Endoscopic Findings in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Kano, North-Western Nigeria

  • BM Tijjani
  • MM Borodo
  • AA Samaila

Abstract

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common medical condition that results in high morbidity and mortality, especially if not properly and aggressively managed. Identification of cause of bleeding is paramount towards effective management. The aim of this study was to determine the common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Kano, Nigeria, with a view to formulating rational protocol/armamentarium for its management. Records of all patients referred with upper gastrointestinal bleeding to the endoscopy unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital from September 2001 to September 2006 were retrieved from the endoscopy register. Relevant demographic information and findings at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were noted. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 10.0. A total of 1117 patients had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for various indications during the study period, and 85 (7.3%) of these were for UGIB. The mean age of patients with UGIB was 43.2 + 13.5 (Range: 17-75 years) and the male: female ratio was 3.04: 1. Out of the 85 cases with UGIB, oesophageal varices were seen in thirty one (36.5%), forty five (52.9%) had peptic ulcer disease or erosions while gastric cancer and oesophageal cancer were seen in 3(3.5%) and 1(1.2%) of cases respectively. The probable cause of bleeding could not be found in 3 (3.5%) of the patients. Peptic ulcer disease and erosions are the commonest endoscopic findings associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our environment. Oesophageal varices however account for a large proportion of cases seen in Kano, North-Western part of Nigeria.

Key Words: Endoscopic, findings, upper, gastrointestinal, bleeding, Kano.

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