Nigeria Agricultural Journal <p>Published by the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, the <em>Nigerian Agricultural Journal</em> is the oldest agricultural journal in the country having been published since 1961. It is published bi-annually to quarterly, and contributions are accepted from anyone engaged in agricultural work in Nigeria and other countries in tropical Africa.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<span lang="NL"><a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> Agricultural Society of Nigeria en-US Nigeria Agricultural Journal 0300-368X Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Changes in nutritional, texture, rancidity and microbiological properties of composite biscuits produced from breadfruit and wheat flours enriched with edible fish meal <p>The use of indigenous crops in the preparation of nutritious snacks such as biscuits has been reported as a means of alleviating the perennial problem of malnutrition among Nigerians, especially children. However, storage has been recognised as a factor affecting the attributes of these biscuits. This study investigated the quality changes of biscuit produced from fish meal enriched-composite flour of breadfruit and wheat. Freshly harvested seedless variety of breadfruit, matured catfish, wheat flour and other ingredients were procured from local outlets in Ogun State, Nigeria. Breadfruit flour (BF) was produced by washing, manual peeling, washing, grating, bagging, dewatering, pulverizing and drying. Edible fish meal (EFM) was produced by washing, eviscerating, steaming and drying Catfish. Five blends of BF, WF and EFM were obtained from the optimised solutions of the D-optimal mixture design. Samples were stored (HDPE; 28 ± 2 °C) for 12 weeks. The proximate and mineral compositions, rancidity, texture profile and microbial counts of the biscuits were determined. Data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent sample t-test. The means from ANOVA were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at p ≤ 0.05. At the end of the storage period, the biscuit blends were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different in moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrate, calcium, iron and zinc. Increased levels of EFM in the blends led to increase in protein, fat, calcium, peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acid (FFA) value of the biscuits. At the end of the storage period, moisture increased, while fat decreased. The PV and FFA of most samples increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with storage, and were within the maximum permissible level. Total bacterial and mould counts also increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) and exceeded the permissible level after 4 weeks of storage. Hence, the biscuits are suitable for consumption within 4 weeks under the investigated storage conditions.</p> A. A. Adeola Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 1 12 Effect of varying concentrations of glucose and maltose on the Zygotic embryo propagation of Glycine max l. (Invitro) <p>The effect of varying concentrations of glucose and maltose was studied on the growth of Glycine max L. in vitro<br>using Murashige and Skoog media. Glucose and maltose concentrations were 2% and 4% each, while 0% (no<br>carbon source) served as control. Embryo explant of Glycine max L. in 4% glucose attained 80% growth from the<br>second day of inoculation followed by glucose at 2% level with 70% induction, whereas maltose at 4% and 2%<br>started also from the second day but with percentage induction of 60% each. Glucose based medium generally<br>exhibited the highest mean value of root and shoot length when compared to maltose based medium. Four percent<br>glucose has the highest mean, though not significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the control medium. The glucose<br>based medium shows greater efficiency both in shoot length and embryo growth induction than the maltose based<br>medium. However, glucose at 4% level is preferable to that of 2% level as observed from the growth parameter<br>analysis.</p> U. C. Okafor Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 13 16 Characterization of coconut accessions from selected germplasm using morphological traits <p>Characterization is fundamental for successful plant breeding programme. Genetic diversity among the selected coconut accessions had not been studied. Hence, this study characterized and identified outstanding coconut accessions. Tall coconut accessions from four germplasm collections; Badagry (BT), South East (ST), Kwara (KT1) and Kogi (KT2) were investigated in the NIFOR substation Badagry, using morphological traits. Percentage of fruit yield components, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis of morphological traits were evaluated. Coconut water volume (161cm<sup>3</sup>) &nbsp;and fresh meat weight (0.32kg) was highest in the BT accessions, while coconut water was lowest (92 cm<sup>3</sup>) in the ST accessions. KT2 accessions had higher husk weight (0.66kg) which was significantly different from other accessions. PCA indicated that three PC axes explained 80.52% of the total variations among the accessions. The fruit traits accounted for 52.84%, while the vegetative traits accounted for 21.58%. This indicated high variability in the fruit traits than in the vegetative traits. High values of Eigen vector were posed by split nut weight (0.973), nut weight (0.972), nut circumference (0.931), fresh meat weight (0.927), water volume (0.872), shell weight (0.841), nut length (0.857), copra weight (0.812), fruit circumference (0.804) and fruit weight (0.662). Cluster analysis partitioned the accessions into four main clusters. The grouping of the accessions did not follow a particular pattern. Cluster III had members from two locations, while the other clusters had members across the locations. Cluster III had the highest fruit weight, fruit length, fruit circumference, nut weight, nut length, nut circumference, split nut weight and coconut juice than the other clusters, while clusters II which had the highest sugar level. The accessions studied had high genetic variability for selection and breeding purposes which can be exploited to produce hybrid coconut.</p> O. O. Odufale Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 17 24 Determinants of profitability among Grasscutter farmers in Osun State, Nigeria <p>This study analysed the determinants of profitability among grasscutter farmers in selected Local Government Areas of Osun State. Data were collected from the respondents with the aid of a questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 120 respondents. However, 112 questionnaires were retrieved and analysed. The analytical tools employed were descriptive statistics, gross margin and multiple regression analyses<em>.</em> The study revealed that grasscutter farming in the area was dominated by males (70.5%) whom were married with average age of 48years. The regression analysis shows that determinants of profitability in grasscutter farming include: education and labour cost, which were positive and significant at 10%. Housing (5%), feeding (5%) and transportation cost (10%) were negative and also significant. The major challenges to grasscutter farming in the study area include; unstable market price, high cost of housing and finance. The study therefore calls for policies aimed at provision of free and affordable education to enable grasscutter farmer’s access and process information on innovations that will enhance profit. There is also need to subsidize the cost of feed and housing to mitigate the high cost of inputs in the enterprise. There is also need for provision of access roads to reduce the transactions cost of grasscutter marketing in the area.