Nigerian Food Journal <p>The Nigerian Food Journal (NIFOJ) is a peer-reviewed journal designed to contribute towards the development of new and improved food sources and products based on sound research. NIFOJ is also designed for effective communication of special attributes and advantages of food products as well as focus on the activities of the food industry in Nigeria. The journal publishes pure and applied food science and technological research to promote knowledge sharing and nutrition development in all aspects of the food processing and consumption value chain. Aspects covered in NIFOJ include food chemistry, food engineering, food microbiology, food packaging, food preservation, food safety, new product development, and sensory analysis.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> University Press Plc en-US Nigerian Food Journal 0189-7241 <div class="WordSection1"><p>© Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology 2018</p></div><p>All Rights Reserved</p> Chemical, Antioxidant, Glycaemic Index and Sensory Properties of Breakfast Meals from Sorghum, Soy-Cake and Guava Leaf Extract <p>The breakfast food samples, that is, SSE2 (70% Sorghum flour, 28% soycake flour and 2% guava leaf extract), SSE4 (70% Sorghum flour, 26% soycake and 4% guava leaves extract), SS30 (70% Sorghum flour, 30% soycake flour), S100 (control, 100% Sorghum) were evaluated for chemical composition, functional properties, antioxidant activities, glycaemic index/load and sensory attributes. The crude protein, moisture and energy values of sorghumbased breakfast meals ranged from 9.27 - 25.40 g/100, 5.02 - 8.16 g/100g and 591.47 - 637.98 kcal/100g, respectively. The Na/K and Ca/P molar ratios of the food samples were less than 1.00. The phytochemical concentrations in the food samples were lower than critical levels. Antioxidant activity of the food samples against 2,2’-azino-bis-3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, ferric reducing antioxidant power, hydroxyl free radicals, iron chelation and total phenolic were significantly higher in SSE4 than other food samples. The glycaemic index and load of the breakfast meals, i.e., SSE2 and SSE4, were lower than recommended values for low GI &lt;55% and GL&lt;20%, respectively. For the sensory attributes, the control (S100) was rated higher in colour, aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability than other food samples. In conclusion, the study established that inclusion of soy-cake flour and guava leaf extract powder lower the glycaemic index/load, and increased nutrient composition, energy value and antioxidative activity of the formulated breakfast meals. However, SSE4 was rated best in terms of nutrient composition, glycaemic index and antioxidant activity, hence, it could be suitable as a functional food for the management of diet related diseases.</p> O.S. Ijarotimi M.A. Adeyemi T.D. Oluwajuyitan Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 38 2 1 16 Antioxidant Properties and Some Health Implications of Consuming Fresh, Stored and Processed Eggs <p>The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the antioxidant properties of egg and processed eggs. One of the important biological functions of egg is dietary antioxidant. Bioactive peptides from egg have been shown to prevent some chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and age related macular degenerative conditions which have been associated with oxidative stress. These bioactive peptides in egg are released during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract when consumed. Bioactive peptides can also be derived from egg proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis using enzymes such as alcalase. The resulting hydrolysates also have antioxidant activity.</p> O.M.M. Nwadi T.M. Okonkwo Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 38 2 17 29 Quality Attributes of Custard Prepared from Selected Varieties of Sweet Potato Starch Enriched with Soy Protein Isolate <p>The study investigated the effect of soy protein isolate (SPI) addition on the quality attributes of custard from selected varieties of sweetpotato starch (SPS). Starch was prepared from orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSPS) and yellow-fleshed sweetpotato (YFSPS). Simplex lattice design was employed to obtain the various combinations of SPS and SPI. Proximate composition, instrumental colour, functional and pasting properties of the sweetpotato starch and the blends were determined. The sensory attributes of the optimized custard samples with the commercial custard were determined using t-test. The protein and ash contents increased while the fat and carbohydrate contents decreased as the inclusion level of SPI increased in the blends. The addition of SPI significantly decreased (p&lt;0.05) the dispersibility, packed bulk density; peak, trough, breakdown, final and setback viscosities but increased the least gelation concentration, water absorption capacity and swelling power of the blends. There was significant (p&lt; 0.05) difference in the sensory attributes of cooked custard prepared from the optimized blends and the control sample. In conclusion, blending 80% OFSPS with 20% SPI; and 75% YSPS with 25% SPI produced acceptable custard.