Nigeria Agricultural Journal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj <p>Published by the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, the <em>Nigerian Agricultural Journal</em> is the oldest agricultural journal in the country having been published since 1961. It is published bi-annually to quarterly, and contributions are accepted from anyone engaged in agricultural work in Nigeria and other countries in tropical Africa.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <span lang="NL"><a title="www.agriculturalsocietynigeria.com" href="https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">agriculturalsocietynigeria.org</a></span></p> Agricultural Society of Nigeria en-US Nigeria Agricultural Journal 0300-368X <p>NAJ supports free online communication and exchange of knowledge as the most effective way of ensuring that the fruits of research and development practice are made widely available. It is therefore committed to open access, which, for authors, enables the widest possible dissemination of their findings and, for readers, increases their ability to discover pertinent information. The Journal adopts and uses the CC: BY license and is open access. This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the Journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Copyright for articles published in this Journal is retained by the Journal.</p> Use of Social Media among the Market Women in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243294 <p>This study examined the use of social media among market women in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and Twenty (120) market women were randomly selected in six markets in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. The data collected was analysed with the use of frequency count, percentage, mean, standard deviation and pearson product moment correlation (PPMC). The result revealed that 36.9 years was the average age of the respondents, 52.5% were married, household size of 4 persons, 9.1years of experience and annual income of about 319,175.00 Naira. About 70% of the respondents make use of social media daily, while 1,853.33 Naira was average monthly expenditure on data. Facebook was the most (72.5%) frequently used social media platform, commercial purpose was the highest (79.2%) motive for use of social media by the respondents. Social media exposes one to several business opportunities (4.18) and ranked the highest attitudinal statement. Strenuous/Stressful tasks involved n business activities (2.18) was the highest ranked factor affecting the use of social media. Results also show significant relationship between the use of social media and the respondent’s attitude towards the use of social media (r= 0.16, p= 0.080). The study therefore recommends that market women should utilize social media platforms when they are less busy and ensure they verify the source of any information given via social media.</p> I. K. Banjoko J. O. Ifabiyi S. A. Ahmed M. A. Isiaka O. Awarun Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 1 6 Gender Disparities in Educational Attainment and Governance in Nigeria: Implications for Women Employment in Agriculture https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243296 <p>Bridging the gender gap is an indispensable component for sustainable development of agricultural and economic growth in Africa, as the female gender folk are saddled with a lot of other household responsibilities compared to their male counterparts. This study examined the gender disparities in governance and educational attainment on women's employment in agriculture in Nigeria using secondary data. Descriptive statistics results showed that male and female mean years of schooling were 6 and 4 years respectively in 2009 and 2010. There was a constant differential progression of employment from 2001 (9.59%) to 2013 (18.5%) for male than females. The paired t-test result showed a significant difference (t=16.620, df =27,&nbsp;<em>P</em>&lt; 0.05) between the percentage of male and females employed in agriculture. Pearson's Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) results revealed a direct and significant relationship (r=0.94;&nbsp;<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) between the number of males in governance and the gender gap in agricultural employment. The study, therefore, recommends that structural adjustment should be made for the inclusion of more females in governance and educational institutions to narrow the agricultural gender gap in Nigeria.</p> B. A. Oyebamiji O. D. Obasa E. T. Tolorunju M. A. Ogunbakin O. D. Alebiosu T. T. Oyebamiji Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 7 10 Performance of Weaner Pigs Placed on Composite Cassava Meal Based Diets https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243298 <p>A total of twenty four (24) crossbred (Landrace ×Large white) weaned pigs of average weight 12.26 + 0.54kg<br>were randomly assigned to four (4) treatment diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with six pigs per<br>treatment and each replicated three times with two animals per replicate. Four diets were formulated with Diet 1<br>(control) being maize-based, while in diet 2-4 composite cassava meal replaced 50% of maize; diet 2 containing<br>27% cassava root meal (CRM) and 3% cassava foliage meal (CFM)), diet 3 (24% cassava root meal and 6%<br>cassava foliage meal), and diet 4 (21% cassava root meal and 9% cassava foliage meal). The diets and the cassava<br>products (CRM and CFM) were chemically analyzed. Data were collected on weight gain, feed intake, feed<br>conversion ratio, carcass yield, and cost benefit calculated. Crude fibre and crude protein were higher in diets 3<br>and 4, and ether extract content higher in CFM than in CRM. Pigs fed the control diets (1) consumed more<br>feed/day (1.3kg) than those on diets 2, 3 and 4 (1.28, 1.28 and 1.23kg), dressing percentage were similar (p&gt;0.05)<br>in the pigs fed diets 1 and 4, (59.67 and 59.59%) respectively. Abdominal fat was higher (p&lt;0.05) in pigs fed diet 1<br>and 2 than those on diet 3 and diet4. Back fat was higher (p&lt;0.05) in the pigs fed diet 1 than those on diets 2-4.<br>Cost/kg feed and cost/kg weight gain were (p&lt;0.05) lower with higher CFM in diets. Diet 4 also recorded higher<br>gross margin. Feeding pigs with cassava products (CRM and CFM) at ratio 2.33 to 1 is therefore recommended as<br>an economical option that can replace 50% maize in weaned pig's diets.</p> I. N. Nwabueze U. Okah C. C. Ekwe Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 11 15 Evaluation of the Effect of Calcium Carbide as a Ripening Agent on the Nutritional Value and Heavy Metal Content of Banana and Orange https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243299 <p>This study was carried out to ascertain the effect of Calcium Carbide on the nutritional value and heavy metal content of banana and orange. The parameters were determined using standard Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) methods. The result showed significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) between the fruits ripened with calcium carbide and the untreated fruits. Untreated fruits contained more fat (0.15, 1.29 %), protein (0.88, 4.9 %) vitamin A (565.33, 282.74 µg/100g), vitamin C (102.07, 43.47 mg/100g), sucrose (42.99, 77.28 %), sodium (50.30, 70.70 ppm) and calcium (111.10, 168 ppm) than the carbide-ripened fruits (fat: 0.08, 1.02 %; protein: 0.29, 2.24 %; vitamin A: 363.10, 142.86 µg/100g; vitamin C: 73.92, 25.07 mg/100g; sucrose: 36.95, 55.15 %; Sodium: 39.55, 59.10ppm and Calcium: 97.35, 155.05 ppm) with Calcium carbide for both orange and banana samples respectively. The moisture (85.25, 44.46 %), ash (0.25, 0.63 %) and fibre content (0.52, 0.09 %) were found to be higher in the carbide-ripened fruits than the untreated fruits (moisture: 84.71, 46.10 %; ash: 0.18, 0.45 %; and fibre: 0.49, 0.07 %) for orange and banana respectively. Meanwhile, carbohydrate had higher concentration in untreated orange fruits (13.61%) than in carbide-ripened orange fruit samples (13.58%),&nbsp; but lower concentration in untreated banana fruit (48.75%) than in carbide-ripened banana fruit samples (50.43 %). The calcium ripened fruits (orange and banana) were found to contain traces of heavy metals (Pb and As) which was not present in the untreated fruits. The study revealed that the usage of Calcium carbide as a ripening agent caused significant reduction in the fruits nutrients and as well introduced heavy metals in them.</p> G. T. Olubiyo V. U. Obochi P. R. O. Edogbanya C. K. Olubiyo V. A. Iyeh J. O. Obaje E. O. Matthew Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 16 21 Differentials in Adoption of Maize Seed Varieties and Impact on Farmers’ Livelihood in Northern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243300 <p>Small-scale farmers in Nigeria are at a huge risk due to climate change which has negative impact on agricultural productivity. One way of improving productivity in Nigeria is by exposing small-scale farmers to improved seed technologies and innovations. This study assessed the adoption of maize seed varieties and its impact on farmers’ livelihood in five states of northern Nigeria. The study is based on comprehensive data set collected through field survey and questionnaire administration from 195 maize farmers segregated into 80 adult male (AM), 66 adult female (AF) and 49 youth (Y). The ordered Probit regression model and propensity score matching analysis were employed for empirical analysis; nearest neighbour matching was chosen among the three algorithms that included the stratification and kernel matching, due to its robustness across the three group of farmers. The data analysed showed that drought resistance was most preferred attribute considered for adoption of improved maize variety by AM, high yield and marketability by AF and requirement of other inputs by Y, while socio-economic and institutional variables were the major drivers of their adoption. The impact of improved maize seed variety revealed that the treatment effect on the treated had a positive and significant impact on maize yield across the three groups of farmers. It is therefore recommended that relevant research institutes and government should collaborate with extension service of ADP to mobilize farmers at grassroots for capacity building to enhance preference to adoption.</p> Y. U. Oladimeji A. Tahirou H. A. Usman H. Egwuma K. D. Kadjo Y. O. Anyebe M. Oyekunle S. Zakariyau H. Mani Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 22 31 Quality Assessment of Fufu Produced with Different Fermentation Aids (Detergent, Kerosene and Palm Ash) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243301 <p><em>Fufu</em>, a fermented wet-paste from cassava is being prepared by different methods, and different substances are being used to fasten its fermentation. There are concerns that these substances may pose health risks to consumers. Wet <em>fufu</em> mashe and dough were produced with different fermentation aids (detergent, kerosene and palm ash) and with a control (without fermentation aid). The <em>fufu</em> mash flour, wet mash and dough samples were subjected to chemical and surfactant analysis and sensory evaluations. The results of the amylose contents of the <em>fufu</em> mash flour ranged from 12.080% - 21.230%, amylopectin 78.769% - 87.092%, free sugar 2.175% - 5.215% and starch 70.775% - 85.475%. The anionic surfactant levels of the wet <em>fufu</em> mash ranged from 0.02mg/l – 0.16mg/l, Cationic surfactant&nbsp; 0.02mg/l – 0.18mg/l, &nbsp;while the anionic surfactant level of the cooked <em>fufu</em> dough ranged from 0.01mg/l – 0.13mg/l and Cationic surfactant 0.01mg/l – 0.16mg/l. The total hydrocarbon level of the wet <em>fufu</em> mash ranged from 0.15mg/l – 2.77mg/l, while that of the cooked <em>fufu</em> dough ranged from 0.12mg/l – 1.86mg/l. The Sensory evaluation result shows that the overall acceptance score ranged from 8.50 - 9.20. There were no significant differences among all the <em>fufu</em> samples analysed in the sensory evaluation.