</p> O. V. Arowolo Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 25 31 Assessment of lipid, haematoloical and coagulation parameters following oral administration of Ficus capensis in male albino rats <p>Abnormal blood coagulation and hyperlipidemia remain the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. Despite the numerous and long-term use of <em>Ficus Capensis</em> as a medicinal plant in South East Nigeria, there is limited information on its effect on coagulation parameters. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of oral administration of methanol extract of <em>F. Capensis</em> on lipid, hematological and coagulation parameters in male albino rats. A total of twenty four (24) male Wister albino rats weighing 180 – 200g were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. The test groups (2, 3 and 4) &nbsp;received orally graded doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight) of methanol extract of <em>Ficus Capensis </em>&nbsp;for 4 weeks, while group 1 (control) was given 0.5ml normal saline for the same period. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed; blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture for the estimation of selected biochemical parameters. The results showed a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in body weight, haematological parameters tested, high density lipoprotein, and prolongation of clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (a PTT) when compared with the control group. A significant (<em>P</em><em>&lt;</em>0.05) decrease in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein was also observed. This study has demonstrated a dose related prolongation of PT, APTT, CT, decrease in lipid and increase in haematological parameters by methanol extract <em>Ficus Capensis </em>which may be beneficial in the management</p> N. K. Achi Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 32 37 Performance and profitability of palm oil wholesale marketing in Abia State, Nigeria <p>The study was designed to examine the profitability of palm oil wholesale marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. A Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in sampling 60 palm oil wholesalers for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaire, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, cost and returns analysis and ordinary least square regression. Socioeconomic characteristics of the wholesalers showed that the mean age of the wholesalers was 47 years. Majority (66.7%) of the wholesalers were married, with many (55%) of them were females. Mean household size of 4 persons was recorded and they all had formal education. Mean marketing experience of 11 years was recorded from the study and many (53%) do not belong to any cooperative society. The marketing of palm oil was found to be viable, as indicated by positive net returns of N106, 002.55 per month. The coefficient of marketing margin was 15%, while the marketing efficiency was 116%. Result of the regression analysis indicated that, age, marital status, household size educational level, marketing experience, membership of market union, cost of purchase, transportation cost&nbsp; and selling price were significant at various probability levels. Inadequate capital and high cost of transportation were the major constraints to palm oil marketing. The study therefore recommends that palm oil marketers should form cooperative society to enhance their access to finance. Marketers who are still strong and agile and experienced should be encouraged to up-scale production and remain in business. There is need also for access to free and affordable education to enable marketers’ access and process information on marketing innovations that will enhance marketing and revenue.</p> F. A. Nse-Nelson Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 38 44 Contributions of the agricultural value-added output to employment creation and regional trade integration in sub-Saharan Africa <p>This study ascertained the extent to which agricultural value-added output translates to employment creation and regional integration in sub-Saharan Africa. Observations were drawn from 22 countries in the region and a Dynamic panel data Econometric model of the Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) was applied from 2000 to 2017. The data for this study were collected from World Bank Development Indicators, and a combination of Okun’s law for growth and Ohlin-Vanek (1968) was adopted. Evidence from the study revealed that increased agricultural value-added output reduced unemployment by 0.102%, while regional integration increased by 0.441%. The long-run elasticity of agro-allied industrialization output to regional trade was 0.56%. Hence, the study supports agricultural policies that promote agricultural value-added output to improve regional integration and a reversed unemployment trend in the region.</p> I. S. Asogwa Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 45 52 Effect of crop diversification on food security status among arable crop farmers in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out to analyze the effect of crop diversification on food security status among arable crop farmers in Ikwuano L.G.A of Abia State. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select 80 arable crop farmers. The data collected were analyzed with the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that the farmers were about 44years, 57.5% males and 77.5% married with about 11years spent in school. The average household size was 5persons, and farming experience of about 9.41 years. Majority (60%) were members of cooperative societies, while 65% and 85% had no extension contact and access to credit respectively. Also, average farm size was 1.53ha with crop diversification index of 0.71. Education, off-farm income, farm size, land ownership and crop yield significantly influenced crop diversification, while crop yield, education, household size, crop diversification and off-farm income significantly influenced the food security status of the farmers in the study area. The study therefore, recommends that extension agents should create more awareness on the importance of crop diversification on the food security of the farmers in the study area. Provision of affordable or free education will enable farmers’ access and process information on innovations that will enhance crop diversification for improved income and food security status. There is also need for land reform policies to enable farmers’ access more land for increased crop diversification in the study area.</p> S. C. Onya Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 53 60 Willingness to pay for irrigation technology: the role of perceived benefits and barriers among cohort of vegetable farmers in Southwest Nigeria <p>Adopting irrigation technology in vegetable production is beyond just the ability to pay. It is a decision that involves the sociology of consumption which asserts the relevance of human perception. Hence, this study was designed to examine how the perceived- benefit of, and barrier against adoption of irrigation technology predict vegetable farmers’ willingness to pay for irrigation technology in Ido LGA of Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 110 respondents who were sampled using snowball method. Multi-item measures were used to assess variables. Significant differences in mean scores of willingness to pay across sub-groups of sex, age, education, economic wherewithal and category of technology-use were assessed using independent sample <em>Z</em>-test and one-way ANOVA. Stepwise, multiple linear regression was used to assess the predictors of willingness to pay. Results indicate that 30%, 18.2%, and 51.8% of respondents do not currently use irrigation technology, use basic, and improved technology