Nigerian Food Journal <p>The Nigerian Food Journal (NIFOJ) is a peer-reviewed journal designed to contribute towards the development of new and improved food sources and products based on sound research. NIFOJ is also designed for effective communication of special attributes and advantages of food products as well as focus on the activities of the food industry in Nigeria. The journal publishes pure and applied food science and technological research to promote knowledge sharing and nutrition development in all aspects of the food processing and consumption value chain. Aspects covered in NIFOJ include food chemistry, food engineering, food microbiology, food packaging, food preservation, food safety, new product development, and sensory analysis.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> University Press Plc en-US Nigerian Food Journal 0189-7241 <div class="WordSection1"><p>© Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology 2018</p></div><p>All Rights Reserved</p> Effect of Oil and Lime Water Treatment and Storage on Some Quality Parameters of Quail Shell Eggs <p>Sixteen (16) quail shell eggs were selected at random for initial quality determination (Haugh unit, moisture content and pH) from a total of one hundred and sixty (160) quail shell eggs. The remaining one hundred and forty-four (144) eggs were divided into four groups of thirty-six (36) eggs each. One of the groups had no treatment and it served as the control. The other three groups were treated with lime water, oil and a combination of oil and lime water respectively. The Haugh unit which is a major quality determinant in egg decreased with increase in storage time. The moisture content and pH increased with increase in storage time which is an indication of deterioration in quality of the eggs. The Haugh unit of untreated eggs decreased from 82.30 to 64.90, which was the least value of all the treatments, the yolk and the albumen could not separate on day 27 of the storage period. Oil + lime water treated eggs had the highest Haugh unit value (82.30 to 69.63), followed by the oil treated (82.30 to 68.59) and then the lime water treated (82.30 to 65.35). The result showed that the treatment of freshly laid quail eggs with oil and lime water retains its internal quality by reducing rate of quality decline.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Shell coating, moisture content, pH.</p> O.M.M. Nwadi T.F. Maduekwe T.M. Okonkwo Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 1 6 Production and Evaluation of Gari-Analog from Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato and Soybean <p>The production and evaluation of gari-analog from orange fleshed sweet potato and soybean was studied. Gari-analog was produced from orange fleshed sweet potato and soybean respectively at the following ratios; 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 with gari from 100% cassava serving as reference. The gari samples produced were subjected to physicochemical, pasting and sensory analysis using standard methods. The dry matter content of the gari-analogs (90.09-92.07%) was higher than that of the control (86.38%) and reduced with increase in soybean inclusion. The protein, fat and ash content of the gari-analogs were significantly higher than that of the control. The total carotenoid content of the gari-analogs ranged from 1192.52mg/100g (70% orange fleshed sweet potato: 30% soybean gari-analog) to 2786.96mg/100g (100% orange fleshed sweetpotato gari-analog). However, the carotenoid content(1.95 mg/100g) of the control was significantly low. The water absorption capacity of the gari-analogs was significantly lower than that of the control while the wettability of the gari-analogs was significantly higher than that of the control. The peak and final viscosities of the control was significantly higher than the gari-analogs. However, the reverse is the case for the setback viscosity. The pasting temperature of the gari-analogs is significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher than that of the reference sample. The reference sample was more preferred by the panelists than the gari-analogs in terms of appearance, taste, mouldability and general acceptability. However, the gari-analogs were all acceptable. This study revealed that an acceptable gari-analog can be produced from blend of sweet potato and soybean with enhanced nutritive value.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Orange fleshed sweet potato, gari-analog, soybean, evaluation.</p> Chinelo Vanessa Ezeocha Ruth Munachimso Ofodile Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 7 14 Effect of Nisin and Selected Essential Oils on the Physicochemical, Microbiological Properties and Storage Stability of Wara, a Local Cheese in Nigeria <p>Preservation of Nigerian soft-white cheese (wara) with selected essential oils and nisin was investigated. Physicochemical and microbiological analysis was carried out periodically on the wara samples stored at 4<sup>o</sup>C and 25<sup>o</sup>C according to standard methods. The pH of the samples decreased overtime with a range from 4.28-6.73 while, lipid oxidation activity values ranged from 3.03 – 6.60 with higher values recorded in samples kept at 25oC. There was an increase in acidity and water activity values overtime at both storage temperatures. Untreated wara showed higher microbial loads compared to treated samples at both storage temperatures which increased marginally overtime with those stored at 25<sup>o</sup>C having higher microbial count. Total plate count, lactic acid bacteria count and yeast-mould count ranged from 0.94×10<sup>2</sup>-13.84 × 10<sup>4</sup>, 0.78 × 10<sup>2</sup>-56.02 × 10<sup>3</sup> and 0.00 x 10<sup>2</sup>-27.44 × 10<sup>2</sup>, respectively. This study revealed that the application of the essential oils and nisin coupled with storage at 4<sup>o</sup>C was able to preserve to some extent the microbiological quality of wara without affecting negatively its physicochemical properties and thus constitute a reliable alternative for the preservation of wara.