</p> E. C. Ogbete M. C. Ojinnaka M. A. Ofoeze Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 32 38 Effect of Sex and Age on Blood Traits of West African Dwarf Goat in the Humid Tropics https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243316 <p>West African Dwarf (WAD) goats (8 Bucks and 8 Does) at average age of 18 weeks were used for the study to determine the effect of sex and age on blood traits in the humid tropics. Blood traits measured were packed cell volume (PCV %), haemoglobin (HB g/dL), red blood cell (RBC x10<sup>6</sup>mm<sup>3</sup>), total white blood cell (TWBC x10<sup>3</sup>mm<sup>3</sup>), total protein (TP g/dL), blood glucose (BG mg/dL), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC). Data collected was subjected to Student’s t-Test analysis and Analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were significant (p&lt;0.05) differences in the effect of sex on PCV and RBC at 22 weeks of age (WOA). There was high significant (p&lt;0.01) difference on the effect of sex on MCH at 25 WOA. Blood traits of goats at 21 to 26 WOA showed significant (p&lt;0.05) differences. There were increases in (HB) from 10.05-12.30g/dL, PCV (20.00-25.00%), RBC (5.83-7.41x10<sup>6</sup>) and TP (6.64-7.36g/dL) from 21 to 26 WOA. There was significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in HB with highest amount in week 22-26. There was significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in PCV, RBC and TP values with WAD goats having the highest amounts at 23-26 weeks of age. There was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in TWBC across the ages. There was significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in BG with goats having the highest amounts at 25 WOA. The study has revealed that sex and age have influences on blood traits of WAD goats in the humid tropical environment.</p> R. J. Nosike C. C. Nwaokoro I. E. Okonkwo O. F. Nwakpu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 39 45 Acceptability of Snail as Source of Protein among Residents of New-Bussa and Its Environment, Niger State Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243303 <p>This study examined the acceptability of snail as source of protein among residents of New-Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of well structured questionnaire among the residents purposively among the residents of New-Bussa and its environment. The data was analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. The acceptability of Snail meat in New-Bussa and its environment revealed that majority are willing to buy and eat snail meat with a high mean of 3.99, followed by ‘I have tasted snail meat before’ with a mean value of 3.97 and the least is ‘live Snails are sold in New-Bussa and its environment’ with a mean value of 3.92. The constraints associated with consumption of Snail meat showed that cost (Price) of snail meat scored the highest with mean value of 4.12, followed by ‘I do not eat Snail meat frequently because I hardly see it in my area’ with a mean value of 4.11 and ‘I do not eat Snails because my people do not eat it is the least with a mean value of 3.98. The Preference of Snails meat compared to meat from other animal sources’ recorded the highest (1.63 mean value), followed by Fish and Goat meat with mean value of 1.57 and 1.52 respectively and Snail meat is the least with mean value of 1.26. This study recommends that awareness creation on the nutritional benefits of Snail meat consumption is necessary to enlist more consumers.</p> A. J. Adeola O. A. Akande A. Sulyman K. O. Babatunde H. L. Muhammed A. A. Sa'adu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 46 51 Effect of Integrated Plant Nutrient Management on Some Mineral Composition of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) in Umudike https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243304 <p>A three year experiment was carried out at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Eastern Research Station, Umuahia in Abia State with the aim of comparing the percent concentrations of some mineral contents of plant fractions of tannia and taro species as well as their raw and cooked forms as influenced by integrated plant nutrient management.&nbsp; At the end of third year cropping season, one cocoyam plant was uprooted from fertilized (plot treated with 600 kg NPK + 10 t PM/ha) and unfertilized plots (control plot) and partitioned into leaf, stem and corm fractions. They were washed and divided into two parts. One part was cooked and the other was not. They were sliced into pieces and dried under direct sunlight for one week. The dried samples were ground in a mill, until a consistent powder was obtained and replicated thrice. The ground samples were analyzed for chemical composition using 3 x 2 factorial arrangements fitted in randomized complete block design in which plant part samples formed Factor A with 3 levels (leaf, petiole and corm), while integrated plant nutrition (IPN) formed Factor B comprising two levels (600 kg NPK fertilizer + 10 t poultry manure and 0 tha<sup>-1</sup>). F-LSD was applied to determine significant difference between two sample means at 0.05 % probability level after mean separation. The results showed that the integrated plant nutrient management was statistically the same with N contents of both raw/cooked species of cocoyam, but significantly (p≤0.05) increased the percent concentration of phosphorus in both raw and cooked tannia, but non-significant for that of taro. There were also significant increments in potassium and calcium contents in cooked and raw taro, respectively. Similar results were also observed in calcium content in both cooked tannia and taro, whereas percentage concentration of magnesium of raw tannia/taro was also improved by application of integrated nutrient management. It was also observed that taro contained higher percent concentrations of N, P, K and Mg than tannia in both raw and cooked states. Again, the highest percent concentrations of the minerals under study were found in the leaves of both cocoyam species relative to other plant fractions.</p> K. O. Orji E. U. Mbah Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 52 59 Economics of Garden Egg Production in Uzo-Uwani, Local Government Area, Enugu, State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243305 <p>This study explored economics of garden egg production in Uzo-uani Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling method was adopted for the study. On the whole, 60 garden egg producers were randomly sampled. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data for realization of objectives. Results show that majority of the farmers were male (58.3%), dominant age brackets were 21-30 and 31-40 which comprised of 50% and 38.3% respectively. Household size of 6 and above dominated with 58.3%, and majority had secondary education constituting 81.7%. Access to extension and loan services was low with 75% and 58.3% of no access respectively. Most of the farmers (83.3%) had farm sizes of less than 1 hectare. OLS regression analysis for determinants of quantity of garden egg produced showed that gender, education and age were positively significant at (p &lt; 0.05), (p &lt; 0.01) and (p &lt; 0.05) respectively. Also, access to loan, farming experience, farm size, fertilizer and labour were positively significant at (p &lt; 0.05), (p &lt; 0.05), (p &lt; 0.01), (p &lt; 0.01) and (p &lt; 0.05) respectively. On the hand, cost of seeds was negatively significant at (p &lt; 0.05). Net Farm Income (NFI) was ₦83,816.54. The most cultivated varieties of garden were the greenish white (50%), while the whitish round variety constituted 40.7%. The most practiced cropping systems among the farmers are the sole and mixed systems constituting (50%) and (45%) respectively. The study recommends that garden egg farmers in the study area should form cooperative societies to enable them acquire input at subsidized rate and access low interest credit from financial institutions in the area.</p> J. C. Ibe T. C. Okoh R. N. Aruah Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 60 65 Assessment of Awareness and Use of Improved Cassava Technologies among Agricultural Field Staff in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243315 <p>The study assessed the level of awareness and use of improved cassava technologies among agricultural field staff in Umuahia Zone, Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, described the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, ascertained the level of awareness and use of cassava technologies, among the respondents in the study area. Multistage random sampling technique was used in sampling 80 respondents. Data for the study were collected with the use of questionnaire, analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. The major findings showed the mean age of 38.21 years, and larger proportion (56.3%) of females. About 70.0% of the respondents had tertiary education, and married each, 36.3% civil servants, 32.5% farmers, 23.8% traders, while 7.5% engage in other activities. About 67.7% of the respondents had 1-10years of experience, and 85.8% were within the annual income rage of ≤ <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">N</span> 500000. The result on awareness showed that 70.0% of the respondents were aware of Baba70 cassava variety, 52.5% aware of Obasanjo-2 variety, whereas 43.8 not aware of the variety, 63.8% were aware of game changer variety, and 77.5% Umucas 44. About 80.0% of the respondents were aware of Umucas 45, 67.5% Umucas 46, 86.3 TME 419, and 78.8% NR87184. &nbsp;The distribution of respondents based on their level of utilization showed a grand mean of 2.92 implying a fair general utilization of improved cassava technologies. The result showed OLS regression estimates of effect of socio-economic characteristics influencing the respondent’s utilization of improved cassava technologies among the field staff, with results significant at various levels. The study concluded by providing empirical evidence that greater majority of the respondents was aware and responds positively to utilization of improved cassava technologies. The study recommends that, since these field staff are very strong agents of dissemination of improved cassava technologies, especially in their locality, concerted effort should be made by organizing workshops, seminars aimed at demonstrating the use of these improved cassava technologies and creating more awareness. Farmers on their own should make effort to access these technologies from Agricultural Institutions or their field staff.