for vegetable production respectively. Respondents who exhibited poor and high willingness to pay constituted 39.1% and 60.9% respectively. Sex, age, education and technology use have no significant effects on willingness to pay (<em>p</em>&gt; 0.05), but economic wherewithal did (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05). Perceived barrier is a better predictor (standardized β= -0.592, R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.374, <em>r</em>= -0.611, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.001) when compared to perceived benefit (standardized β= 0.220, R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.048, <em>r</em>= 0.273, <em>p</em>&lt;0.05). The two variables afforded multiple relationship of 64.9% and explained 42.2% of the variation in willingness to pay (multiple correlation= 0.649; R<sup>2</sup>= 0.422, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.001). Economic wherewithal is a fundamental limitation to willingness to adopt irrigation technology for vegetable production. Perceived barrier significantly decreased this willingness far more than perceived benefit expands same. Therefore, efforts directed at expanding the adoption of irrigation technology for vegetable production must focus more on boosting farmer-finances and mitigating barriers against the use of irrigation technology.</p> F. M. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 61 69 Phenotypic variability among African yam bean landrace accessions from different agro-ecologies of Nigeria <p>The aim of this research work was to estimate the genetic variability and magnitude of the genetic components of some phenotypic traits among twenty African yam bean landraces collected from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The accessions constituted the treatment which was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Accession seven performed best across the three locations in terms of grain yield, while accession ten had the least performance in term of grain yield. Levels of accessions and locations were significantly different (P&lt;0.05) from one another for the studied traits except hypocotyl length, while accession x location interaction differed significantly (though at different levels) in all the traits except hypocotyl length, number of leaves per plant and pod length. The results revealed that phenotypic coefficient of variation were higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for the traits studied. Broad sense heritability estimates were high in all the studied traits. Genetic advance as percentage values were moderate to high for all the traits. High heritability estimate values coupled with high genetic advance in the research work depicts that improvement can be made on the crop through simple selection. This study provides baseline information for improving African yam bean landrace.</p> G. O. Agbowuro Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 70 76 Evaluation of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) infestation and efficacy of neem extracts in maize (Zea mays L.) <p>Maize is an important cereal crop in Nigeria. Fall Armyworm (FAW) is one of the most important field insect pests of maize. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of FAW infestation on maize plants and efficacy of neem extracts in the management of FAW in maize in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja in 2018. Field experiment was carried out from July to December 2018 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria, where two maize varieties were assessed for incidence and percentage leaf area damaged. Data collected was analyzed using Generalized Linear Model with multivariate assumptions using SPSS Version 21. Treatment means were separated with Student Newman Keuls Test (SNK) at p≤0.05. Highest number of FAW larvae (1.35±0.09) and incidence (20.30±1.02) were obtained from the control; the lowest was recorded from plants treated with Lambdacyhalothrin (0.05±0.06), followed by Neem oil (0.10± 0.05). Neem extracts reduced foliar damage to maize compared to the untreated control. Non-treated control plants showed extensive leaf injury compared to the synthetic insecticide and neem extract treated plants. There was no significant difference (p≥0.05) between the two maize varieties and interaction effect of variety and treatments in terms of the parameters scored. Findings from this study shows the efficacy of neem extracts in the treatment of Fall Armyworm infesting maize on the field and recommends the use of the neem extracts as an eco-friendly insecticide option for control of Fall Armyworm infestation in Nigeria.</p> C. I. Akhigbe Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 77 82 Perceived benefits and use of weather forecast information among arable crop farmers in Ido, Oyo State Nigeria <p>Agricultural production particularly arable crop farming is hinged on favourable weather condition which is often associated with inherent implication. This study therefore examined the perceived benefits and use of weather forecast information among arable crop farmers in Ido Local Government Area, Oyo State. Randomised sampling technique was used to select 50% of registered crop farmers to give a total of 110 respondents in the study area.&nbsp; Data were obtained using structured questionnaire and analyzed with Chi Square and Pearson Product Moment of Correlation (PPMC) for the hypotheses. The results of the finding revealed that majority of the respondents were married (76.4%) males (53.6%) above 50 years of age (38.2%). Also, most (91.8%) of the respondents household size were between 1 to 10 members. The result further revealed that 80.9% of the respondents earned annual income of less than N200,000 and cultivated less than one hectare of land each. Hypotheses of the study further revealed that there were significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and their use of weather forecast information in the area for education (<strong>χ</strong><sup>2 </sup>=29.726, p=0.013), age (<strong>χ</strong><sup>2 </sup>=-0.230, p=0.003) and income (<strong>χ</strong><sup>2 </sup>=-0.313, p=0.000). PPMC analysis showed significant relationship between respondents’ benefits (r=0.397, p=0.000) and use of weather forecast information. In conclusion, it was revealed that education, age and income of the respondents influenced the use of weather forecast. Also, respondents derived enhanced benefits from weather information which influenced their extent of use of weather forecast. It is therefore recommended that both public and private organizations should provide effective weather forecast services to disseminate relevant and timely information useful for arable crop farming.</p> O. O. Abegunrin Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 83 88 Assessment of soils for sanitary landfills in Abia State, Southeast Nigeria <p>Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Nigeria. Consequent upon poor planning of landfills, several environmental pollution and soil degradation problems often occur. Therefore, recognition of the MSW landfill is required to prevent environmental problems. The study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of selected soils of Abia State for the construction of sanitary landfills. Eight profile pits were excavated in different locations and the genetic horizons sampled for laboratory analyses of some selected soil properties. Results showed that the sand fraction ranged from 718 to 825gkg<sup>-1</sup>, with a mean value of 762gkg<sup>-1</sup> and the clay content ranged between 116 and 213gkg<sup>-1</sup>, with a mean value of 174gkg<sup>-1</sup>. Bulk density ranged from 1.17 to 1.48gcm<sup>-3</sup>, with an average value of 1.40gcm<sup>-3</sup>. Hydraulic conductivity ranged from 25.3 to 45.7cmhr<sup>-1</sup>, with an average value of 38.cmhr<sup>-1</sup>. Permeability ranged between 0.88 and 1.40cm<sup>2</sup>, with a mean of 1.13 cm<sup>2</sup>. Soil pH (H<sub>2</sub>O) ranged from 4.35 to 5.38, with a mean value of 4.98. Effective cation exchange capacity ranged from 3.81- 17.17cmolkg<sup>-</sup>1, with an average value of 6.83cmolkg<sup>-1</sup>. The suitability assessment showed that the soils are fairly to marginally suitable for the construction and operation of sanitary landfills.