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Wara, nisin, essential oils, microbial count, physicochemical.</p> O. Animashaun Y. Akinleye Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 15 23 Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Home-Made Noodles from Wheat, Bambara Nut and Carrot Composite Flours <p>In this study, the quality of home-made wheat noodles enriched with bambara nut and carrot flours, with respect to their proximate composition, minerals, vitamins and sensory properties, were investigated following standard methods. The proximate results showed significant improvements in crude protein (9.30 to 14.94 %), crude fibre (1.10 to 2.85 %), crude fat (5.26 to 7.41 %) and ash (1.25 to 1.60 %) following fortification with bambara nut flour. The mineral content of the noodles recorded improvements in calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorus following the addition of bambara nut. Significant improvement in pro-vitamin A content from undetectable amount to as high as 607 μg/100 g was observed following enrichment with carrot flour. Sensory evaluation revealed that the home-made noodles (except 100 % bambara flour noodle) were generally acceptable in terms of the sensory parameters analysed. The optimized product had 60.65 % more protein when compared to the control.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Extrusion, underfive, extruder, malnutrition, home-made.</p> G.E. Onah J.O. Abu M.I. Yusuf Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 24 33 Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Biochemical Properties and Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of Unblanched and Blanched Wild Lettuce Leaf <p>Wild lettuce, an underutilized leafy vegetable, contains essential nutrients and bioactive compounds to manage diseases. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity, biochemical properties and blood glucose lowering potential of unblanched and blanched wild lettuce leaf. Fresh wild lettuce leaves were processed into flours to obtain blanched (95±1<sup>o</sup>C, 2 min.) (BF) and unblanched leaf flour (UBF) samples. The UBF and BF were respectively used to substitute 20, 30 and 40% of maize flour. The chemical composition, antioxidant activity and in vivo hypoglycaemic effects of the samples were evaluated. The crude protein and fibre contents of the UBF and BF ranged from 34.0-35.6 and 8.9-9.9 g/100g, respectively. The phosphorous (255.8-283.0 mg/100g) was the most abundant element in the blends. The Ca/P and Na/K molar ratios for the UBF and BF samples were 0.64-0.93 and 0.84-0.92, respectively. The concentrations of the phytochemicals in the BF were lower than those of the UBF, except for oxalate and flavonoid. The antioxidant activities of UBF were higher for the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl and ferric-reducing than those of the BF, but lower in iron chelating and nitric oxide radicals. The blood glucose reduction (%) potential of the UBF and the BF in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were dose dependent, and the values varied from 46.4 - 82.7 and 28.8 - 83.4, respectively. Wild lettuce leaf flour contained bioactive compounds with antioxidant and blood glucose lowering potential. Hence, wild lettuce leaf may be suitable as an antidiabetic agent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Phytochemicals, antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, wild lettuce biochemical parameters.</p> Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi Olamide Abigael Akande Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 34 43 Standardization, Proximate Composition, Mineral Contents and Mineral Ratios of Selected Indigenous Soups in South-West, Nigeria <p>This study standardized and determined the proximate composition, mineral contents and mineral ratios of selected standardized indigenous soups commonly consumed in South-Western, Nigeria. Data on recipes of fifteen selected soups were obtained from 750 housewives living in major cities of Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States in South-West Nigeria, using semi-structured questionnaire. Recipe was standardized and used to prepare the soups. Soup samples were analysed for the proximate and mineral composition using standard methods. The mineral ratios of the soups were calculated. The moisture, ash, crude fibre, fat, protein and carbohydrate contents of the soups ranged from 48.67/100g to 74.83g/100g, 3.44g/100g to 7.99g/100g, 4.10g/100g to 8.65g/100g, 3.00 g/100g to 25.00g/100g, 4.22 g/100g to 6.82 g/100g and 2.52g/100g to 30.41g/100g, respectively. The calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron and zinc contents ranged from 4.22mg/100g to 466.84mg/100g, 400.00mg/100g to 92.47mg/100g, 88.65 mg/100g to 90.21mg/100g, 42.21mg/100g to 222.01mg/100g, 1.08 mg/100g to 9.40 mg/100g and 0.31 mg/100g to 4.30 mg/100g, respectively. All the soups had high sodium to potassium ratio and calcium to phosphorus ratio but low iron to zinc ratio in relation to the standards. Cotton seed soup and igbo soups had higher protein content while black soup and <em>efinrin</em> soup had higher fat content than other soups. All the soups are good sources of minerals. However, cocoyam leaf soup and cassava leaf soup had low iron content compared to other soups.