</p> B. U. Ukonu Z. O. Egesi K. C. Ekwe U. Kalu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 66 72 Analysis of Informal Credit Constraints among Farmers in South East, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243309 <p>Empirical evidence on determinants of credit constraint types among informal credit users is almost nonexistence in south east, Nigeria. Using a well-structured questionnaire and an extended direct approach, primary data were collected and analysed using seemingly unrelated regression model. The seemingly unrelated regression analysis of factors influencing credit constraint by types showed age (p&lt;0.05) and dependency ratio (p&lt;0.05) positively affect risk constrained households, while non-farm income (p&lt;0.05) and farm size (p&lt;0.05) negatively affect risk constrained farm households. Also, the result showed that quantity constraint positively depends on amount requested (p&lt;0.05) and negatively on household size (p&lt;0.01), education (p&lt;0.05) and interest (p&lt;0.05). Farming experience (p&lt;0.05) and interest rate (p&lt;0.05) were negative, while distance (p&lt;0.01) was positive for transaction cost constrained type. Price constraint positively depends on dependency ratio (p&lt;0.05), non-farm income (p&lt;0.05) and interest rate (p&lt;0.01) and negatively depends on gender (p&lt;0.05) and farm size (p&lt;0.05). Therefore, it is recommended that in order to cushion the effect of informal credit constraint, lenders should train potential borrowers and establish organised informal monitoring team for each state to serve as an insurance against any default. Also, Institution capacity building for both lenders and borrowers should be an integral part of every credit programme that will be provided in order to increase agricultural productivity and the income of farmers, thus policy measures for improving access to credit should be developed based on farmer’s needs.</p> C. R. Okezie S. O. Offor Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 73 79 Proximate Composition and Role of Telfairia Occidentalis Pod on Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Hepatoxicity in Wistar Rats https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243310 <p>The enormous waste burden potential of unutilized pod of <em>Telfairia (T.) Occidentalis</em>, TOP, could be controlled by using it in diets, and as drugs that could mitigate potential hepatotoxic effect of monosodium glutamate, MSG; a common food flavouring. This study was on the proximate properties of TOP flour, TOPF, and role of the ethanol extract, TOPE on MSG-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats (120 - 175 g) randomly allotted to five groups of 4 rats each in groups A, B, C, D and E respectively received normal saline (1 ml), MSG (8000 mg/kg), TOPE (200 mg/kg), MSG (8000 mg/kg) + TOPE (200 mg/kg) and MSG (8000 mg/kg) + TOPE (400 mg/kg) <em>via </em>oral gavage and daily for 14 days. The proximate properties (%) of TOPF were total carbohydrate (67.51±0.06) &gt; ash (9.31±0.02) &gt; crude fibre (7.88±0.02) &gt; moisture (7.69±0.01 &gt; crude protein (6.21±0.02) &gt; fat (1.40 ±0.02), suggesting its prospective dietary potential. Significant (P &lt; 0.05) alterations in the hepatic histology, hepatic functional parameters and associated diagnostic ratios in MSG-treated rats were incomparable to other rat groups. TOPE (200 mg/kg) elicited effect comparable to control and caused significant (P &lt; 0.05) dose dependent reduction in the MSG effect. This demonstrated TOPE-related hepato-protection, and consistent protective role against MSG-induced hepatotoxicity, in the rats. Studies to harness the apparent dietary and hepatoprotective potentials of TOP in the rats are warranted and recommended.</p> A. C. C. Egbuonu P. O. Alaebo C. J. Njoku G. C. Njoku P. 1Ugwu C. I. Akasike Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 80 85 Agricultural Extension Agents and Privatization of extension Service Delivery to Root and Tuber Crop Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243311 <p>The study examined the views of agricultural extension agents on the privatization of services delivery to root and tuber crop farmers. The study was carried out in Benue State, Nigeria. Sample size of 96 respondents (extension agents) from the Benue State Agricultural Development Project (BNARDA) was used in the study. Data for the study were collected through the use of structured questionnaire and analyzed using frequency counts, percentage, mean score, and Chi-square. Majority of the respondents (67%) were male, mean age of 45 years, 89% were married and 42% had Ph.D as the highest educational qualification, while the average working experience was10 years. Also, 65% of the respondents were in agreement that privatization can ensure root and tuber farmers have greater access to new and improved varieties, 59% agreed that privatization will improve efficiency and effectiveness of extension agents, while 57% agreed that privatization will improve employment opportunities for trained extension personnel. Personal characteristics of extension agents and their perception on privatization of service delivery towards rural cassava farmers were not significant (P &gt;0.05). The study therefore concludes that issues on privatization of extension should be given adequate consideration by policy makers, stakeholders in extension service delivery and the government before final decision is taken on whether or not to privatize agricultural extension services in the State.</p> O. C. Chimaroke S. C. Nwafor Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 86 91 Perceptions of Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies among Small-holder Cassava Farmers in Rural Communities of Bende L.G.A, Abia State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243312 <p>This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of climate change on cassava farming in two rural communities, Umu-imenyi and Umuhu-Ezechi, in Bende L.G.A of Abia State, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 80 farmers (40 male and 40 female) from the two communities. The study used primary data sources, such as an interview schedule and questionnaire, which were administered offline using the Open Data Kit (ODK) Collect app on an android phone by trained enumerators. Results revealed that majority of the respondents were aware of climate change and its effects on their farming activities. However, majority had limited access to extension services. The study therefore recommends providing farmers with adequate extension services and support, conducting research to understand the impact of climate change on other regions, promoting climate-smart agriculture techniques, implementing policies that support sustainable and resilient agricultural practices and systems, and provision of financial and technical support to farmers to help them adapt to changing climate conditions.</p> O. S. Chukwuemeka E. C. Agoh Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 92 98 Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Smallholder Irrigated Rice Farmers Participation in Contract Farming in Kano River Irrigation Project, Kano State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243435 <p>This study was designed to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing smallholder irrigated rice farmers’ participation in contract farming in Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP), Kano State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 254 respondents for the study comprising of 127 contract farmers and another 127 non-contract farmers. Both inferential and descriptive statistics were used in the analysis of data. The mean age of respondents was found to be 35yrs, 89.8% were males, and 10.2% females.&nbsp;The mean household size was 6 persons with a mean landholding of 1.3ha. Factors influencing contract rice farming participation include; age which had a coefficient value of 0.043 and significant at 5%, rice farm size had a coefficient value of 1.037 and significant at 10%. It was therefore concluded that some socioeconomic characteristics affect the ability of farmer’s participation in contract rice farming. The study recommends that pro-contract rice farming policies that might have a long term positive effect on the farmers socioeconomics should be developed.</p> M. Yusuf Z. Abdu I. Y. Ilu A. A. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 99 103 Insecticidal Potential of Some Plant Extracts and Synthetic Dusts for Control of Sitophilus zeamais (Motscholsky) Infesting Maize Seeds https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243436 <p>Some bio-pesticides were evaluated for the management of ginger leaf spot caused by <em>Phyllosticta zingberi</em>. The experiment was conducted at the laboratory and screen house of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike during cropping seasons of 2020 and 2021. The objective of the study was to determine the most effective bio-fungicide used in the control of <em>phyllosticta zingberi</em> infecting ginger rhizomes. All bio-fungicides fungicides (Neem Leaf, Neem and fruit Garlic) used were tested for efficacies against leaf spot disease of ginger caused by <em>phyllosticta</em> spp. at Umudike. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design (CRD) involving two ginger varieties and three bio-pesticides in three replications. Results for pathogen virulence showed that isolates were virulent and the extracts efficacy results showed that crude Garlic extract treated plates gave a mean growth inhibition of 96.02%, Neem Leaf (91.31%) and Neem fruit (64.27%) were found to be significantly effective (P&lt;0.05)&nbsp; better than control in inhibiting the growth <em>Phyllosticta</em> spp. isolates in the laboratory indicating that garlic bio-pesticide has the highest inhibitory potency across the most of the virulent isolates obtained and treated in the laboratory. Spraying of garlic bio-pesticide twice on ginger plants at 8 and 14 weeks after planting completely prevented leaf spot disease incidence on the treated ginger with a severity score of 1 while spraying of neem seed bio-pesticide twice on ginger plants at 8 and 14 weeks after planting gave the least protection and control of ginger leaf spot disease on ginger with a severity score of 3.</p> C. O. Nwadili Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 104 108 Endophytic Microbes: Potential Tools for Sustainable Crop Production https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243438 <p>The use of endophytic microorganisms as potential tools to mitigate adverse environmental factors is a rapidly developing technology for sustainable crop production. These microbial symbionts colonize the host plant's intracellular and intercellular spaces without causing morphological changes or infections, whilst developing secondary active metabolites that protect their host plants from phytopathogens. The production of beneficial substances by these microbes not only aids plant growth and protect them in the face of biotic and abiotic stress, it positively impacts the goal to tackle world hunger that is as a result of increased global population. These microorganisms have recently been used in a number of biotechnological fields which include the development of biofertilizers to boost crop production, while reducing chemical inputs into the environment, biocontrol of plant pests and diseases. In this review, the diversity, population and mechanism of interaction of these endophytes with crop plants as well as their potential applications in sustainable crop production were highlighted.