yam and its link with food security in Nigeria. Therefore, the effect of postharvest loss on the food security of yam farmers in Nigeria was investigated. The Nigeria General Household Survey (GHS) 2018/2019 dataset by the National Bureau of Statistics was used for the study and data on 1,647 yam farmers were extracted. Results revealed that 76.4% of the farmers were male, 70.7% were married, and 77.7% had primary education or higher. On average, farm size was 0.75 hectares, age was 54.5 years, post-harvest loss 0.278 t/ha and yield 8 t/ha. Most yam farming households (90.5%) had low-level post-harvest loss of &lt;2 t/ha. The food security line was ₦905.24, while food security incidence, depth and severity were 51.49%, 27.60% and 18.78%, respectively. Thus, most yam farmers in Nigeria were food insecure. Postharvest loss reduced the probability of food security among yam farmers in Nigeria, alongside age and farm size, while having secondary and tertiary education, household size and being a cooperative member improved it. Conclusively, postharvest loss worsens the food insecurity of yam farmers in Nigeria. Therefore, the government should favour policies that reduce yam postharvest loss, while emphasizing educational attainment among yam farmers beyond the primary level.</p> O. Obi-Egbedi J.O. Ifoga Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 388 393 Efficiency of Cassava Production Enterprise among Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) Beneficiaries and Non-Beneficiaries in Abia State, Nigeria <p>The study estimates the technical, allocative and economic efficiency of cassava production enterprise among RTEP beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries in Abia State, Nigeria. The study employed a combination of multi-stage purposive and random sampling techniques to select 120 respondents for the research. A stochastic frontier production function was used to estimate efficiency levels and identify factors influencing efficiency. The result for technical efficiency for RTEP beneficiaries revealed significant positive impacts of planting material, farm size, and agrochemicals on cassava output while RTEP non-beneficiaries show a positive relationship between labour and agrochemicals with output and technical efficiency. The inefficiency model for non-beneficiaries highlights age as a factor contributing to technical inefficiency, while experience and extension contact enhance efficiency. The allocative efficiency result shows that age, education, and farming experience significantly impact the allocative efficiency of RTEP beneficiaries. For non-beneficiaries, extension visits and farming experience play crucial roles in allocative efficiency. Economic efficiency analysis indicates that planting material, rent on land, and agrochemical costs are significant determinants for RTEP beneficiaries. For non-beneficiaries, rent on land and labour costs significantly contribute to total production costs. Age, education, and household size affect the cost efficiency of both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Based on the findings and conclusion of this study, it is therefore recommended that efforts should be directed towards encouraging RTEP non-beneficiaries to partake in subsequent agricultural programmes through adequate awareness creation and sensitization programmes by government, non-governmental organizations and extension agents, as this enhances productivity and efficiency of farmers.&nbsp;</p> N.C. Onyemauwa K.C. Igwe B.C. Okoye Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 394 402 Analysis of Selected Socioeconomic Characteristics of Fishermen: Implications for Fish Production in Eastern Obolo LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria <p>The study examined the implications for fish production, of some selected socioeconomic characteristics of fishermen, in Eastern Obolo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Both purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 90 fishermen from three (3) fishing depots: Educwink, Elekpon and Agan-asa. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores, charts and graphs, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. The majority (53%) of the fishermen were married, while about 41% were single. The fishermen had an average of five (5) persons per household, while those with 2 – 4 persons in a household were in the majority (54%). Artisanal fishing was the primary occupation for the majority (77%) of the fishermen, and their most important fishing tools and equipment included engine boats (3.60), cast and throw nets (3.35), and fishing rods, hooks, line and sinker (3.03). Artisan and on-farm labour were the primary occupations of about 14% and 6% of the fishermen, respectively. The majority (80%) of the fishermen were cooperators, and they belonged on average, to two (2) cooperative societies per person. The study recommended policies that provide good financial and societal rewards for fishermen, while also, providing adequate incentives for their operation such as training on modern fishing techniques, provision of credit facilities, and access to modern fishing techniques and markets for their produce.