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Indigenous soups, macronutrient contents, mineral contents and mineral ratios.</p> O.O. Akinbule C.A. Oladoyinbo A.S. Akinbule A.T. Omidiran A.A. Oloyede I.D. Onaneye R.O. Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 44 56 Optimisation of Microwave Drying of Tomatoes (<i>Solanum lycopersicum L.</i>) Slices Using Taguchi Method <p>The effect of the processing parameters on the microwave drying of tomatoes was investigated and the process was optimized by using Taguchi technique. Pretreatments (water blanching (WAB), ascorbic acid (ASA) and sodium metabisulphite (SMB)), slice thickness (4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm) and microwave power level (90W, 180W and 360W) were the parameters used in the study. The increase in microwave power accelerated the drying process, thus shortening the drying time. The drying rate curves indicated the absence of a constant-rate drying rate period in the entire drying process combinations under study. It was found that the pretreatment with SMB along with 4 mm thick tomato slice and 360 W for microwave oven drying were the best processing combination within the experimental domain considered in the present study. Thus, this is the best level that can guarantee minimum drying time and time of exposure of the samples to drying microwave power thereby retaining the qualities of the dried tomatoes. The results found in this study can be applied to industrial designs and operational guides for the microwave drying of tomato slices.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Optimisation, microwave drying, drying kinetics, tomatoes, Taguchi technique.</p> J.B. Hussein M.O. Oke J.A. Adeyanju M.S. Sanusi Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 57 71 Biochemical Changes During Controlled Fermentation of Cottonseed (<I>Gossypium hirsutum L</I>.) for Owoh Production <p>This study investigated changes in the carbohydrate, protein and fat contents during controlled fermentation of cottonseeds. Four bacterial isolates, <em>Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumulis, Bacillus licheniformis</em> and <em>Staphylococcus spp</em>. were used separately for controlled fermentation of cottonseeds for 72 h, and residual composition of sugars, gossypol and amino acids were estimated every 24 h, while fatty acid profile was done at the end of fermentation. Cottonseed fermented spontaneously served as control. Fermentation of cottonseed with <em>Bacillus spp. </em>and <em>Staphylococcus spp.</em> resulted in cottonseed oil with high concentration of linolenic, linoleic and arachidonic acids. Percentage sucrose content varied significantly (p&lt;0.05), and Bacillus subtilis fermented cottonseed had the highest (6.17%) while the spontaneously fermented cottonseed had the lowest (4.31%) after 24 h of fermentation. Glucose increased from 1.62 to 2.26%, 1.90%, 1.84%, 1.78% and 1.90% in cottonseed fermented with <em>Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumulis, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus spp.</em> and spontaneously fermented cottonseed, respectively. Residual galactose was found to be highest in <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> fermented cottonseeds at 48 h (1.37%) and 72h (1.29%). <em>Bacillus pumulis</em> and <em>Staphylococcus spp</em>. showed highest degree of gossypol degradation after 24 h of fermentation, while spontaneous fermentation recorded the least. There was a general reduction in free amino acids after 24 h of fermentation. Amino acids reduced in all the samples after 72 h of fermentation with the exception of alanine and phenylalanine, which increased slightly in <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and spontaneously fermented cottonseeds. This study showed that degradation of nutrients in cottonseeds varied with type of bacteria isolate used for fermentation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Bacillus spp</em>., condiment, controlled fermentation, cottonseed, <em>Staphyloccus spp.