</p> U. E. Okoroafor Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 109 114 Econometric Trend and Impact Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature on Yam Productivity in Nigeria: 1961-2020 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243439 <p>Changes in concentration of atmospheric parameters will have momentous impact on crop production. The projected changes in climate variability and increase in extreme weather events may impact crop yield. This is of particular importance for yam crop (<em>Dioscorea spp</em>.), as it a desired staple food for greater population in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to examine the impact some selected climatic parameters (rainfall and temperature ) on yam yield in Nigeria from 1961 to 2020 (60 years). Climatic data and yam yield data of Nigeria for this study were extracted from Climate Change Knowledge Portal on The World Bank Group and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) FAOSTAT website respectively. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and time series analysis was done with the aid of Real Statistics Data Analysis Tool installed in Microsoft Excel 2016 as Add-Ins. The statistcal results and forcast analysis shows that yam yield in Nigeria decreased with increase in rainfall and relatively stable temperature, despite increase in the cultivated area of land. Multiple linear regression analysis also indicated that the climatic factors are not significant predictors of yam yield. Finally, the disturbing findings of projected decline in yam yield may be due to other factors, would contribute to increase food scarcity in Nigeria.</p> O. S. Chukwuemeka E. C. Agoh Copyright (c) 2022 https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 115 119 Factors Influencing Use of Mobile-Based ICTs among Cassava Value Chain Operators in Southwest, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243433 <p>Heterogeneity in the socioeconomic characteristics of value chain operators is one of the probable determinants of adoption of Mobile-based ICTs. The study assessed use and drivers of mobile-based ICTs among cassava value chain operators in Oyo and Ogun States in Southwest, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 327 cassava value chain operators (216 producers, 10 Assemblers, 42 processors, 59 marketers) through a non-random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics [such as Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression] were applied to describe the socioeconomic characteristics and assess key factors responsible for adoption of mobile-based ICTs among the selected operators in the study respectively. The study finds that majority of the operators belong to middle age group (49-54years), had at least primary school education, household size of about 6 persons, small land holding category (4.04±2.27ha), 20 years of farming/operating experience, no access to extension services (91-100%), no access to credit (74-88%) with varying levels of iincome. Mobile phones that have internet connectivity (smartphones) are the most widely used ICT-based device among the value chain operators. The OLS results revealed level of formal education, access to extension visits, level of awareness, household size and group membership had significant effects on use of mobile-based ICTs. Major barriers to adoption of mobile-based ICTs include; relatively high prices, limited availability of network signals, low levels of ICT literacy and low awareness of relevant software used in cassava value chain. Policy interventions on awareness creation, reduction in cost of mobile-based ICTs are indispensable for greater uptake of the technology among smallholder cassava-value chain operators.</p> A. E. Obayelu C. A. Afolami O. Folorunso A. M. Adebayo O. Ashimolowo Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 120 131 Determinants of Level of Investment in Poultry and Piggery Enterprises in Abia State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243440 <p>This study analysed the determinants of the level of investment in poultry and piggery enterprises in Abia State, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample for study. Primary data were collected from 83 livestock enterprises comprising of 50 poultry enterprises and 33 piggery enterprises. Data collected were analyzed using Maximum Likelihood Stochastic (MLS) regression model. Findings showed that size of the enterprise, outstanding debts of the enterprise, business stage, location of the enterprise, scale of operation, amount of savings, access to loan, significantly determined the level of investment in poultry enterprise in Abia State, while size of the enterprise, outstanding debts of the enterprise, business stage, location of the enterprise, scale of operation, amount of savings, access to loan significantly determined the level of investment in the piggery enterprise. The study therefore recommends that both the government and other agricultural investors consider the various factors identified in this study that influence the level of investment in poultry and piggery enterprises in Abia State in order to make a profitable investment that will provide job opportunities for the masses, increase the availability of chicken and pork meat, and generate more funds to run the state's affairs.</p> A. A. Chima C. Timothy Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 132 138 Econometric Trend and Forecasting Production, Area, and Yield of Cereals in Eswatini: 1961-2018 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243441 <p>Cereals constitute more than 60% of total food production and caloric intake of a typical household in Eswatini.&nbsp; A key agenda of the country within the context of her Vision 2030 agenda is to raise the productivity and livelihood of the nation’s smallholder farmers. This study therefore examined the historical trend in the production, area, and yields of cereals in the country between 1961 and 2018 and forecast the variables up to 2030. The forecast methods employed include mean, naïve, exponential smoothing, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). Based on various forecast accuracy techniques, ARIMA model outperformed the other alternatives for all the crops. Based on the estimates of the ARIMA models, the production, area, and yield of most of the crops are expected to decline by 2030.&nbsp; The forecast shows that the production of maize will decline by 2.73% in 2030 when compared with its 2018 value of 91247 tons. The 2018 maize area of 78535 hectares is predicted to decrease by 9.06% in 2030.&nbsp; Maize yield in 2022 is predicted to be 1.16 tons/hectare. This is still far below the national target of 2 tons/hectare by 2030.&nbsp; The forecast indicates that the area allocated to sorghum production will decline by about 36%, but the production will remain largely unchanged due to slight increase in yield. Rice production and yield are predicted to remain unchanged. It is interesting to note that the yield of rice in the country is more than 2 tons per hectare.</p> J. O. Ajetomobi O. A. Olaleye S. G. Dlamini Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 139 149 Assessment of Pork-Based Agribusinesses in Abakaliki Metropolis of Ebonyi State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243443 <p>Despite the lucrative and profitability of pig business, there seems to be paucity of data on pork-based agribusiness in Ebonyi State. To address the problem, the study described the socioeconomic characteristics of pork investors; characterized the pork-based agribusiness; analysed the factors influencing investment in pork agribusiness, determined the costs and returns to pork-based agribusiness; and analysed the constraints to pork agribusiness in the area. A multistage sampling technique involving 2 stages was employed in the selection of pork-based agribusiness investors. Data were collected using structured questionnaire which was administered as interview schedule. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result of the analysis shows that about 84% of the pork-based agribusiness investors were males with an average age of 31 years of which about 61.3% completed tertiary education and earned an average annual income of eight hundred and ninety-eight thousand, four hundred and sixty-two naira (₦898,462). The result further showed that cost of labour, amount realized per month, cost of investment, favourable government policy, low taxation, high nutritive value of pork, pork production experience, increase in demand for pork, and&nbsp; source of self-employment were identified as factors influencing pork-based agribusiness investment. Pork-based agribusiness investment is viable as evidenced from the return on investment (ROI) of N1.37. Investment in pork-based agribusiness is constrained by socio-economic, institutional, social/technological and economic/ infrastructural factors. Based on the findings, the study recommends formation of cooperative society among pig farmers in other to bridge the gap of insufficient credit for business expansion. There is also need for investment in research for the development of innovations that will mitigate disease infestation, increase the shelf life of fresh port and improved storage facilities for enhanced investment in pork business.</p> N. E. Odoh S. U. Nwibo C. Nwofoke P. A. Okorie N. U. Ojeogu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 150 156 Differentials in Adoption of Improved Ginger Production Technologies among Male and Female Farmers in South-East, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243444 <p>The study analyzed the adoption level of improved ginger production technologies by male and female farmers in South-East Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling and proportionate sampling techniques were used to select 250 ginger farmers (125 males and females each). Data were collected with a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive (means, percentages; five-point Likert-type rating scale) and inferential (Z-test) statistics. The result of the descriptive statistics indicates that the improved ginger production technologies have actually been disseminated to the ginger farmers in South East Nigeria; although awareness level was higher for the male farmers compared to their female counterparts. The adoption level of improved ginger production technologies was pooled at 84%. The mean adoption index of the male adopters was 2.59, whereas that of their female counterparts was 2.43. This implies that male ginger farmers’ adoption level was 5.33% higher than the females which shows that adoption level was higher among male ginger farmers than their female counterparts. The result further shows that paucity of funds (4.73) male and (4.75) female, inadequate/lack of access to credits (4.72) male and (4.57) female, and inadequate storage facilities (4.68) male and (4.71) for female were the most severe constraints militating against the adoption of improved ginger production technologies by the ginger farmers in the region amongst others. The Z-test result showed that significant differences exist in the adoption levels of male and female ginger farmers, with a Z-value of 2.85 which was positive and significant at 5% level. This implies that gender had a significant effect on the adoption of improved ginger production technologies in South-East Nigeria, indicating that the male ginger farmers performed better than their female counterparts in terms of adoption. The study concluded that adoption of improved ginger production technologies was higher among male farmers than their female counterparts in South-East Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends that the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) and other agencies interested in promoting ginger production should target female farmers and also concentrate on the constraints as well as technologies with low adoption in order to increase adoption.