</p> E. A. Adesemuyi Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 89 95 Farmer’s perception on the benefits of poultry production in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria <p>This study is a descriptive survey on the perceived benefits of poultry production and constraints faced in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), Federal Capital territory, Nigeria. A total of 133 poultry farmers were randomly selected and interviewed using structured questionnaires. A mean score of ≥ 2.5 on a four-point Likert-type scale was considered an important factor on benefits of poultry production. Results indicated that poultry keeping fosters poverty alleviation, improves standard of living and increase income as evidenced by mean scores of 3.86, 4.02 and 3.99 respectively. &nbsp;Respondents with a high mean score attests that poultry keeping assist in ensuring food security (4.12), reduce unemployment rate and boost the country’s gross domestic products (4.42). In descending order of importance, perceived constraints to poultry production were; disease outbreak (35.55%), high cost of feed (24.8%), insufficient finance (20.7%), lack of market (13.2%), pilfering of farm produce (5.8%) and low manpower (10.7%). Since poultry production is perceived to play beneficial roles in the study area, close attention must be placed on developing strategies that will reduce or remove identified constraints which can impede the growth of the industry.</p> S. A. Salami Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 96 100 Household level determinants of micro credit access among small holder farmers in Niger Delta Region, Nigeria <p>The study examined the determinants of micro credit access among small holder farmers in Niger Delta, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 384 farm households from four States out of the nine States that make up the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from primary sources using interview schedule guided by structured questionnaire. Descriptive and relevant inferential statistics such as frequency, percentages, mean, Heckman Double Hurdle Model and Poisson Model were used to analyze the data. Results obtained showed that; region of residence, education and organizational membership positively and significantly influenced access to microcredit, while total household income had a negative influence on access to microcredit. Also, results of factors that determined the amount of microcredit received by small scale farmers showed that: farm size and organizational membership positively and significantly influenced the amount of microcredit accessed while; interest rate had a negative and significant effect. In addition, factors that influenced frequency of microcredit accessed showed that: gender, education and interest rate were negative and significant, while, age, borrowing experience and social capital were positive and significant. The results call for policies aimed at provision of access to free and affordable education to enable farmers’ access and process information on credit opportunities. There is also need to encourage farmers to form cooperatives that will enable them access credit with ease. Land reform policies that will enable small holder farmer’s access more land is encouraged.</p> O. S. Offor Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 102 110 Effect of sodium azide induction on morphological traits of shombo and tatase (Capsicum annuum L.) <p>The present study was carried out to determine the mutagenic effect of sodium azide on the morphological features of <em>Shombo</em> and <em>Tatase</em> (<em>Capsicum</em> <em>annuum</em> L.) in M<sub>1</sub> generation. Seeds were pre-soaked in distilled water for 6hrs and later treated with different concentrations (0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 W/V%) of sodium azide mutagen for 6hrs. The experiment was planted using a 2×5 factorial in completely randomized design (CRD), replicated three times. Observation on the growth and fruit parameters of M<sub>1</sub> mutants of Shombo and Tatase showed significant variations (P ≤ 0.05) on the number of leaves, total number of branches, internode length, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of seeds, pericarp thickness, fruit stalk length and fruit weight. Most of the parameters especially plant height decreased with increase in concentrations of sodium azide. Positive effect of the sodium azide induction on Tatase was observed on the fruit diameter at 0.04% and number of seeds at 0.02%. The results of this study showed that sodium azide had significant effect on plant height, fruit diameter and number of seeds. Therefore, induced mutation through sodium azide would be efficient in creating genetic variability of desirable traits in pepper without compromising its agronomic characteristics.</p> J. O. Omeke Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 111 117 Participation of women organizations in infrastructural community development projects in Ohafia Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria <p>This study analysed participation of women in infrastructural community development projects in Ohafia Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Purposive and multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select ninety-six (96) women from different organizations. Data for the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Tobit regression analysis. Result showed that the women were about 53years, 57.29% were married, with household size of about 6 persons. About 36.45% acquired secondary education, annual income of N435,675.00, and length of residency (44.75years). About 38.45% received trainings in different areas of social organisations and 19.58 years of social organisation membership. Result revealed that construction of markets (97%), equipping school facilities (90%), renovation of schools (89%) and construction of school building (86%) were the major community development projects available in the study area. The women had high participation in construction of school buildings, renovation of schools, equipping school facilities and construction of markets with mean scores of 3.5, building of electricity facilities ( 3.3) and drilling of bore holes ( 2.9). Tobit regression result showed that coefficients for age (-0.1772**), annual income (0.00015***), length of residency (0.2126**), number of trainings (0.00116***) and membership of social organizations (0.004521***) influenced women organization participation in infrastructural community development projects in the study area. The results therefore call for policies aimed at increased awareness and sensitisation of younger women to join social organization groups and provision of rural infrastructural facilities by government in order to discourage rural-urban migration for enhanced community development.