</em></p> O.O. Ezekiel A.K. Adeniyi O.E. Adedeji Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 72 80 Effect of Sources of Fibre on Some Quality Characteristics of High Fibre Bread <p>Effect of sources of fibre on some quality parameters of high fibre bread was investigated. Bread samples were produced from the substitution of wheat flour with fibre produced from maize, sorghum and beans coat processed from wet and dry milled grains as follows: 20% dry milled maize bran : 80% wheat flour (Sample 1B); 10% dry milled sorghum bran : 90% wheat flour (Sample 2A); 10% bean coat : 90% wheat flour (Sample 3A); 10% wet milled maize bran : 90% wheat flour (Sample 4A); 10% wet milled sorghum bran : 90% wheat flour (Sample 5A) and 100% whole-meal flour serve as control (Sample A). There was no significant difference in the proximate composition of the bread samples incorporated with bran and that of the whole-meal bread, (p&gt;0.05); in moisture (28.55-30.96%), protein (11.11- 13.70%), fat (1.89-4.48%), and carbohydrate (50.64-56.25%) content. There was a significant difference in ash and crude fibre of the whole wheat bread and the rest of the samples. Bread incorporated with 10% Sorghum bran obtained by wet milled grains showed quality parameters similar to that of whole-meal bread when compared with the rest of the samples. The result of the physical properties showed no significant difference in loaf weight (481-508 g), loaf volume (194-217 cm<sup>3</sup>) and loaf specific volume (1.88-2.62 cm<sup>3</sup>/g) of all the samples when compared with the control sample (499 g, 209 cm<sup>3</sup>, 2.39 cm3/g) except in the sample containing beans fibre. Rheological characteristics of the flour blends revealed that all the samples had similar properties relating to starch behaviour during heating and cooling period. This study has shown that cereal bran processed from either dry or wet milling process could be used as possible substitute in the production of high fibre bread.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Cereal bran, high fibre bread, quality, rheological properties.</p> Aminat O. Adelekan Promise N. Ogboa Isaac A. Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 81 91 Quality Evaluation of Wheat and Defatted Cashew Nut-Based Cookies <p>The effect of substituting defatted cashew nut flour for wheat flour on the functional properties of wheat and defatted cashew nut flour blends, and cookies quality were studied. The bulk density, water absorption, oil absorption, foaming and emulsion capacities of the blends ranged from 0.68 to 0.74 g/cm3, 1.05 to 1.10 g/g, 0.98 to 2.07 g/g, 7.51 to 11.43% and 58.67 to 73.33% respectively. Peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity, set back viscosity, final viscosity, pasting temperature and peak time ranged from 148.05 to 231.30 RVU, 112.55 to 152.60 RVU, 35.50 to 78.70 RVU, 178.60 to 267.05 RVU, 66.05 to 114.45 RVU, 86.38 to 89.65 oC and 5.53 to 6.05 min respectively. Moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and energy value ranged from 12.01 to 12.62 %, 13.00 to 28.00 %, 16.49 to 22.96%, 0.10 to 1.63%, 1.00 to 1.97%, 34.32 to 56.43% and 426.13 to 455.92 kcal 100/g, respectively. Mineral contents (calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and phosphorus) increased with addition of defatted cashew nut flour. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that substitution of up to 20% cashew nut flour is generally acceptable. The addition of defatted cashew nut flour increased significantly the ferric reducing antioxidant power, 1, 1-dipenyly-2-picryl-hdrazil (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and total phenolic content of composite the cookie compared to control.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Defatted cashew nut, functional properties, physicochemical properties, sensory attributes cookies.</p> S.O. Azeez H.B. Adeyemi K. Ajiboye F.A. Ekundayo A.B. Zubair A.O. Olatunji Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 92 101 Characterization of Volatile Compounds in Raw, Boiled and Roasted African Walnuts (<i>Tetracarpidium conophorum</i>) <p>The volatile constituents of African walnuts play an important role in the flavour quality characteristics of this nut. Research on African walnut volatiles is very limited (raw, boiled, and roasted), thus this research study was undertaken. In this study, volatile aroma components of boiled and roasted African walnuts were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in comparison with the volatiles from raw African walnut. A total of 150 volatiles were identified in raw, boiled and roasted African walnuts. Among these were 70% amines, 4% esters, 2% acids, 6% amides, 2% aldehydes/ketones and 16% other additional compounds in raw African walnuts. For the boiled sample the compounds identified include 58% amines, 2% esters, 12% amides, 2% aldehydes/ketones, 2% sulphur-containing compounds and 24% other compounds while the roasted African walnuts had 10% amines, 2% esters, 4% pyrazines, 24% amides, 14% aldehydes/ketones, 8% sulphur-containing compounds and 38% additional compounds identified. The predominant volatile compound identified in raw and boiled African walnuts were the amines (70% and 58%, respectively) followed by amides (6 and 12%) and esters (4 and 2%). Acids (2%) were identified only in the raw African walnuts. Pyrazines (4%) were only detected in the roasted African walnuts. The major volatile components of raw African walnut, the isobutylamine (amine) increased consistently at different retention times.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: African walnut, raw, boiled, roasted, volatiles.</p> M.C. Ojinnaka L.N. Daniel P.C. Ojimelukwe N.O. Eddy Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 37 2 102 113