</p> G. C. Ibeneme B. C. Okoye Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 157 163 Willingness to Choose Agriculture as a Profession among Female Undergraduates in Selected Universities in Osun State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243445 <p>The study was carried out in some selected Universities in Osun State, Nigeria, to assess the willingness of female undergraduate students of agriculture to choose agriculture as a profession. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 female undergraduate students of agricultural disciplines in the selected Universities for the study. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire. Data were described with the use of percentage, weighted mean and standard deviation, while Chi-square analytical procedure was conducted to make inferences. The results revealed that the mean age of the respondents was approximately 23.0 years, most of the respondents (97.5%) were single and majority (75.0%) got their income from parents. Willingness to choose poultry production as a profession ranked 1<sup>st</sup> (2.80) and about 62.5% of the respondents were at medium level of willingness. Insufficient capital (3.48) ranked 1<sup>st </sup>among all the perceived challenges militating against the choice of agriculture as a profession. The result of Chi-square analysis shows that there was significant association between willingness and age and reason for choice of course of study. The study concluded that there was medium level of willingness to choose agriculture profession among the respondents. The study recommends that grants, incentives and farm machinery be made available by the government and other agencies for female agriculture graduates who are willing to choose agriculture as a profession.</p> I. O. Ibitunde A.E. Ojeleye A.O. Adedire K. A. Adeloye A. M. Omolaja Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 164 170 Potentials of sweet potato foliage as feed ingredient in Broiler diets https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243446 <p>A total of one hundred and twenty (120) day-old broiler chickens were used in a feeding trial to determining the potentials of sweet potato foliage-based meals as supplement in broiler chickens production. Four iso-nitrogenous (20%) diets containing 2914.45, 2882.23, 2851.38 and 2782.60 Kcal/kg ME was used respectively for the study in a complete randomized design (CRD). Feed and water were provided to the chickens <em>ad libitum</em> for eight weeks. The results of the proximate composition of sweet potato foliage meal revealed that moisture (9.15%), dry matter (90.85%), ash (7.35%), crude fiber (22.52%), fat (2.47%), crude protein (18.82%) and NFE (39.70%).&nbsp; The growth performance result for final body weight and weight gain followed the same pattern. Diet I was significantly different (P&lt;0.05) from diets II, III and IV but diet II and III were similar (P&gt;0.05) and differ from diet IV. Total feed intake and average feed intake/bird/day followed the same trend. Diets I, II and III were significantly different (P&lt;0.05) from diet IV. The cost of feed/kg (N) decreased with increasing dietary levels of sweet potato foliage meal. The result of carcass characteristics showed that there were no significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in % dressing weight, breast (%), wing (%) and back cut (%). Live weight, de-feathered weight, dressed weight, drumstick (%) and thigh (%) followed similar trend, broilers fed diets I, II and III were significant better than those fed diet IV. Organs such as heart, kidney, small intestine and large intestine showed no significant differences (P&lt;0.05). The sweet potato foliage meal included up to 10% was tolerated by the broiler chicken in all the parameters evaluated with an average initial weight of 90g.</p> C. O. Okereke I. H. Okereke I. F. Olaleru C. E. Ukonu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 171 174 Influence of Genotype and Environment on Quality Attributes of Fufu Processed from Cassava Planted in Two Agro-Ecologies of Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243447 <p><em>Fufu is</em> a fermented pasty food product commonly consumed in West Africa. A study aimed at determining the influence of genotypes and environment on material loss during processing, product yield and physicochemical properties of the intermediate <em>fufu</em>-product was conducted. Intermediate <em>fufu</em> products were processed from seventeen cassava genotypes in their advanced breeding stage planted in Otobi and Umudike locations within Nigeria. Fresh roots of the genotypes were processed into <em>fufu </em>following the standard operating protocol (SOP) of RTBfoods. Chaff loss, peel loss, <em>fufu </em>yield, crude fiber, dry matter, total titratable acidity (TTA), amylose, swelling power, solubility, starch and sugar of intermediate <em>fufu</em> product for each genotype was determined using standard analytical methods. Result obtained showed that genotype TMS13F1160P0004 had the highest <em>fufu</em> yield and chaff loss. Peel loss did not differ among the genotypes. Genotype and environment played significant roles in the processing and physicochemical properties of the fermented <em>fufu</em> wet paste. Swelling power, solubility, starch and sugar of the intermediate <em>fufu</em> product differed significantly (P&lt;0.001) among the genotypes. NR174-1 had the highest amylopectin and swelling power while TMS13F1160P0004 had the lowest total titratable acidity and sugar content. Chaff loss, <em>fufu</em> yield, swelling power and starch were significantly influenced by environment (P&lt;0.001). Genotype was found to have a major influence on chaff loss, starch and sugar. Genotype -by -environment interaction influenced only starch and sugar values. The result obtained will assist breeders develop cassava varieties that possess food qualities acceptable to <em>fufu</em> end-users.</p> U. Chijioke U. J. Iro S. C. Osodeke N. P. Ogunka B. C. Okoye S. P. Abah D. Njoku C. Egesi Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 175 179 Assessment for Parental Traits in Progeny Development among Segregating Population of Sweetpotato Breeding Lines https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243486 <p>Progeny development depends on the selection of parents with desirable characteristics which could be genetically incorporated to their future progenies. On this premise, experiment was conducted at the Western experimental field of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia&nbsp; Abia State&nbsp; during the 2020 and 2021 cropping season in the rainforest agro-ecology of South-East Nigeria. The objective were to select high yielding and dry matter content breeding lines as parents for progeny development, select breeding lines as parents that are resistant to pathological stresses and select as parents breeding lines with high number of botanical seeds to increase genetic diversity of sweetpotato. Twenty-five breeding lines at AYT (Advance Yield Trial stage) were used. Planting was on the crest of the ridges 0.3m within row and 1.0m between rows in a plot size measuring 3m x 3m and replicated three times in a randomized block design. The breeding lines were subjected to diaelle crossing and all seeds collected from each of the plots were packed in a well labeled envelope. Data collected were on: total number of capsules, total number of seeds, total number of storage roots, and fresh weight of total storage roots, all harvested per plot and percentage dry matter content. Data was also collected on pathological stresses and scored on severity scale of 1 to 9. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance and means were separated using Standard error of difference (S.E.D). Results obtained indicated that the breeding lines selected as parents were resistant/ tolerant to pathological stresses. The high number and weight of storage roots of selected breeding lines agreed with the need for the assessment of breeding lines for selection as parents for breeding programmes. The study identified the following breeding lines for selection as parents: NRSP/UYT/20/22, PO3/36, NRSP/2014/066, NRSP3/017, ERICA, NWA/OP/266, Tio-Joe, NRSP/11 and Smiles. Their performance on the traits evaluated was higher than the check variety and was selected to be valuable source of new parents. They have relatively high dry matter content making them acceptable for use in progeny development.</p> I. I. M. Nwankwo P. O. Nwankwo Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 180 187 Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Meat Floss Developed from Rabbit Meat and Different Oils https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243487 <p>Meat floss is a shredded meat product that is light, easy to pack and nutrient retaining which is produced traditionally from beef, in this study it was produced from rabbit meat to optimize the benefits associated with rabbit meat such as low fat, cholesterol and sodium. This study evaluated the physicochemical and sensory properties of rabbit meat floss (RMF) produced with different oil types. &nbsp;RMF was produced from rabbit meat by cooking, cooling, shredding and deep-frying was done in three cooking oils (Refined palm oil, soya oil and canola oil). The proximate composition (%) of the freshly prepared meat floss was determined. RMF types were assessed for sensory, and physicochemical properties alongside Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS[mg/100g]), in a completely randomized design. Only Ether extract was significantly different among the RMF, with Soya oil (62.00) being higher than others It was observed that TBARS was also higher in RMF with Soya oil (3.62) than others. There were no significant study differences across the sensory parameters. This showed that cooking oil type had no significant difference on the crude protein content of the product, or the ash content. The rabbit meat floss across all oil types were well accepted, with Soya oil standing out as the best for rabbit meat floss production.</p> O. A. Adediran O. Abdul Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 188 193 Screening F1 Advanced Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L) LAM] Segregating Populations for Early Bulking, Dry Matter Content and Optimum Harvesting Time in Umudike, South-East Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243489 <p>Sweetpotato is an important carbohydrate root crop grown mainly for its storage roots for processing into various sweetpotato products due to its dry matter content.&nbsp; Twenty three (23) sweetpotato genotypes was conducted at the Western experimental field of NRCRI, Umudike in 2020 and 2021 to select potential early storage root bulking and maturing genotypes with high dry matter content for early cultivation genotypes. Objectives were to identify precise time for harvesting each genotype, select genotypes for extra-early, early, medium and late maturity for various end users. