Nigerian Food Journal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj <p>The Nigerian Food Journal (NIFOJ) is a peer-reviewed journal designed to contribute towards the development of new and improved food sources and products based on sound research. NIFOJ is also designed for effective communication of special attributes and advantages of food products as well as focus on the activities of the food industry in Nigeria. The journal publishes pure and applied food science and technological research to promote knowledge sharing and nutrition development in all aspects of the food processing and consumption value chain. Aspects covered in NIFOJ include food chemistry, food engineering, food microbiology, food packaging, food preservation, food safety, new product development, and sensory analysis.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="www.nifst.org" href="http://www.nifst.org" target="_blank">www.nifst.org</a></p> University Press Plc en-US Nigerian Food Journal 0189-7241 <div class="WordSection1"><p>© Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology 2018</p></div><p>All Rights Reserved</p> Comparative Evaluation of Blood Glucose Regulating Potential of CocaCola Zero Coke and Common Coke https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj/article/view/207747 <p>Current changes in lifestyle due to increasing incidence of diabetics, high blood pressure, stroke and obesity have made people to be skeptical on their sugar intake. In compliance to this, Coca-Cola introduced Diet Coke, CaffeineFree Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar among others. Blood glucose regulating potential between Zero and common Coke was compared using 25 male student participants randomly selected from volunteers of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Abia State Nigeria for the study. They were given each a bottle of 35 cl of Zero Coke, 35 cl common Coke and 50 g glucose (standard) at different days after 12 h fasting and their blood sugar levels were measured at every 15 min intervals for 2 h on each day. The results showed that Zero Coke<br>decreased the blood sugar level from 78.28 (0 min) to 78.00 (15 min), increased same thereafter to 85.76 (60 min) and decreased to 75.96 (120 min) lower than common Coke and the standards. Common Coke increased from 91.44 (0 min) to 115.60 (15 min) and finally decreased from 95.76 (60 min) to 81.68 (120 min). Mean glycemic index of Zero Coke (11.095) was significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower than common Coke (31.140). Glycemic index of the individual participants for Zero Coke was less than 14 while that of common Coke ranged from 15 to 64.The incremental area under curve (IAUC) for Zero Coke was 377.46 and normal Coke was 1173.20. Zero Coke significantly lowered blood glucose than common Coke.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Blood glucose, glycemic index, Zero Coke, common Coke. </p> I.N. Okwunodulu V.O. Maduka M.O. Iwe Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 38 1 1 8 Shelf Life Extension of Food Using Hurdle Technology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj/article/view/207749 <p>This review covers the meaning, reasons, mechanisms, types and effectiveness of hurdles, cost implications, merits and the future of hurdle technology. Hurdle technology is a smart, effective, efficient and intelligent combination of preservation techniques to achieve microbial safety and stability of foods as well as to retain their organoleptic and nutritional quality, together with the economic viability of food products. Mechanisms of hurdle technology through which it destroys micro-organisms include homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion (auto-sterilization), stress reaction and multi-target preservation. The types of hurdles include physical, physico-chemical, microbial and emerging/novel hurdles and their combined application give rise to hurdle effects like microbial safety, nutritional and organoleptic quality retention of food. More importantly, the intelligent use and effective combination of some hurdles like pulsed<br>electric field, thermal process/heat, ozone, pressure, uv-light, microwave, gamma irradiation and electrolyzed water is very important in achieving optimal results in terms of microbial inactivation, sensory and nutritional quality of food products. Hurdle technology offers better promise in inactivating target microorganisms, food shelf life extension, quality retention and reduction of undesired effects than the conventional food preservation methods. The present contribution reviews recent researches on shelf life extension of foods using hurdle technology with special attention on the combined hurdles and microbial log reduction.