</p> O.G. Oti A.D. Teran R.A. Okere G.N. Nelson Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 403 409 Time Series Analysis of Monthly Issuance of Phytosanitary Certificates for Plants and Plant Materials in Post-Entry Quarantine, Surveillance and Diagnostic Station, in Nigeria <p>Nigeria Agricultural Quarantine Service (NAQS) has the sole national mandate to carry out phytosanitary activities at various points of entry into Nigeria. It is the competent authority that issues Plant Health or Phytosanitary Certificates (PC) to prevent the introduction of foreign pests to other countries through the export of plant materials. However, there is limited information on the trend of issuance of PCs essential for informed decisions in planning for improving the efficiency of PCs in mitigating foreign pests across countries. This study examined the issuance of PCs at the Post-Entry Quarantine, Surveillance and Diagnostic Station (PEQSDS), NAQS Ibadan, using a Time Series method. The monthly PC issuance dataset spanning January 2012 to July 2022 was analysed, and the ARIMA model was fitted. Based on the results of the forecast measures of the study, ARMA (5, 8) was selected as the best model for forecasting the number of PCs. Monthly fluctuation of issued PCs was observed. The forecasted values indicate that the number of issued PCs will fluctuate throughout the subsequent years. Investigation into the causes of the erratic issuance of PCs is necessary. The study recommends among others, the need for NAQS to maintain constant surveillance, keep employees on high alert and consider the electronic phytosanitary certification process for more productive phytosanitary activities to reduce pest incursion and facilitate trade.</p> O.E. Majebi K.E. Ogunsola S.A. Kazeem A.O. Ogunfumilayo J.F. Ogunsola Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 410 418 Irrigation Strategies during Dry Season Cultivation and Urea Micro-Dosing Rate on Growth and Yield of Amaranthus viridis <p>Excessive nitrogen application and water scarcity have become a major challenge to crop production due to climatic changes. The study investigated the effects of dry season irrigation and fertilizer micro-dosing application methods on the height, chlorophyll content and fresh yield of <em>Amaranthus viridis. </em>The field study was conducted during the 2022 and 2023 dry planting seasons of rainforest in southwestern Nigeria. The experimental design was a randomised complete block design with four replicates. The treatments compared two irrigation methods (capillary and manual sprinkler) combined with urea fertilizer rates (0 and 40 kg N/ ha) by fertigation, drilling, spot placement, and broadcasting methods. 40 litres of water were applied at two days intervals. Forty (40) kg/ha urea-N micro-dosing rate significantly improved fresh yield, chlorophyll content and height of <em>Amaranthus viridis.</em> The methods of application did not have a negative effect on the vegetable quality. The Capillary irrigation innovation displayed a capacity that significantly improved the yield of the leafy vegetable during the dry cultivation period. It produced more yield compared to the watering can irrigation method.</p> I.A. Egbebi T.M. Awopegba M.O. Akinola Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 419 424 Cost and Return Analyses of Pro-Vitamin A Cassava Production among Smallholder Farmers in Abia State <p>Cassava is an important staple food and cash crop in Nigeria. Its root is rich in starch and contains a significant amount of calcium, phosphorus and vitamins. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. Vitamin A deficiency diseases are prevalent in Nigeria, which has led to the bio-fortification of cassava with vitamin A. Vitamin A fortified cassava (yellow root cassava) contains carotenoids that could contribute to reducing vitamin A deficiency. This Paper evaluates the profitability of &nbsp;Pro-vitamin A cassava production in Abia State, Nigeria. The objectives of this research are to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of pro-vitamin A cassava producers; and to estimate the costs and returns to pro-vitamin A cassava production. A multistage random sampling procedure was used to extract data from sixty pro-vitamin A cassava farmers in 2015. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency and percentage were used to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers while Net Income (NI) analytical model was used to estimate the cost and benefit. The result shows that pro-vitamin A cassava production in Abia State is a high-income-generating business. It is dominated by smallholder-educated female farmers in their active ages with large families and limited access to credit. &nbsp;Adoption of pro-vitamin A cassava in Abia State will improve the well-being of rural farmers and create the desired economic growth.</p> G.U. Okonkwo A. Amaefula C. Igwe Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 425 429 Characterization of Educational Level, Fishing Experience and Income of Artisanal Fishing: Correlation and Crosstabulation Approaches of Evidence from Eastern Obolo LGA of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria <p>The study examined the characterization of educational levels, fishing experiences and fish incomes of fishermen in Eastern Obolo LGA of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 90 respondents for the study from Educwink, Elekpon and Agan-asa fishing depots. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed with frequency distribution, cross-tabulation, charts, analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square and correlation analyses. Majority (89%) of the fishermen had formal education, their average level of education was 6 years, and their means across various educational levels were significantly (P&lt;0.01) different. Their average fishing experience was 8 years, while their means across various levels of fishing experience were significantly (p&lt;0.01) different. Majority (42.2%) of them had a fishing experience of 6 – 10 years. Their average fish income was N528,800.04, while the fish income group (N241,000.00 – N480,000.00) was the most predominated (28.9%). Their means across various fish income groups were statistically (p&lt;0.01) different. The correlation between fish incomes and educational levels was positive (0.349) and significant (p&lt;0.01), while their associations were also significant (ar&gt;|2|). The highest proportion (43.8%) of fishermen with primary education earned fish income of N12,000.00 - N240,000.00 p.a., while fishermen with secondary education predominated (33.3%) the fish income group, N481,000.00 - N720,00.00 p.a. Fish incomes and fishing experience correlation was significant (p&lt;0.01) and positive (0.469). Their associations were equally significant (ar&gt;|2|). Majority (68.2%) of the fishermen with 1 – 5 years of fishing experience, had fish income of N12,000.00 – N240,000.00 p.a, while, fishermen with 6 – 10 years of fishing experience predominated the fish income groups of N241,000.00 - N480,000.00 (45.9%), and N481,000.00 - N720,000.00 (35.1%) p.a. The study recommended policies that train fishermen up to the secondary level of education while providing incentives for fishermen to remain in the trade.</p> O.G. Oti A.D. Teran R.A. Okere G.N. Nelson Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 430 438 Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers for Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato Production under Humid Tropical Conditions of South East Nigeria <p>Sweetpotato, especially the orange-fleshed type, is an important crop that is now receiving greater attention in Nigeria. This has generated demand for information on management practices such as fertilization aimed at optimizing growth and yield under local smallholder conditions. Given this, a field study was conducted in a humid tropical ultisol at Umudike, south-eastern Nigeria to evaluate organic and inorganic fertilizer application on the growth and yield of three orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties. The experiment was laid in a 5 x 3 factorial arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The organic and inorganic fertilizer rates were zero application, 4t/ha poultry manure, 4t/ha cow dung, a combination of poultry manure and cow dung at 2t/ha each, and 400kg/ha NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer; while the sweetpotato varieties were Umuspo 1, Umuspo 3 and Umuspo 4. The result showed that, in both the year 2020 and 2021 cropping seasons, the application of poultry manure alone at 4t/ha produced a significantly greater leaf area index compared to other fertilizer treatments. Organic and inorganic fertilizer application did not significantly (P&gt;0.05) influence storage root yields likely due to the fairly fertile soils used, but the application of poultry manure at 4t/ha gave significantly higher dry matter content of the storage roots than other treatments. Orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties Umuspo 1 and Umuspo 3 had similar root yields of 11.2t/ha and 13.3t/ha respectively, but significantly higher yields than Umuspo 4 (3.9 t/ha); while shoot biomass was comparable in Umuspo1 and Umuspo 4 but higher than that of Umuspo 3. Interaction effects showed that the highest dry matter content (35.5%) of the storage roots was obtained from Umuspo 1 received 4t/ha poultry manure while the highest carotene content (78.9 ug/g) of storage roots was obtained from Umuspo 3 variety at zero application. Based on financial returns, the highest profit (gross margin) of #3,400 was obtained from the application of poultry manure at 4t/ha on Umuspo 3, followed by Umuspo 1 variety. Overall, the results illustrate the importance of the choice of variety and fertilization in improving sweetpotato productivity and providing higher income to the farmers.</p> W. Ezechi D. Okpara C. Nwadinobi C. Eze Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 439 444 Beyond the Farmgate to Table: Transformation of Root Crop Supply Chains and Impact on National Development <p>Root and tuber crops, such as cassava, yam, sweetpotato, potato, cocoyam and ginger are essential food and cash crops for millions of people in developing countries. However, their potential as contributors to national development, food security, and poverty reduction is often limited by inefficient supply chains, low productivity, and poor market linkages. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in transforming root and tuber crop supply chains for sustainable development, drawing on case studies from Nigeria. The paper provides policy recommendations for creating an enabling policy environment, investing in research and development, improving infrastructure and market access, building capacity and knowledge transfer, and promoting inclusivity and gender sensitivity. The impacts of root and tuber crop supply chain transformation are also discussed, including increased agricultural productivity, improved food security and nutrition, enhanced employment opportunities, reduced poverty, and increased inclusivity. By addressing the challenges and implementing the suggested strategies, root and tuber crops can reach their full potential as contributors to sustainable and inclusive development.</p> O.S. Offor E.E. Ekong B.C. Okoye C.N. Egesi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 445 451 Determinants of Poverty Severity among Cassava Farmers in Uyo Agricultural Zone, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the determinants of income poverty of cassava farmers in the Uyo Agricultural Zone. It specifically examined the socio-economic characteristics of the cassava farmers and determined their income poverty status and factors influencing the income poverty status of the cassava farmers in the study area. The multistage and purposive selection was done to obtain 165 cassava farmers across the agricultural zone. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, Foster Greer Thorbecke (FGT) and a probit regression model. The majority (72.1%) of the farmers are between the ages of 21-40 years with a mean age of 35 years. Marital status shows that there are slightly more single farmers (49.1%) than married (44.2%) or even those separated (3.0%). Results of poverty incidence analysis indicate that the poverty headcount is found to be 0.74, 0.47 and 0.29 for those who produce for consumption alone, and sales alone as well as those who produce for both sales and consumption respectively which implies that only 29% of respondents who produce for both sales and consumption are impoverished, compared to 74% of respondents who solely create for consumption. The poverty depth index of the respondents was found to be 0.28, 0.13 and 0.12 for those who produce for consumption alone, and sales alone as well as those who produce for both sales and consumption respectively. The implication is that to reach the poverty line, cassava farmers must earn an additional 28.0%, 13.0%, and 12.0% of their mean annual farm income, respectively. It is also found that the respondents have a poverty severity index of 0.17, 0.08 and 0.07 for those who produce for consumption alone, and sales alone as well as those who produce for both sales and consumption respectively. This shows that the respondents who produce only for consumption are more of the poorest people (17%) than those who are selling (8%) or producing for both sales and consumption (7%). The result of probit regression showed that fertilizer use, net income, household size, participation in cassava farming, labour cost, access to credit and access to extension agents were the determinants of income poverty of cassava farmers in the study area. Hence, Government should provide adequate credit facilities for cassava farmers as this would increase their scale of production as well as their income thereby reducing income poverty in their households; there is a need to enlighten the farmers on the importance of family planning, which would help curb the rate at which household sizes are increasing.</p> A.J. Akpaeti U.S. Okon D.N. Archibong Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 452 459 Non-Inclusive Growth among Rural Households in Nigeria: A Micro Level Analysis of Income Growth and Equitable Distribution of Resources <p>This study assessed Non-Inclusive Growth (NIG) among rural households in Nigeria. Secondary data from the General Household Survey (GHS) of 2010/2011, 2012/2013 and 2015/2016 were used. The GHS is a panel data consisting of 5,000 Households (HHs) of which 3,347 rural HHs were used. Data were obtained on socio-economic characteristics, welfare characteristics and geopolitical zones. Poverty gaps were estimated and matched to the economic growth rate to categorize households into NIG. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) and Probit model. The mean age of the rural HHs were 41.8±9.4, 43.7±9.4, and 46.9±9.4 years, while the mean household sizes were 8.0±2.0, 7.3±3.1 and 7.5±1.8 for 2010/2011, 2012/2013 and 2015/2016 respectively. The majority were male, 65.0%, 65.4% and 65.5%, while 64.3%, 63.1% and 63.4% were married in 2010/2011, 2012/2013 and 2015/2016, respectively. HHs without access to credit (72.9%) were higher in 2012/2013 than in 2010/2011 (63.2%) and 2015/2016 (53.5%). HHs with no formal education (45.3%) were higher in 2012/2013 than in 2010/2011 (43.3%) and 2015/2016 (40.2%). The NIG was higher without access to health facilities, access to energy, access to potable water and employment in periods 2010–2013, 2013–2016 and 2010–2016. The Probit results show that the age of HHs, household size, education, access to health facilities, access to energy, access to potable water, access to credit, North East zone, North West zone, South-South zone and South West zone influenced NIG among rural HHs. Therefore, access to facilities and an equitable share of resources should be paramount in rural areas to reduce the non-inclusiveness of growth.