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each plot measured 4 x 3 m and comprised 4 ridges. Ten genotypes were used as samples per plot per genotype. The sweetpotato seed were cut 25 cm long, with at least 4 nodes, which were inserted two nodes on the crest of the ridges in a slanting position and spaced 1m between ridges and 0.3m apart along the row on the ridges. Ten (10) sweetpotato plants per plot were harvested at interval of 4 weeks after planting (WAP). Plant attributes studied were number of marketable roots at 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after planting and number of unmarketable roots. The yield data were subjected to analysis of variance and their means separated with standard error of difference at the probability level of 0.05. Four harvest dates for the sweetpotato genotypes were proposed; very early maturing, early maturing, intermediate and late maturing.&nbsp; The proposed dates were: 8, 12, 16 and 20 Weeks After Planting (WAP). Standard error of difference was used to assign genotypes to a harvest group/date. Results obtained indicated that Sweetpotato genotypes vary in their marketable root bulking and maturity dates, and harvesting at 8WAP would render the storage roots immature and unmarketable.&nbsp; Some genotypes required more than 16WAP to reach maturity. It is therefore, recommended that harvesting should be at 16 WAP.&nbsp; Assigning genotypes to a given harvest date is important for areas of short growing seasons as a result of short rainfall, areas of high disease infestation, areas with high market demand, for industrial uses depending on type of utility of the storage roots. Genotypes with dry matter of 28% are acceptable to most consumers.</p> I. I. M. Nwankwo P. O Nwankwo Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 194 203 Enhanced Cassava Production for Food Security and Economic Development in Nigeria: A review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243491 <p>In addition to contributing to food security, cassava is gaining popularity as a feedstuff and feedstock across the world. Efforts are being made to substitute cassava for grains in the animal feed, ethanol production, etc. It is being increasingly recognized that growing high yielding cassava can spur sustainable development. The objectives of this study were to identify gaps in the cassava sub-sector and proffer solutions for optimal production and utilization of cassava and its products for food security and economic development. The data and information for this study were collected from sources like Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research Gate and FAOSTAT. The challenge of how to produce beyond domestic demand and sustain supply to the international markets is one of the constraints we face in Nigeria cassava subsector. Despite being the world’s largest cassava producer, more than 90 % of cassava produced in the country is consumed locally as food. Since little is processed for many and varied uses, the outlook for increasing cassava production is promising as it can encourage rural and economic development through increase in production, processing, marketing and export of starch, pellets and chips to earn foreign exchange. The study suggests that, like Thailand, Nigeria should focus on increasing productivity alongside creating market opportunities. This could be achieved by raising institutional structures and functioning infrastructures, enacting favourable agricultural policies such as the export-led industrialization policy, trade and investment liberation and common agricultural policy. Such policies will support large agribusinesses interventions, including cassava processors and commodity exporters, and help create a conducive environment that will sustain cassava production for food security and economic development.</p> P. O. Onyediako J. G. Adiele Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 204 211 Impact of ICT Usage on Success/Failure of Youth-Led Agribusiness Activities in Different Agricultural Value Chains in Southeast Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243492 <p>The emergence of computer and internet based ICT platforms offers an agricultural commodity exchange platform. The use of ICTs has consistently advanced over the last ten years and the number of people connected to the Internet via fixed or mobile devices is increasing rapidly with African farmers, especially the youth, not been left out of this ICT explosion. This study examined the impact of ICT usage on success/failure of youth-led (young men and women) agribusiness activities in different agricultural value chains. The respondent involved all youth-led (young men and women) agribusiness entrepreneur in the south east that are involved in agricultural value chains. Three hundred and sixty (360) youth-led agribusiness entrepreneurs were studied with the use of multi-stage and simple random techniques. Primary data were collected with the use of a well-structured questionnaire through the aid of enumerators while descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and graphs) and inferential statistics (OLS regression) were used for data analysis. The result show that mobile phone (88.89%), internet (58.33%), radio (52.22%), computer (55.56%), social media (66.67%), facebook (58.33%) and Youtube/online videos (58.33%) were the most commonly used ICT tools in agriculture. Youth participation in agricultural value-chain activities is a high yielding venture as the average revenue, cost and return for youth in different value chain activities were N486,203.61, N166,433.33 and N319,770.3. OLS estimate on effect of ICT usage on success/failure shows that mobile Phones (1%), Blogs and website used (1%) and used of camera (1%) were significant and positively related to performance of youth in the area while the coeficient of cost of data was statistically significant at 1% level but negatively related to perfromance of youth in the area participation in agricultural value-chain. The study recommends that Government should provide adequate fund for youth-led (young men and women) agribusiness activities to enable it procure necessary relevant ICT facilities. Also Youth should engage themselves in continuous training in ICT facilities.</p> F. E. Ebe K. C. Obike S. O. Aigbokie F. U. Agbo K. C. Igwe J. A. Mbanasor O. M. Obike O. J. Umeh C. Osodeke Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 212 218 Differentials in Adoption of Improved Fisheries Technologies among Fish Farmers in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243497 <p>The study was carried out in Benue, Nassarawa and Kogi States of Nigeria to assess the adoption of improved fisheries technologies. Fish farmers were the respondents for the study and selected using multistage sampling techniques which involved stratified, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. A total of three hundred and twenty five (325) respondents were used for the study. Structured questionnaire was employed to collect the required data while descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the data analysis. The results of the analysis revealed that majority (66.46 %) of the respondents were males. The mean age of respondents was 48 years and majority of them were married (85.85 %). Most of the respondents had formal education (98.77%), while their mean household size was five persons. They had average income from fish farming of <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">N</span>208,884 per production cycle while their mean fish stock was 321 fishes. The common sources of information were from extension agents and cooperative association. Results also revealed the existence of very high adoption level of improved fisheries technologies across th5e States except for technologies such as fish sex reversal (39.38%) and induced fish breeding (49.85%). High cost of technologies (0.4867*), inadequate access to extension services (0.6327*), complexity of technologies (0.5742**) among others were identified as significant constraints associated with improved fisheries technologies adoption. Logistic regression shows that household size was negative and fish was positive and had significant relationship with adoption at 10%. This study therefore recommends that extension agents make available good, high yielding and improved breed of fish stock with prolific value to ensure full adoption technologies among fish farmers.</p> I. P. Omale E. P. Egri A. A. Naswem Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 219 226 Volatile Constituents of Ogiri-Igbo Condiment Produced by Traditional Alkaline Fermentation of Castor Oil Bean (Ricinus communis) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243500 <p>This study was undertaken to determine and compare the volatile profiles of <em>ogiri-igbo</em> using 2% NaCl and 2% lime. Volatile components of traditionally fermented castor oil bean condiments (<em>ogiri-igbo</em>) were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Interpretation on mass spectrum GC-MS was conducted using the database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST) having more than 62,000 patterns. The three samples include fermented castor oil bean condiments (<em>ogiri-igbo</em>) with 2% NaCl, 2% lime and without 2% NaCl/lime. A total of 150 volatiles were identified in the <em>ogiri</em> samples. Esters, terpenes, alcohols, acids, ketones, pyrazine, amines, amides and other additional compounds were established and authenticated. However, esters, terpenes, alcohols, acids, ketones, pyrazine, amines and amides accounted for over 50% of the volatile compounds produced in the traditionally fermented castor oil bean condiments. The predominant volatile compounds identified in 2% NaCl <em>ogiri-igbo</em> were esters (14%), ketones (14%), amides (12%) and terpenes (10%). Esters (14%) and terpenes (12%) were more abundant in <em>ogiri-igbo</em> without NaCl/lime. However, 2% lime <em>ogiri-igbo</em> had 10% amines and amide each as the predominant volatile compounds. Most of the identified volatile compounds contribute significantly to the flavour and taste of fermented castor oil bean condiments (<em>ogiri-igbo</em>).</p> M. C. Ojinnaka H. O. Okudu N. A. Obeta G. C. Okafor P. C. Ojimelukwe Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 227 236 Birds Species Richness and Diversity in Okomu National Park, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243505 <p>This study focused on the bird’s species richness and diversity in Okomu National Park, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to derive information on the species of birds utilizing the Okomu National Park as well as determine the relative abundance and diversity of birds in area. &nbsp;The methodology employed in the study includes the use of direct method of census. Line transects. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (Tables). The result gathered revealed that the national park is rich in birds species. A total number of 706 birds’ species in 23 families were also inventoried in all the ranges. The highest families; <em>Accipitridae, Alcedinidae, Bucerotidae, Muscicapidae,</em> and <em>Ploceidae has 3 represented species each, followed by families of Meropidae, Nectariniidae, Picidae and Sturnidae with 2 represented species each. Birds were found in all the selected habitats. </em>The park areas are under constant threat from unsustainable poaching, logging practices, and land conversion to agricultural uses. This logging and land use change have impacted on Okomu National Park forests and the forest ability to withstand the effect or to become 'resilient' might be difficult due to the effects of climate change, and deforestation. Therefore there is need to include both the local indigenes and staff who know the park area boundaries very well to be involved in the protection of the park resources. This will help in discouraging the killings of bird’s species by local poachers and others.