</p> C. I. Ugboaja Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 118 123 Seedling emergence and growth of some accessions of African walnut (Plukenetia conophora ) in different growing media <p>In this study, nursery experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of planting media on seedling emergence and seedling growth among some accessions of <em>Plukenetia conophora </em>(Mull. Arg.) with the aim of determining the most appropriate method of obtaining optimum and uniform germination of seeds of this species. Seeds of eight accessions of <em>Plukenetia conophora </em>were collected from five States in Nigeria and were in three different growing media. Results show that planting media significantly affected seedling emergence and seedling growth of <em>Plukenetia conophora. </em>Accession AC4 recorded the highest emergence percentage and quicker seedling growth and was significantly (P&lt;0.001) different when compared with the other accessions, while AC8 recorded the least emergence percentage 90.0%). Sawdust recorded the highest effect on emergence and seedling growth and was significantly (P&lt;0.001) different from other planting media, while topsoil recorded the least effect on emergence and seedling growth of <em>P.conophora</em>. Sawdust produced superior plant growth in terms of plant height, collar girth and leaf number.</p> J. Q. Nwachukwu Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 124 131 Off-farm enterprise participation among rural women in Umuahia South Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria <p>This study analyzed rural women participation in off-farm enterprises in Umuahia South Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select eighty (80) respondents for the study. Cross-sectional data were collected using a well structured questionnaire and analyzed with the aid of a descriptive and probit regression model. Findings showed that women in the study area were mostly middle aged entrepreneurs, majority (53%) of whom were married. About 50% of the rural women had household size of between 6 to 10 persons, while 41% had between 1 to 5 and 9% of them had above 10 persons. Furthermore, 97% were literate with formal educational levels ranging from primary school to tertiary education, only 3% had no formal education. A good proportion (67%) of the respondents’ main sources of income was from off-farm sources, with 33% from farming. Mean farming experience of 16 years was estimated from the study and farm size of between 0.1 to 1.0 hectares cultivated by 54% of the rural women. Majority (66%) of the rural women had no access to credit, and 76% had monthly income of less than N50,000. The probit regression results showed that&nbsp; rural women farmers’ decision to participate in off-farm enterprises in the study area were negatively influenced by age, primary occupation, access to credit, farming experience and farm size, and positively influenced by educational level, cooperative membership and household size. The women were constrained from embarking on off-farm business by insufficient funds, lack of credit, and identifying off-farm businesses to embark on. The study therefore, recommends that women farmers should be encouraged to form and or join co-operative societies. Furthermore, it is important for them to attend adult education programmes, training and workshops to increase their knowledge base and skills. Lastly, government should improve social benefit programme to women farmers.</p> F. A. Nse-Nelson Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 132 137 Health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of some indigenous vegetables grown in oil spilled agricultural area in Ogoni Land, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>This study seeks to evaluate the potential health risks associated with the consumption of selected heavy metals in soils and selected vegetables from polluted sites. The vegetable includes; <em>Gongrenema latifolium </em>(GL), <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em>(OG<em>)</em>, <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em>(VA) and <em>Talinum triangulare </em>(TT), harvested from a crude oil polluted area in Bodocity, Ogoniland., Rivers State. The concentrations of Fe, Pb, Zn, Mg, Cd and Cr were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The mean concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Mg, Cd and Cr ) for the samples ranged from 0.36±0.01 in GL (Control) to 16.82±0.01 in the polluted soil (SS); &lt;0.0001(BDL) to 0.48 in VA obtained from polluted site; 0.19±0.00<sup>a</sup> in SS (control) to 2.67±0.01<sup>a</sup> in OG (control); 3.51±0.01<sup>b</sup> to 470.33±0.33<sup>a</sup> in TT control; BDL to 0.04±0.00<sup>b</sup> in VA polluted and &nbsp;BDL to 0.03±0.00<sup>a</sup> in SS polluted (in mg/kg respectively).&nbsp; Pb concentrations in VA, TT and SS in polluted site exceeded the permissible limits of 0.2mg/kg, while other heavy metal levels were within safe limits. The metals were in the order of abundance&nbsp; Mg&gt;Fe&gt;Zn&gt;Cr&gt;Pb&gt;Cd. Health Risk was assessed by computing the average Daily Intake of Heavy Metals, Target Hazard Quotient and Carcinogenic Risk for Heavy Metals. The daily intakes of Heavy metals from vegetable consumption were within the threshold values for Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd except for contaminated soil, which exceeded the threshold value. The observed THQ of Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were generally &lt; 1. This observation is suggestive that consumers of vegetables from the study sites may not experience significant health risks from intake of individual metals through vegetable consumption except THQ value &gt;1 for Fe which maybe a concern to consumers of crops planted in the Bodocity soil. The CR values of Pb, Cd and Cr in GL, VA, TT and SS were within 10<sup>-6</sup> to10<sup>-4</sup>, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in the oil spilled area may likely result in cancer over a period of 70 years. The CR values indicated in this study were within the predicted permissible lifetime cancer risk (10<sup>-6</sup>-10<sup>-4</sup>) for all the samples assessed, constant consumption/exposure to these Heavy metals may result in their bioaccumulation overtime which is implicated in serious health risk.</p> U. B. Onyedikachi Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 138 151 Child labour utilization in rice production activities among farmers in Ebonyi State Nigeria <p>This study analyzed utilization of child labour in rice production activities among farmers in Ebonyi State Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data for the study were collected using a well structured questionnaire. The results were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics (Probit and Pearson product moment correlation regression). Results showed that the total mean cost incurred by farmers using child labour in rice production activities was N124, 800.00 per hectare. The Probit regression result showed that coefficients of site selection (-0.7338), tillage operations (-0.6498), harvesting (-0.6498), herbicide application (-0.5943) and bird scaring (0.47477) influenced rice production activities in the study area. The result of Pearson product moment correlation results showed that cost of labour had an indirect relationship with utilization of rice production activities in the study area. The study therefore recommends that child labour should be used for less strenuous activities by ensuring a conducive environment, thereby managing labour input activities to enhance utilization of rice production activities in the study area.