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Preservation, hurdle, hurdle technology, microbial, thermal. </p> C.C. Ezegbe C.S. Anarado H.O. Agu J.E. Obiegbuna K.S. Okocha Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 38 1 9 22 Volatile Bioactive Components of Boiled and Roasted African Walnut (<i>Tetracapidium conophorum</i>) Extracts Using GC-MS https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj/article/view/207750 <p>The effects of processing (boiling and roasting) on the bioactive components of African walnut extracts using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was investigated. The dried powder of the raw, boiled and roasted African walnuts was extracted using n-hexane. All the prepared extracts were analyzed by GC-MS to identify and characterize the volatile compounds present in the crude extracts. GC-MS results revealed the presence of 13, 13 and 16 volatile compounds in raw, boiled and roasted extracts respectively. The most prevailing compounds were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)- (67.61%) in raw extract, 9,12,15-otadecatrienoic acid, (Z, Z,Z)- (30.33%) in boiled extract and Ethyl 9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (54.04%) in roasted extract. The results show that processing, particularly roasting, has effects on the bioactive components of the African walnut extracts. However, the extracts of the raw and boiled African walnut possess major bioactive compounds and further identification of different biologically active compounds in the roasted extracts could be studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Extraction, bioactive compounds, African walnut, GC-MS, volatile. </p> O.B. Ogunmoyela T.I. Ojo Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 38 1 23 33 Molecular Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from “Nono” and Yoghurt Consumed in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj/article/view/207751 <p>Milk is vitally important for young animals and has great nutritional value. This study aims to detect MecA gene in the <em>S. aureus</em> isolated from Nono.Three hundred and eighty-four (384) milk samples (Nono and yoghurt) were purchased from different selling points and were evaluated for the occurrence of S. aureus .Of the 384 samples examined, 104 (27.1%) samples were contaminated with <em>S. aureus.</em> The antibacterial susceptibility testing of the isolates of <em>S. </em><em>aureus</em> examined showed sensitivity to<em> Oxacillin (100%), Tetacycline (23.3%), Cefoxitin (18.6%), Clindamycin (23.3%), </em><em>Erythromycin 1(2.3%), Vancomycin 1(2.3%), </em>and<em> Chloramphenicol 1 (2.3%). Staphylococcal enterotoxin</em> investigation was carried out, 19 of the isolates were found to produce one or more staphylococcal enterotoxin. All the isolates were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin. Most of the isolates tested exhibited multiple antibiotic resistances. Only one of the isolates was genotypically confirmed as MRSA and MecA positive. This calls for a better control of the spread of the antibiotic resistant strains and the contamination of milk sources. There should be proper pasteurization of raw milk and proper hygienic handling to help eliminate MRSA before human consumption.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: MecA Gene, <em>Staphylococcus aureus,</em> antibiotic resistance, milk, enterotoxin.</p> F.A. Abdurahman I.O. Abdullahi S. Emiade C.M.Z. Whong Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 38 1 34 43 Evaluation of Preservative Efficacy of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Garlic (<i>Allium sativum L.</i>) on Soybean Daddawa – A Condiment https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj/article/view/207752 <p>On the understanding that lipid peroxidation is a key factor in soybean daddawa deterioration and Alliums are rich in antioxidants, this study was carried out to investigate the preservative efficacies of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic on stored soybean daddawa compared with common salt (sodium chloride). Soybean (Glycine max (L). Merr.). Seeds fermented into soybean daddawa were preserved with both extracts (at 3, 5 and 7% concentration) and NaCl (at the concentrations of 0, 3 and 5%). All samples were stored at 30±20 C for 14 days and analysed for peroxide value (POV) (meq/kg of extracted oil), free fatty acid (FFA) (% oleic acid), pH, titratable acidity (TTA) ((mg lactic acid per g)), water absorption capacity (WAC) (%) and fat absorption capacity (FAC)(g/ml). The POV of stored daddawa without preservative (0 % NaCl) increased from 3.92 to 17.00 while those of sodium chloride treated daddawa increased from 3.70 to 12.20. On the contrary, in both garlic aqueous extract and garlic ethanolic extract treated daddawa, the POV range recorded at the end of storage were 4.17 – 4.20 and 4.92 – 5.80 respectively. Similarly, at the end of storage, a significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower values of FFA (0.003 – 0.004) and TTA (0.040 – 0.067) were observed in garlic extract treated daddawa compared with 0.018 – 0.068 and 0.069 – 0.092 that were respectively obtained in control samples. Solvent used in extraction did not have significant (P&gt;0.05) effect on all the storage quality indices. The pH of stored soybean daddawa samples treated with garlic extracts (7.99 – 8.74) was not significantly (P&gt;0.05) different from both the positive (8.04 – 8.72) and negative (8.26 – 8.76) control treated daddawa. At the end of 14 days of storage, both the WAC (135 – 145) and FAC (0.6 – 0.7) of garlic extracts treated soybean daddawa were not significantly (P&gt;0.05) different from 150 – 155 and 0.6 – 0.8 that were respectively observed in control samples. Results of the present study indicate that both garlic extracts could be considered as a probable alternative for preservation of