</p> U. I. Fingesi O. O. Akinola A. J. Adeola S. E. Ogbu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 237 242 Spatial Pricing Efficiency of Palm Kernel Markets in Southeast, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243512 <p>The study examined spatial pricing efficiency of palm kernel markets in Southeast, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in sampling 120 palm kernel marketers for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, spatial price model and Pearson correlation matrix. Socioeconomic characteristics of the marketers showed a mean age of 48 years, majority (59.2%) were females, with many (69.2%) married. Mean household size of 7 persons was recorded and they all had formal education. Mean marketing experience of 12 years was recorded from the study and half (50%) do not belong to any market unions. Quite a number (75%) of the marketers use personal savings as source of finance for the palm kernel business. There was positive price spreads in all the market pairs which suggest inefficiency in palm kernel marketing in the study area. There were also significant differences in the average price of palm kernel between the urban and rural market pairs. Positive correlation coefficient values were recorded between the market pairs which suggest symmetry and co-movement of prices between the urban and rural markets. The study recommends that credit facilities should be advanced to the marketers and that there should be provision of more market outlets in the area to increase competition within the markets.</p> F. A. Nse-Nelson L. O. Obinna R. P. Mmerife U. R. Oke Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 243 248 Dimensional Stabilization of African Whitewood by Treatment with Modified Chitosan https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243899 <p>Effect of modified chitosan on physical and mechanical properties of <em>Triplochiton scleroxylon </em>(African whitewood) wood was investigated. The chitosan was chemically modified by introducing more amino groups to the backbone of chitin using parabenzoquinone (pBQ). Obeche wood blocks were impregnated with modified chitosan and commercial chitosan at six different concentration levels (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8% of modified chitosan (MC) and 0.2%, 0.4% 0.8% of unmodified Chitosan (C). The derivatives were characterized by Fourier Transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.&nbsp; Physical properties – water absorption (WA) and water repellent efficiency (WRE) and mechanical properties – modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were determined. The IR spectra at different major peaks confirmed the modification of chitosan.&nbsp; Water Absorption for all the treated samples after 24 -hour and 168- hour water-soak tests ranged between 43.41-50.37% and 86.82-99.68% which were lower than the untreated with 57.92% and 119.5% respectively. The WRE of modified chitosan-treated wood improved considerably with the treatment of samples. There was no significant reduction in the mechanical properties of the treated samples over the untreated ones. &nbsp;Therefore, treating wood with chitosan or modified chitosan is advised for outdoor uses where the wood would be exposed to moisture.</p> F. G. Adebawo O. A. degoke E. A. Adelusi Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 249 254 Agroforestry Practices and Mitigation Impact on Climate Change: Case Study of Umuahia South, Abia State, South East Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243900 <p>Studies on the status of agroforestry practices in Umuahia south were undertaken to identify the existing agroforestry systems, access their mitigation impact on climate change and constraints to productive and sustainable agroforestry systems. The intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems to create environmental, economic and social benefits are the goals of agroforestry. Variants of agrisilviculture – home gardens, random mix tree-arable crop mixtures, live fences, boundary planting and the bush fallow system are common in the area. Silvipastoral and agrosilvipastoral systems are practiced, especially for small ruminant (sheep and goat and piggery) production. The mean livestock holding and the mean sheep: goat ratio in the study area is 11 (4 sheep + 7 goats) and 1:1:5 respectively. Mushrooms, snail and honey are collected from the wild. The farmers interviewed indicated their willingness to utilize modern techniques in the production of these forest food resources in their agroforestry farms. The State government through the ADP’s agroforestry unit has made little or no impact on the farmers interviewed. The paper further examines the role of Agroforestry practices in mitigating climate change impact and offers solutions to identified constraints to increased agroforestry productivity and recommends viable agroforestry practices for climate smart agriculture in Umuahia south. It further shows that agroforestry is a viable technology for increased food, wood and animal production as well as for sustainable climate smart agriculture and management of the environmental resources in Umuahia South.</p> P. I. Ekeledo F. N. Aboajah E. C. Agoh Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 255 262 Evaluation of Moringa Bio-Gel as Alternative Cooking Energy Source among Women in Oyo State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243901 <p>The study examined willingness to pay and constraints in the use of moringa bio-gel as alternative cooking energy source among women in Oyo State. A purposive random sampling technique was used to select 208 women from a total of 980 women that were trained on the use of moringa bio-gel. Both descriptive (percentages and mean) and inferential statistics (regression analysis were used to analyse the data from the study. The average age of women was 36.7 and majority (91.8%) had one form of education or another. 95.2% are either employed in government job or were entrepreneurs. About half (55.8%) of the women live in urban areas and had a mean of 5 persons as household size. The major fuel used by 69.7% of the women was liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and the average amount spent on cooking fuel/month was N3, 500, 65.9% of the women interviewed were willing to pay for moringa bio-gel as an alternative cooking energy source. Constraints associated with the use of the gel according to the women were that it is not affordable and it is not accessible as this ranked 1st and 2<sup>nd</sup> respectively. There was a significant relationship between education (B =0.194, P =0.003) and settlement pattern (B = 0.210, P=0.043) and women’s willingness to pay for moringa bio-gel. The project therefore recommends that strategies to increase the adoption of moringa bio-gel as an alternative cooking fuel be put in place by the government.</p> A. Oyegbami A. O. Oyedele L. B. Taiwo G. Oluwatoye Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 263 269 Differentials in Level of Awareness and Adoption of Good Agronomic Practices (GAP) among Smallholder Cassava Farmers in Okigwe Agricultural Zone, Imo State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243902 <p>Good Agronomic Practices (GAP) is a technological concept for adoption in Nigeria. The study assessed the level of awareness and adoption of Good Agronomic Practices (GAP) among smallholder cassava farmers in Okigwe Agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Using stratified random sampling techniques, 60 farmers were chosen for the study. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the level of awareness of GAPs technologies was high (85%), but adoption by the respondents was moderate in the study area which could be one of the reasons for poor agricultural productivity, income and livelihood of the respondents. The findings also revealed that, NRCRI, extension agents and training had a significant effect on the awareness of GAP technologies in the study area. It was found that a greater proportion (80%) of the farmers indicated that the presence of NRCRI, Umudike, had a positive impact and provides them with new skills and information<strong>. </strong>The respondents ranked financial constraints, lack of farm inputs, high cost of farm inputs, poverty, poor access to improved technologies, poor market prices, low production and dissemination system as the major challenges of adoption of GAP in the study area. The study thus recommended that the Federal Ministry of Agriculture should provide more funds for research institutions and the State ADPs in order to intensify their efforts towards creating more awareness of the GAP system among rural farmers. It also recommends collaboration between state government and private sectors, this collaboration will help to provide low cost of farm inputs and credit facilities to farming communities for more rapid adoption and sustainability and also to make better informed decisions which will encourage implementation of the GAP system.</p> N. C. Onyemauwa K. Aroh J. O. Onyemma Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 270 277 Effect of Adoption on Yield of Improved Ginger Production Technologies in South-East, Nigeria: A Gender Situation Analyses https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243903 <p>The study analyzed effect of adoption on yield of improved ginger production technologies by gender in South-East Nigeria. A Multi-stage and proportionate sampling techniques were used to select 250 ginger farmers (125 males and females each). Data were collected with a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive (such as means, percentages, 3 point rating scale), and inferential (Z-test) statistics. The result shows that majority (81.60%) of the male and female (89.60%) farmers were married, with mean farm sizes of 1.30ha and 0.69ha respectively. The result also shows that the mean annual farm income was ₦971436.656 (male) and ₦513012.8 (female), whereas the average quantity of ginger produced per annum was 13.853t and 7.598t in that order. Average yield of ginger produced per hectare was 10.958t/ha for male and 10.327t/ha for female, implying that the male farmers had slightly higher yields than their female counterparts. This could be because men adopted the improved ginger production technologies more than their female counterparts. Results further showed that awareness and adoption levels were higher among the male farmers than their female counterparts as 16 out of 22 innovations disseminated to the ginger farmers were highly adopted by the male respondents, whereas only 14 were adopted by the females. Furthermore, the results showed that the male farmers had greater access to (2.568) and greater control (2.464) over production resources than their females (0.992) access to (1.816) and control over same resources. However, both male (2.736) and female (2.608) farmers were fully involved in decision making in ginger production on a 3-point graphic rating scale. The Z-test result of significance difference in ginger yield between male and female farmers showed evidence of significant differences in ginger yields, with a Z-value of 1.8268 which was positive and significant at 10% level. This shows that gender had a significant effect on ginger yield in South-East Nigeria, implying that the male ginger farmers performed better than their female counterparts. The study therefore recommends, among others, that government should reduce the gender gap in access to, and control over production resources in the region.