</p> S. Ajijola B.T. Omonona T.T. Awoyemi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 460 468 Determinants of Yield Gap in Maize Production in Some Rural Communities of North West Nigeria <p>The study analyzed the yield gap and its determinants in maize production in northwestern Nigeria. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect primary data using a well-structured questionnaire from 100 maize farmers in the study area. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The result from descriptive statistics shows that the maize farmers had a mean age of 45 years, and were mostly males (89.0%). The maize farmers use an average of 63.1kg/ha of Urea and 65.1kg/ha of NPK. The mean quantity of herbicides and labour used by the farmers are 0.8litres and 20 man-hours respectively per hectare. The yield gap in Maize production ranges from 100-800kg/ha with a mean of 499kg/ha translating to about N42,500/ha loss of revenue. The socio-economic determinants of the yield gap are; labour, income from maize production, commercialization index and seed varieties were significant at (p&lt;0.005) while only NPK fertilizer was significant at (P&lt;0.10). The major constraints faced by the maize farmers are inadequate access to high-quality seed and inadequate fertilizer. The study recommended the provision of draught-resistant and high-yielding seed varieties of maize to bridge the yield gap.</p> Y.Y. Mustapha H.Y. Ibrahim S.S. Adeola Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 469 475 Factors Influencing Tomato Farmers’ Market Participation and Constraints in Production <p>Smallholder market participation is imperative for agricultural growth and development leading to a structural transformation of the agricultural sector which entails a reduction in poverty and food insecurity among rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigates the factors influencing smallholder farmers' participation in tomato marketing in Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. The objective is to understand the level of participation and the determinants affecting it. The study employs a multistage sampling technique, resulting in 217 usable responses from tomato farmers. The socio-economic characteristics of respondents are described, revealing that the majority are male (94.9%), married (71.9%), and primarily engaged in farming (79.3%). The analysis employs the Market Participation Index (MPI) and a Probit regression model to assess the factors influencing market participation. The findings suggest that 74.7% of farmers have a high level of participation in tomato markets. The Probit regression identifies significant factors affecting participation: marital status, farm size, and source of capital. Being married and having a larger farm size are associated with reduced market participation, while increased access to capital positively impacts participation. The study contributes to understanding the dynamics of smallholder farmers' engagement in market activities, highlighting the importance of financial support in promoting agricultural commercialization. Policymakers and stakeholders can utilize these insights to design targeted interventions that enhance market participation and contribute to rural development.</p> O.A. Egbetokun I.O. Amao Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 476 482 Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasite in Free Ranged Managed Pigs in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria <p>Extensively managed pigs have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters of gastrointestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in indigenous pigs in Aba, Abia State. &nbsp;Faecal samples were collected from one hundred and seventy-six (176) pigs of different sexes but with the same age range during the study. The samples were investigated for the presence of different gastrointestinal parasites using the direct wet mount, concentration and sedimentation techniques. The result showed that the percentage value of infection was high at 99.99% and the sow (female) had a higher parasite count of 90(64.28%) than the boar (male) at 50(35.71%). The study also revealed that <em>Ascaris suum</em> was predominantly seen in the area sampled at 62(44.28%). Precautions on handling internal organs and carcasses of pigs should be taken seriously in other to prevent transmission of the parasite.