soybean daddawa even at 3 % preservative&nbsp; concentration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antioxidant, garlic, NaCl, preservation, soybean daddawa </p> Adelodun Lawrence Kolapo Temitope O. Sunday Popoola Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 38 1 44 53 Quality of Chin-Chin from Blends of Bambara Groundnut (<i>Vigna subterranean</i> (L) Verdc.) and Pro-Vitamin A Fortified Sweet Potato (<i>Ipomoea batatas</i> (L) Lam) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj/article/view/207753 <p>The quality attributes of chin-chin from blends of Orange Flesh Sweet Potato (OFSP) and Red Bambara groundnut (RBG) were investigated. The OFSP and Red Bambara groundnut (RBG) were processed into flours. The OFSP and RBG flours were blended in ratios 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 (OFSP:RBG). The flour blends were used to prepare chin-chin. Chin-chin prepared from 100% wheat flour served as control. The raw OFSP, RBG and chin-chin were analyzed for chemical composition. The chin-chin samples were analyzed for sensory characteristics using standard methods. The OFSP flour contained 2.85±0.02% crude protein and 6.26±0.13mg/100g total β-carotene while RBG flour had 21.63±0.56% crude protein and 1.75±0.04 mg/100g total β-carotene. The crude protein contents of flour<br>blends ranged from 12.95±0.05 to 16.87±0.02% while the total β-carotene ranged from 2.22±0.05 mg/100g to 6.20±0.09 mg/100g. The crude protein contents of the chin-chin from flour blends ranged between 10.71% and 13.78%.The total β-carotene ranged between 0.85±0.6 mg/100g and 5.27 mg/100g. The chin-chin containing 40 and 69 % RBG were not significantly different from the 100% wheat chin-chin in all the sensory attributes studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sweet potato, bambara, high-protein, vitamin A, chin-chin </p> A.A. Obomeghei P.A. Ebabhamiegbebho A.O. Olorunda A.A. Olapade Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 38 1 54 66 Quality Assessment of Vended ‘Pito’ and Safety Practices of Vendors in Different Markets in Ibadan https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj/article/view/207754 <p>This study was mainly carried out to assess the quality of street vended ‘Pito’ in some selected markets in Ibadan, Oyo State. The safety of street vending practices was also assessed. The chemical (proximate and physicochemical composition), microbiological and observational check list of eight street vended ‘Pito’ samples collected from four markets (Agbeni, Ogunpa, Beere and Bodija) in Ibadan, Oyo state were investigated. The result showed that street vended ‘Pito’ is significantly (p&lt;0.05) high in moisture, low in protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate. Total coliform, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp were within specification limits of microbiological quality while total viable count (TVC) and total fungi were above the limits. Significant (p&lt;0.05) differences exist among the samples in their chemical composition, microbiological and colour parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Microbial quality, street vended, ‘pito’ , sorghum based beverage, hygiene practice. </p> A.T. Omidiran K.T. Ogunlana O.P. Sobukola O.O. Akinbule Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 38 1 67 75 Optimization of Drying Conditions and Effect of Storage on Some Quality Attributes of Tomato Powder https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nifoj/article/view/207755 <p>Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L) fruit is rich in nutrient and antioxidant properties. Drying accelerates some reactions that adversely affect the product quality especially nutritional value. Optimization of the drying process for Eva tomato was conducted to obtain a powder with high nutritional value and functional properties. The physical, chemical and microbiological properties of fresh Eva tomato fruit were determined. Central composite design of response surface methodology was used to obtain 13 combinations of drying temperature (60-70 ° C) and drying time (12-18 h). Tomato powder samples from the experimental runs were analyzed for chemical, functional and antioxidant properties using standard laboratory procedures. Tomato powder dried at optimum drying conditions were stored in low density polyethylene (LDPE) and laminated aluminum foil (LAF)] for three months at room temperature (28±2 °C) and analyzed for selected properties. Optimum tomato powder was obtained at 66.32 °C for 16 h and characterized by moisture (9.91%), lycopene (45.67 mg/100 g), vitamin C (15.23 mg/100 g), and redness (53.46) among other properties. Generally, an increase in the drying temperature and drying time caused a decrease in moisture content, β-carotene, pH, and bulk density while ash, total soluble solid, total titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, lycopene, non-enzymatic browning, total phenol, antioxidant activity, scavenging activity, bulk density, water absorption capacity and solubility content increased. Optimized powder stored in LAF had better properties.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Tomato, drying, optimization, food quality.</p> O.R. Adeleke G.O Olatunde T.A. Shittu O.O. Onabanjo Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 38 1 76 89