</p> G. C. Ibeneme C. O. K. Igwe O. M. Akwuegbu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 278 284 Effect of Fertilizer on Forage Maize and Ginger Production in Maize/Ginger Intercrop under Alley System in Umudike, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243904 <p>The fertilizer effect on forage maize dry matter and ginger rhizome yield in maize (<em>zea mays</em>) + ginger (<em>zingiber officinale</em>) intercrop under <em>Dactyladenia barteri</em> based alley system was investigated in 2011 and 2012 in Umudike South-east Nigeria. Test consist of 3 levels of cropping systems (sole maize, sole ginger and ginger + maize) and three (3) levels of inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15: 15: 15) (0, 350 and 450 kg/ha), laid in a randomized complete block design with three (3) replications. Planting was done in May each year using a plot size of 2.5m x 2.5m, ginger sett weighing 20g and maize (Kewesoke) were planted at a spacing of 0.5m x 0.5m on ridges made in-between the <em>Dactyladenia barteri</em> hedgerows (Alley). The plots were mulched with 5 t/ha fresh pruning of <em>D. barteri</em> two days after planting. Data on plant survival, plant height, leaf number, rhizome and maize dry matter yield were taken and subjected to analysis of variance. Results showed that fertilizer rates and cropping systems had no significant effect on forage maize survival, plant height and number of leaf in both years of study. Significant differences were observed for fertilizer treatments on forage maize dry matter. The 450 and 350 kg/ha fertilizer rates had a pooled mean value of 10.7 and 8.40t/ha respectively. These values were significantly higher than the 0t/ha, which had a mean value of 7.42t/ha dry matter. Mean ginger plant survival and plant height showed no significant response for both fertilizer treatments and cropping systems, while significant differences (P&lt;0.05) were observed for ginger leaf number and ginger rhizome yield for fertilizer treatments: 7.25,5.08 and 4.23t/ha for 450,350 and 0kg/ha respectively. &nbsp;Cropping system (intercropping) showed no significant effect on ginger rhizome yield under alley systems, indicating that intercropping may not influence maize and ginger growth, and yield under <em>Dactyladenia barteri</em> based alley system.</p> P. I. Ekeledo G. O. Chukwu E. C. Agoh Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 285 288 Analysis of Spatial Market Integration and Price Transmission of Cowpea between Kano and Abia, Imo and Enugu States https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243905 <p>The study of market integration has gained attention in recent times due to differences in the natural endowment of different regions. Regions with comparative advantage are encouraged to produce goods that can predominantly do well in their region and purchase their deficit. This suggests that there will be an inter dependence of one region on the other to meet their local needs. Market integration tries to measure the degree of change in price of similar goods as they move from one location to another especially from the source of production to consumption centre. The work investigated into price transmission of cowpea between source market of Kano State and destination markets of Abia, Enugu and Imo States. It used secondary data sources of monthly cowpea prices obtained from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The study tested the stationarity of the data series, then used the first difference of the series for the study.&nbsp; The researcher also conducted a cointegrated tested using the Johansen model. The trace and eigenvalue tests indicated one cointegrating vector between the source market and destination market prices of cowpea implying that the two price series were cointegraed.&nbsp; The ARDL model was used to establish the existence of long run relationship in the prices of cowpea in the different markets. The result of the bound test of the ARDL showed that there was a long run relationship between source and destination markets since the computed F- statistic was greater than both lower and the upper bound values at all level of significance tested ranging from 1-10 levels of significance. The study therefore concluded that there was a long run relationship in the prices of cowpea among the markets.&nbsp; An ECM value of -0.417295 was obtained. This implies that, the rate of adjustment of price of 42%, was relatively a slow rate of adjustment of the markets prices to equilibrium. The study recommends policies that ensure stability in prices of agricultural produces should be made; also government should provide good road network system between the source market and the destination markets which could further enhance market integration.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> E. I. Offor R. O. Mejeha J. C. Efedua Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 289 298 Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change Using Agroforestry Practices: Case Study of Kaduna Metropolis https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243906 <p>The study was carried out in Kaduna Metropolis, with primary and secondary data used for this study. The primary data were generated through the use of structured questionnaires which were distributed among farming communities in the study area. Secondary data was gotten from (rainfall distribution data) Nigeria Metrological Agency, to justify the evidence of climate change and its effects on crop yields in the study area. A total of one-hundred questionnaires (100) were administered, out of which eighty-six (86) was retrieved for analysis. Results revealed that majority of the respondents (80%) were between the ages of 45-50, 77.90% were married, and male (69.8%). Results revealed that many of the farmers (45.30%) had primary education and they preferred information from Radio and Television (26.7%), and 25.7% from friends and family. Majority of the farmers (55.8%) strongly agree that the effect of climate change is highly deleterious in livestock production, 33.7% strongly agree that the climate change effects can easily be handled in livestock farming, while, 27.9% agree that climate only affect crop production. The agro-forestry adaptation strategies usually practiced include; alley farming (47.7%) &nbsp;and taugya system (46.5%), while 46.5% and 44.2% strongly agree with the adoption of improved fallow and shifting cultivation respectively, and 27.9%&nbsp; agreed that the use of Tropical Shelter Wood System (TSS) and crop production as a viable means for coping with the effects of climate change. About 23.9% of the farmers were constrained with inadequate knowledge of predicting possibility of climate change, 22.3% indicated inadequate knowledge of the choice of tree species that can be used in mitigating the problems of climate change in agricultural environment. Results therefore concludes that farmers’ are faced with menace of climate change induced hazards on activities which in reality affect their productivity, and they do not have adequate knowledge and fund towards coping or mitigating the effects of climate change. Hence, it is recommended that farmers should equipped with knowledge of the principle that guide the use of agroforestry practice because it is considered as the best way to sustainable, cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to enhancing food security.</p> O. A. Ogunkalu R. A. Sulaiman D. O. Adelani B. O. Oni S. Okechalu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 53 3 299 305 Economics of Palm Oil Production Under Semi-Mechanized Processing Method in Afijo Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243907 <p>The study analysed palm oil production under semi-mechanized processing method in Afijo Local Government Area of Oyo State. A multistage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 80 palm oil processors. Data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and ordinary least square regression model were used for the data analysis. The results showed that majority of the palm oil processors were female. Their mean age was 44 years. The majority of the respondents had one form of formal education or the other. 36.3% of the oil processors had between 10-20 years' experience in oil palm processing. Total cost, revenue, and profit per annum were N1,243,357, N1,673,820 and N430,463.4 respectively with Farm Gross Ratio of 0.30 and Return On Investment of 1.35. The study showed that education had 5% significant effect on the net returns of the processors in the study area. Major constraints were high cost of modern processing facilities and difficulty at getting modern equipment by processors, poor access to good road, poor incentives to processors, insufficient fund for buying of processing machine, low capital, price fluctuations, inexperienced manpower, high cost of hired labor and lack of storage facilities. It was recommended that government should provide social amenities such as such as electricity, pipe borne water, good road network, storage facilities and access to credit facilities and subsidize equipment needed by the processors in order to reduce both running and overhead costs in areas where palm fruits are processed to palm oil production by the processors.</p> A. E. Obayelu O. O. Ayodeji O. P. Adeoye Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 306 313 Physicochemical Composition, Antioxidant Profile and Sensorial Acceptability of Melon Seed-Coconut Milk Alternative Cheese https://www.ajol.info/index.php/naj/article/view/243908 <p>This work evaluated the physicochemical composition, antioxidant profile and sensory scores of melon seed-coconut (MS-CC) cheese formulated at the ratio of MS-CC milk: 90:10, 70: 30, 50:50, 70:30 with 100% cow milk (CM) as the control. The melon seed (MS) and coconut (CC) were purchased at Ubani main market, Umuahia, Abia State in good physiological condition and processed according to standard methods. The proximate results showed that the cheese produced from MS-CC milk had higher concentrations of moisture, protein, fat and fibre, especially in MS90:10CC cheese than the control cheese, which was higher in ash, carbohydrate and energy contents. Other physicochemical results showed that Na, Mg, P, K, Fe, Zn and vitamins E, B<sub>I</sub> and B<sub>3</sub>, pH and TS were higher in control cheese than the MS-CC cheese. However, Ca, TTA, vitamins A and B<sub>2</sub> were higher in MS-CC cheese, especially the MS30:70CC formulation. The antinutrient properties revealed that alkaloids, saponin, tannin, phytate and cyanide were far higher in the MS-CC cheese, especially in MS90:10CC formulation which was about 1-9folds when compared to control cheese. &nbsp;The correlation results shows that flavonoid correlated positively with DPPH and FRAP assays at R<sup>2</sup> = 0.671, while phenol and ABTS, FRAP correlated negative at R<sup>2</sup> = -0.873. The sensory scores revealed that the control, MS50:50CC and MS30:70CC cheese was above 70% in general acceptability. The study highlighted that acceptable substitute cheese can be made from MS30:70CC formulation and can be used to promote the diversification of MS-CC milk beyond the traditional usage.</p> A. N. Ukom C. J. Madu L. N. Nwanagba A. C. Nwachukwu Copyright (c) 2022 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA https://agriculturalsocietynigeria.org/ 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 3 314 322