</p> O.C. Ogbe U.U. Chikezie A.N.C. Amadi Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 483 485 Analysis of Multi-Environment Yield Traits of Selected Provitamin-A cassava genotypes using GGE Biplot <p>Ten yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released cassava varieties (check) were&nbsp;evaluated in two agroecological zones of Nigeria&nbsp;to assess their yield performance, agronomic parameters and genotypes by environment interaction effects. The study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons at Umudike (humid rainforest) and Otobi (derived savanna), in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with&nbsp;three replications. The combined analysis of variance revealed that there were significant differences among the genotypes for root number (RTNO), root weight (RTWT) and cassava mosaic disease severity (CMDS). There was a significant difference for cassava anthracnose disease severity (CADS) and genotype x environment interaction for cassava mosaic disease severity (CMDS) at P&lt;0.001. Similarly, highly significant differences were also observed across locations, among genotypes for fresh root yield (FRY), dry matter content (DMC), dry root yield (DRY) and significant genotype x environment interaction for DMC and DRY; across locations for DMC and DRY at P&lt;0.001. The convex-hull drawn from the biplot origin gave 4 sectors with NR070220, NR150025, NR150008 and NR150014 as the vertex cultivars. NR070220 was the vertex and the winning variety in Umudike. NR150025 was the winner in the second mega-environment at Otobi while NR150008 and NR150014 were winners in both (Umudike and Otobi) meaning that these cultivars are the best in these environments. Genotype NR150025 had the highest FRY of 30.30 t/ha while the lowest value of 3.20 t/ha was recorded for genotype NR150040. Genotype NR150113 had the higher DMC of 37.93% while genotype NR150105 recorded the lowest DMC of 18.13%. Genotypes NR150113, NR150008 and NR150025 had the highest DMC, five genotypes had DMC higher than the mean. Also, six genotypes had root yield better than the check indicating the need to promote such genotypes in the breeding cycle.</p> H. Ogbuekiri P.N. Agu C.N. Egesi D.N. Njoku Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 54 2 486 494 Micronutrient and Antinutrient Content of some Nigerian Edible flours: promoting healthy dietary alternatives <p>Nigerians eat predominantly high-starch meals however, due to the association between these and non-communicable diseases, dietary alternatives have been proposed. Research has linked the consumption of whole grain cereal products with reduced incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. Although cereal products are rich in minerals and vitamins, their bioavailability may be limited by their antinutrient content. This study aimed at determining the micronutrient and antinutrient content of some flours made from some cereals - finger millet (<em>Eleusine coracana</em>), black fonio (<em>Digitaria iburua</em>), and rye (<em>Secale cereale</em>) and also cassava (<em>Manihot esculenta</em>) cereal samples were purchased from local markets, sorted, washed, dried and prepared for analyses; the cassava flour was purchased as a finished product. The determination of macro and micro minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients, was carried out after sample digestion with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Laboratory results were analysed using Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results show that rye flour had significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher content of all the 8 minerals analysed, except calcium. The flours had considerable amounts of all the vitamins analysed, with finger millet having significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher content of vitamin A (3.84mg/100g), vitamin E (1.91±0.01mg/100g), vitamin K (4.17±0.01mg/100g) and the B vitamins. Rye flour also had a significantly higher content of antinutrients – oxalate, phytate, lecithin, tannin and phenols though the values were all within safe limits. All the flours studied have significant content of essential micronutrients which are even more than in the popularly consumed starchy cassava flour. Hence, the use of these cereal alternatives in making swallows should be encouraged.</p> E. Onyenweaku M. Kalu Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 495 501 Assessment of Morphological Diversity In (Cucuma longa L) Landraces Using DUS Descriptor <p>Twelve genotypes of turmeric were characterized for 19 characters in the form of multistate scores given by DUS guidelines. The twelve genotypes were laid out in RCBD using three replications. The list of genotypes used was; Ajo (Igbaraodo), Turmeric Uromi, Atale (Yakooyo), kadi – Odo, Atale (Temidire), Red ginger Atale Kabba Market, Atale (Igbara odo), Uloko (Okobo), Atale pupa (Omifon), Red ginger (Yenegua)and Ege Apana The morphological characterization of genotypes helped in linking a character to a specific trait, with potential in utilization for trait-specific selection. &nbsp;Data were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) of the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean value, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV) and maximum and minimum values (summary statistics) for each character were determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the mean data was performed using SPSS statistical software (SPSS version 16.6 for Windows, SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA). Results show that out of the nineteen descriptor traits used for this experiment, venation pattern, no of leaves on the main shoot, rhizome habit, lamina length, leaf colour on the dorsal side, no of mother rhizome and status of tertiary rhizome are good descriptor traits for characterizing turmeric landraces.</p> O.F. Kolawole Copyright (c) 2024 Nigeria Agricultural Journal 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 54 2 502 507