Relationship of oral hygiene status and practices with oral lesions in a group of HIV positive patients in Lagos, Nigeria
AbstractObjective: The oral health of HIV positive patients may be compromised because of their depressed immunity and may increase their risk of developing some oral lesions. This study was carried out to assess the relationship of the oral hygiene status and practices with oral lesions in HIV positive patients at a dedicated HIV clinic in Nigeria. Method: A cross sectional study of adult HIV positive patients aged 18 years and above at the HIV outpatient clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Data on age, gender, marital status, level of education and oral hygiene practices were collected. Their CD4 counts were recorded. Oral examination was carried out on all patients to assess their oral hygiene status using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Oral lesions were recorded when present. Result: A total of 134 HIV positive patients were seen, most (71.6%) of whom had never visited a dentist. The mean oral hygiene index (OHI-S) score of the patients was 1.85 and 55.2% had a fair oral hygiene status. The majority (77.6%) cleaned their teeth once daily. Oral candidiasis and linear gingival erythema (LGE) were the two most prevalent oral lesions being 26.1% and 11.2% respectively. The mean oral hygiene index (OHI-S) score was higher in males [2.10] compared with females [1.71] (p<0.05), in patients who had never visited the dentist [1.99] compared with those who had visited the dentist previously [1.49] (p<0.05) and in patients with linear gingival erythema compared with those without the lesion (p< 0.05).The CD4 + Tlymphocyte count was not associated with the OHI-S (p>0.05). Conclusion: Poorer oral hygiene was significantly associated with male gender, no previous dental visits and linear gingival erythema lesions in the HIV positive patients in this study. Regular oral health education programmes should be incorporated into the treatment protocol of HIV positive patients at the HIV clinic to improve their overall health status.
Keywords: Oral hygiene, linear gingival erythema, HIV, Nigeria
Nig Dent J Vol 20 No. 1 Jan - June 2012