Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha (Digitaria exilis staph) Enriched with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp) Flour
Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method and evaluated for loaf height, loaf volume, loaf weight and sensory characteristics. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in level of cowpea flour addition, but moisture content was not significantly (p > 0.05) different among the blends. Functional properties, with exception of bulk density and swelling capacity, were significantly (p < 0.05) different among the blends. Average loaf height and loaf volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased cowpea flour but loaf weight showed opposite trend with significant (p < 0.05) differences as
cowpea flour increased. However, the addition of cowpea flour significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the loaf specific volume but all enriched samples were not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Bread samples from composited blends were rated lower than bread from all wheat bread. Bread loaves from enriched composite flour with up to 10% cowpea flour were acceptable to the panelists.
Keywords: Bread, acha, protein, enrichment, acceptability