Effects of Caffeine from Different Kola Nut Extracts on Kidney and Liver Functions of Male Wistar Rats
The effect of caffeine from different kola nut extracts on kidney and liver functions of male wistar rats were investigated using standard methods. Twelve male wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D made up of 3 rats each. The control group (A) received water + food ad libitum, group B received kola nitida (rubra) extract 600mg/kg body weight + water + food ad libitum, group (C) received kola nitida (vera) extract 600mg/kg body weight + water + food ad libitum, and group (D) received kola acuminata extract 600mg/ kg body weight + water + food ad libitum by oral administration for 28 days. The results showed that caffeine from different kola nuts had various effects on kidney and liver functions of the wistar rats. Administration of kola nitida (vera) significantly increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, with increases in urea, chloride, and sodium concentrations. Kola acuminata consumption resulted in an increase in total bilirubin, sodium, chloride, urea, creatinine levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Administration of kola nitida (rubra) resulted in very high increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities as well as rise in creatinine, urea, chloride, total protein, total bilirubin levels and significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. This study seems to suggest that frequent consumption of kola nuts might present some of these negative effects on the kidney and liver functions of humans.
Keywords: Kola nuts, kidney function, liver function, liver enzymes, caffeine.