</p> C. U. Nwaobiala Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 152 156 Analyses of production cost and marketing outlets for sweet potato farmers in Ebonyi State Nigeria <p>Despite the growing importance and known potential of sweet potato as food, animal feed and raw material; there is dearth of records of its production and marketing in Nigeria’s food system. The study sought to investigate production cost and marketing outlets of sweet potato among farmers in Ebonyi State. Primary data were collected from 400 small-scale sweet potato farmers in the area using a multi-stage sampling technique. The instruments used for data collection were interview schedule and focus group discussion (FGD). Data collected through these methods were analysed using descriptive statistics. FGD was analysed by transcribing responses of the discussants. Findings revealed that land preparation (per ha) constitute the highest cost of production among all the cost items with average cost of ₦25,912.30, also, average total cost of producing one hectare of sweet potato in the study area was ₦71,011.24, while the average sale of harvested produce was ₦249,363.87. This implies an average profit of ₦178,352.1 realized. The result shows that sweet potato production was profitable by generating ₦3.5 for every ₦1.00 spent. Village market was found to be the major marketing outlet in the study area. There is need therefore, for farmers to put more effort in enhanced cultivation by utilizing more land for sweet potato production. There also need for land reform policies to make more land available to sweet potato farmers for increased output and profit.</p> M. E. Ejechi Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 157 164 Econometric trend assessment and impact of climate change on cocoa output in Nigeria: 1975 – 2018 <p>The study assessed the trend and impact of climatic change on output of cocoa crop in Nigeria from 1975-2018. Secondary data were used for the study. The data were analyzed by means of log linear trend analysis, quadratic equation, means and percentages and ordinary least square regression. Findings showed that cocoa output and climatic parameters of rainfall, temperature, radiation, relative humidity and sunshine exhibited significant positive trends during the 1975 -2018 period. Cocoa output had a compound growth rate of 2.0% per annum, while the climatic parameters of temperature, rainfall, radiation, sunshine and relative humidity had a compound rate of growth of 0.1%, 0.7%, 0.9%, 1.5% and 0.8% per annum respectively. Cocoa output and temperature showed stagnation in growth during the period under study. There were no significant differences in the average rate of growth between either of cocoa and each pair of the selected climatic parameters considered. In the long run, cocoa output was influenced by current values of area harvested of cocoa, rainfall, relative humidity, sunshine and time variable, while, in the short run, cocoa output was influenced by one year lag values of area harvested of cocoa, cocoa output, rainfall, radiation, relative humidity, sunshine and temperature based on the specified model. There was a fast adjustment to long run equilibrium among the short run independent variables that estimated the response of cocoa output to climatic change. The study shows that climatic change affected the production of the cocoa in Nigeria within the period under study. It is therefore, recommended that, if cocoa output is to be increased and sustained, those activities that encourage global warming should be avoided where possible or reduced to a bearable minimum in Nigeria.</p> N. O. Aruocha Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 165 173 Determinants of rural youths participation in Pita-hybrid plantain production in Ngor-Okpala LGA, Imo State, Nigeria <p>This study was designed to analyze the determinants of Rural Youths participation in PITA-hybrid plantain production in Ngor-Okpala Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo State, Nigeria. Ninety (90) respondents were involved in the study using a multistage sampling procedure. Descriptive statistics and logit regression were employed in analysis. Majority (72.2%) of the respondents were males, married (60.0%), belong to cooperative society (83.3%), had access to land (83.3%), access to credit (77.8%) and had 1-2 contacts with extension agents (61.1%). Planting had the highest mean score ( = 4.00), followed by harvesting ( 3.91), land preparation ( =3.80), propagation material ( =3.41) and farm decision ( =3.08), indicating high level of participation. The major constraints were insufficient <em>PITA-Hybrid</em> suckers ( =3.37), followed by land acquisition ( = 3.16), poor attitude to farming ( =3.00) and poor market access ( =2.99). The coefficients for educational level, and attitude to farming were directly related to probability of participation in <em>pita-hybrid</em> plantain production among the youths and significant at 5% level each, as well as labour, and suitable agro-ecological conditions (1% level each), and farming experience (10% level). The coefficients for age and farm size had an indirect relationship with probability of participation in <em>pita-hybrid</em> plantain production among the youths and significant at 5% and 1% level respectively. The results therefore call for policies aimed at provision of free and affordable education to enable the youth’s access and process information on innovations that will enhance participation and increased production of plantains in the study area. To forestall negative effects of age and farm size might have on participation in PITA-Hybrid plantain production, a public enlightenment on poor attitude to farming in the rural areas will help in positively changing rural youths’ perception about farming and its economic implication.&nbsp;</p> J. I. K. Njoku Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 174 180 Gender differentials in labour source and utilization among rural rice farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria <p>In the light of the need to continue to supply food to the ever-growing Nigerian population which anchors on human labour productivity, this study analysed gender differentials in labour utilization and productivity among rice farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Data were collected through a multi-stage sampling technique and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation, Z-test and multiple regression. The result showed that a combination of family labour and hired sources contributed most of the labour supplied for rice production for female (71.6%) and male (88.3%) rice farmers in the area. It is evident from the result that male rice farmers were more productive than their female counterparts. Labour utilization of the male farmers was positively influenced by distance, farm size, land ownership, credit and education, and for female farmers; was positively influenced by distance, farm size, age, and credit and negative by household size and extension. Also labour productivity of the male farmers was positively influenced by distance, farm size, age and credit and negative by land ownership, while labour productivity of the female farmers was positively influenced by distance, farm size, age and credit and negative by land ownership. The study therefore recommends that farmers utilize their family labour efficiently in order to reduce the hired labour, thereby, leading to a decrease in the cost of rice production and increase in farm revenue. Also government and stakeholders should assist farmers through timely and adequate input supply and access to more land, creating effective services (especially credit) and enabling environment, for efficient utilization of agricultural inputs on farms, which will lead to enhanced productivity among the rice farmers.</p> S. O. Aigbokie Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 181 187 Market orientation, innovation adoption and performance of food crops farmers in Abia State, Nigeria <p>Food crop farmers, like other farmers, are faced with the challenge of producing sufficient crops to meet the ever-growing consumer demand in the face of limited resources. Specifically, the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of the food crop farmers, determined their level of commercialization, innovation and performance, estimated the relationship between commercialization, innovation and performance, and estimated the determinants of commercialization, innovation adoption and performance of the food crop farmers. The study adopted a multistage sampling technique in the selection of 60 respondents for the study. Structured questionnaire complimented with oral interview was used in collecting data from the respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The result showed that 68.33% of the respondents were married and the mean age of the respondent was 36.7 years. About 53.33% of the farmers were males and 90% of the food crop farmers had one form of formal education or the other. The mean years of farming experience and mean household size were 14.7 years and 6 persons per household, respectively. The major source of fund for their farming activities was from personal savings. Also, 75% of the farmers do not have contact with extension agents and 48.33% were members of farmers’ cooperative societies. The mean level of commercialization and adoption of innovation was 54.61% and 32.22% respectively. The result showed that food crop production was profitable as the farmers made a net return ₦246,200. There was a significant positive relationship between commercialization and innovation, and between innovation and performance. The significant determinants of commercialization were age (P&lt;0.01), years of education (P&lt;0.01), gender (P&lt;0.01), income (P&lt;0.01), farming experience (P&lt;0.05), labour (P&lt;0.01), distance to the market (P&lt;0.10), and depreciation (P&lt;0.01). The probit regression estimates showed that the significant determinants of adoption were age of the farmer (P&lt;0.01), gender (P&lt;0.01), educational attainment (P&lt;0.01), extension visits (P&lt;0.05), income (P&lt;0.01), access to credit (P&lt;0.01), cost of innovation adoption (P&lt;0.05) and membership of farmers association/cooperative society (P&lt;0.05). The significant variables influencing performance (measured by the net returns/profit from farming) of the food crop farmers were gender (P&lt;0.01), age (P&lt;0.01), education (P&lt;0.01), farming experience (P&lt;0.01), cooperative membership (P&lt;0.01), amount of credit received (P&lt;0.01), and transportation cost (P&lt;0.01). The study recommended that policies that would enhance farmers’ adoption of innovations such as strengthening the agricultural extension system which serve as channel for diffusion of innovations, and access to credit and agricultural inputs should be implemented for increased productivity and commercialization. There is also need for free and affordable educational policies that will enable the farmers’ access and process information on innovations that will enhance productivity and commercialization. Farmers are encouraged to form groups/cooperatives to be able access information, inputs and resources, thereby enhancing economics of scale</p> O. R. Iheke Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 188 200 Reactions and yield performance of three potato cultivars naturally infected with bacterial blackleg disease under irrigation practice <p>Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em>) has become an attractive winter crop in many arid irrigated areas where they are grown on relatively large commercial farms. Two field trials were conducted to assess Irish potato cultivars for their tolerance/reactions to natural infection of bacterial blackleg disease under irrigation practice. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.&nbsp; The incidence of blackleg disease in both first and second trials ranged from 1.70 to 100% with the highest (100%) recorded in Mirabel, which was highly significant (p≤0.05), 1.70% - 5.00% disease incidence recorded for Yellow and 15.00% and 16.70% in Christian Lady in both first trial and second trials respectively. Yellow cultivar had 89.60% and 94.50% emergence and these were significantly higher than 8.30% and 21.10% observed in Mirabel in both trials.&nbsp; The highest yield (2.06t/ha) was observed in Yellow cultivar followed by 1.86t/ha recorded for Christian Lady in second trial.&nbsp; Yellow cultivar was tolerant to bacterial blackleg, followed by Christian Lady, while Mirabel was susceptible.&nbsp; Yellow and Christian Lady cultivars proved to be promising cultivars in drought condition or low rainfall areas. Notwithstanding, Yellow cultivar was the most preferable for disease tolerant in drought conditions.</p> S. A. Ganiyu Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 212 218 Effects of different packaging materials on the chemical and sensory properties of moi-moi <p>The preparation of <em>moi-moi</em> usually involves wrapping of cowpea slurry with packaging materials such as broad leaves, aluminium foils, aluminium cans, nylon, plastic plate or stainless steel plate before cooking to form a gel. There are concerns that these packaging materials are pathways for the migration of hazardous substances into the food. The packaging materials and ingredients for <em>moi-moi</em> preparation were obtained from Ndoro Oboro periodic market, Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. The <em>moi-moi</em> mix was prepared using standard method and wrapped in the packaging materials listed before cooking. The proximate composition, heavy metals and volatile components of <em>moi-moi</em> samples were characterized using standard methods. The moisture, crude protein, fat and ash content of the samples were significantly affected by packaging material. The nickel content of the <em>moi-moi</em> samples ranged from 0.017 (in <em>moi-moi</em> cooked with plastic plate) to 0.335 mg/l (in <em>moi-moi</em> cooked with Aluminium foil). The cadmium content ranged from 0.031mg/l (in moi-moi cooked with leaves) to 0.092mg/l (in <em>moi-moi</em> cooked in aluminium foil). The aluminium content of the samples packaged in aluminium can and aluminium foil was significantly higher than that of the other samples. The lead content ranged from 0.009mg/l (in <em>moi-moi</em> packaged in stainless steel) to 0.036mg/l (in <em>moi-moi</em> packaged in plastic plate, aluminium can and nylon). A total of seventy seven (77) volatile compounds were identified in the <em>moi-moi</em> samples, some of which were suspected to have migrated from the packaging materials. Among which were Morphinan-4, 5-epoxy-3, 6-di-ol, 6,-[7-nitronenzofuran-4-yl] amino which was identified in <em>moi-moi</em> cooked in leaves and is a by-product of polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) used as pesticide. The compound;10-Acetoxy-2-hydroxy-1,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,9,10,11,12,12a,12b,13,14b octadecahydro present in the <em>moi-moi</em> packaged in nylon is likely to be a product of triacetin used for manufacturing food contact plastics. The results from this study indicate that packaging materials have significant effects on the proximate, heavy metals, sensory and volatile compounds composition of <em>moi-moi</em> produced from the same bean slurry.</p> V. C. Ezeocha Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 201 211 Comparative evaluation of physiological post-harvest root deterioration, total carotenoids, starch content and dry matter of selected cassava cultivars <p>Cassava root storage is limited by Post harvest Physiological deterioration (PPD), which renders cassava root unpalatable and unmarketable. The research work was aimed at analyzing delayed PPD, total carotenoids (TC), starch content (SC) and dry matter (DM) of some selected cassava cultivars and correlating the variables to ascertain their relationships. We planted twenty cassava cultivars at the western farm of the National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike which were replicated twice and the different cultivars served as the source of variation. The design of the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The cassava cultivars were harvested after the twelfth month of planting and root and shoot biomass taken. The roots obtained were taken to the laboratory to evaluate for PPD, TC, SC and DM. The results obtained were analysed using GENSTAT to obtain the ANOVA, Correlation Coefficient and the mean separated using LSD. The correlation result showed that PPD was inversely correlated to TC, although the association was weak. SC and DM were however, directly correlated to PPD. TC was inversely correlated to SC and DM, although their correlation was weak. SC and DM were directly and strongly correlated.</p> O. F. Udogu Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 219 226 Assessment of extrusion technique on physico-chemical property, microbial quality and anti-nutritional factors of extruded ready-to-eat snacks <p>Extruded breakfast snacks are considered microbiological and nutritionally safe to consume because the raw materials are subjected to high temperatures (higher than 150<sup>o</sup>C, which has been reported to reduce the anti-nutrients present in several legumes) and the product is dried to a minimal level of moisture content which prevents microbial growth. The formulated composite flour from African yam bean, pearl millet and tigernut produced ready-to-eat snacks (RTE) was developed using single screw extruder. The physic-chemical property, anti-nutritional factor, microbial quality and proximate composition of extruded products were evaluated. All raw materials were purchased from local open markets in Enugu and Ibadan. Results of physic-chemical property of RTE snacks ranged from 6.00- 6.15 (pH), loose and tapped bulk density (0.41- 0.59g/ml), water absorption capacity (1.90- 2.43g/ml), oil absorption capacity (1.73- 2.12g/ml) and swelling power (0.99-1.17g/ml). Anti-nutritional factor of RTE snacks showed decreasing order in oxalate and Phytate with decreasing level of African yam bean and increasing in substitution of pearl millet flours, while tannin content increased in the same order. Result of microbial quality exhibited zero coliform and acceptable bacterial counts ranging from 0.9x10<sup>2</sup> to 1.2x10<sup>2</sup>cfu/g. Proximate composition of RTE snacks displayed low moisture content (10%), protein (14%), fat (6%), ash (3%), fibre (4%), carbohydrate (66 %) and total energy (391 %). The outcome of this study displayed African yam bean, pearl millet and tigernut flours complementing each other when blended in the right proportions, thereby, producing nutrient-dense breakfast snack rich in physic-chemical properties, low microbial counts and minimal anti-nutritional factors.</p> O. F. J. Awofadeju Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 227 236 Economic analyses of gari processing in Ebonyi State, Nigeria <p>This study determined the economic analyses of <em>gari</em> processing in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A multi- stage random sampling technique was used for data collection, from the 300 respondents used for the study, with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The study showed that gari processing was economically viable as it generated an average gross margin and net farm income of ₦35, 000.00 and ₦24,500.00 respectively per 1000kg of cassava root processed. The major cost components of gari processing were found to be the total variable cost – mainly cassava root, labour, and transportation costs. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that age, gender, and cost of cassava roots had negative influence on profitability of gari processing and were statistically significant; while access to labour, years of processing experience, household size, income and access to credit had positive influence on the economic returns on gari processing and also significant. The results therefore call for policies aimed at encouraging more female gari processors who are still strong and agile to increase gari processing by provision of inputs and services at subsidized cost. These inputs and services are not limited to credit and labour saving devices to reduce the drudgery in processing. Processors should ensure that they source their raw materials from the cheapest sources possible.</p> S. E. Esheye Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 52 1 237 241 Impact of share prices of listed livestock-based companies on performance of the Nigerian livestock sub-sector <p>The performance of any sector of the economy is primarily determined by companies operating in such a sector. The performance of listed companies using livestock products as a primary raw material reflects in the prices in which their shares are traded in the stock market. This article examined the impact of listed livestock-based companies' share prices on the Nigerian livestock subsector's performance (1996- 2016). The specific objectives were to identify some listed livestock companies in the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE); examine the trend of share prices and the number of shares of the listed livestock companies; and examine the listed companies' short-run and long-run impact of share prices on the Nigerian livestock sector performance. The data were sourced from Nigeria Stock Exchange and the World Bank Development Indicators, while descriptive statistics, unit root test, Johnsen cointegration, and error correction models were applied for the data analysis. The result showed that some listed livestock companies in the Nigerian Stock exchange are Livestock Feed Nigeria PLC, Nestle Nigeria PLC, and UAC Nigeria PLC. The livestock-based companies quoted in the NSE have a long-run impact on Nigeria's livestock sub-sector performance. The livestock sub-sectors long-term performance is hinged on the stock of companies operating in the sector. The government and entrepreneurs therefore, should invest more in companies operating in the sector<strong>.</strong></p> W. E. Egwu Copyright (c) 2017 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2017-04-30 2017-04-30 52 1 256 261 Profit analyses and determinants of value added rice among farmers in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the practice of value addition among rice farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study looked at the various constraints militating against value added rice in the study area, and factors affecting profitability within the value chain. Fifty rice farmers (respondents) were drawn at random from Abakaliki metropolis, for detailed analyses. Primary data were obtained through a well-structured questionnaire. The descriptive statistics used were frequency counts and percentages, and the predictors of rice value addition profit were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that 60% of the farmers sold rice as paddy, while 40% added value to their harvests. Lack of fund to expand the value addition enterprise was identified by 42% of the farmers as the major constraint to their desire to develop the rice value addition enterprise. The regression analysis revealed that cooperative membership, rice value addition as a primary occupation, household size, cost of labour, packaging and bagging are the significant and positively influenced the profit of rice value addition while the costs of purchasing seeds, paying for rent, and transportation were significant and negatively related to the profitability of the rice value addition farm enterprise. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that extended credit facilities should be employed to aid farmers to adopt innovations to prevent losses before and after harvest. There is also need for policies aimed at encouraging the formation of cooperatives societies among farmers to enable them reap the economics of scale within the value chain.</p> W. E. Egwu Copyright (c) 2021 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 52 1 273 278