</p> O.D. Odesanmi A.A. Adeola O.P. Sobukola O.O. Onabanjo Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 38 2 30 45 Evaluation of Mineral, Vitamin and Phytochemical Composition of Ogiri from Melon and Groundnut Seeds <p>The minerals, vitamins and phytochemical contents of Ogiri from melon and groundnut seeds were investigated. Melon and groundnut seeds were combined in the ratio of 100:0 (A), 75:25 (B), 50:50 (C), 25:75 (D), 0:100 (E) respectively and fermented to produce Ogiri. The Ogiri samples were analyzed for minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals contents. On the average, the samples contained calcium (35.01- 255.0 mg/100g), magnesium (15.80-102.11 mg/100g), potassium (3.18-520.15 mg/100g), sodium (0.06- 12.30 mg/100g), iron (42.12-158.0 mg/100g), zinc (1.50-18.50 mg/100g) and phosphorus (152.0- 251.13 mg/100g). The vitamins present were vitamins A, B<sub>1</sub>, B<sub>2</sub>, B<sub>3</sub>, B<sub>6</sub>, B<sub>9</sub>, C and E with A, B<sub>3</sub>, C and E being the most abundant. The phytochemicals present and their ranges were saponin (0.16-0.26%), tannin (0.04-0.16%), alkaloid (0.12-0.27%) and flavonoid (0.08-0.19%).</p> D.C. Arukwe E.N. Onyeneke Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 38 2 46 52 Comparative Assessment of Formulated Instant Weaning Foods Based on Morphometric and Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats <p>This study evaluated the nutritional, morphometric and biochemical profiles of six (6) formulated instant weaning foods in comparison with a commercial weaning food (Nutrend) as positive control and the vital growers mesh as negative control. The six instant weaning foods were formulated from selected staple foods and protein supplements. Diets (A-C) were formulated from rice-lentil based and diets (D-F) from sweet potato- soybean based at respective ratios of 70:10, 60:20 and 50:30, and blended with groundnut, crayfish and smoked fish in varying quantity to make up 100 g. These were compared with Nutrend (G) and vital growers mash (H) serving as positive and negative controls, respectively. From the study, saponin contents for all formulated diets were within safe limit at levels &lt;10%. Phytate contents for all diets were below acceptable level of 1%. The trypsin inhibitor showed compliant except for diet D that was higher than the normal 10%. Diets D-F had lower flavonoid contents (3.00, 2.95 and 2.80 g/100 g) than diets A-C (4.99, 4.61 and 4.99 g/100 g). In all, diet F compared favourably with the commercial weaning diet (G). The animal studies revealed that body-organ weights were proportionally satisfactory, except for diet H which was low (2.31 g weight gain). The biochemical parameters all fell within normal range and have good safety profile. Diet F formulated with 50 g sweet potato, 30 g soy bean, 5 g groundnut and 15 g fish meal showed the highest potential as favourable substitute for the commercial weaning foods for infants when compared with the positive control food.</p> O.I. Ajawobu J.C. Ifemeje E.O. Erhirhie N.J. Ajawobu C.C. Chikelu H.C. Nedum Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 38 2 53 63 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Mushroom Species from Different Geographical Locations <p>Mushrooms have high nutritional and medicinal values and are important sources of protein and fibre, which make them important for plant- based diets. Awareness on the benefits of consumption is important in African countries like Nigeria for increased food security. Six commonly cultivated mushroom species were collected from two locations in Nigeria (Ibadan and Port-Harcourt) and one location in Ghana (Accra). Constituents (proximate and mineral composition, and antioxidant activities) of samples were evaluated and compared. Mushroom properties were identified with locations where cultivated. The protein, fat, ash and fibre contents ranged from 6.13 – 35.84%, 11.63 –19.15%, 2.64 – 12.78%, 3.37 – 6.62%, respectively. A major element was potassium (38.66-463.04 mg/100g), followed by phosphorus (44.05 – 162.08 mg/100g), sodium (20.95 – 71.92 mg/100g), calcium (30.82 – 49.27 mg/100 g) and magnesium (9.80 – 19.88 mg/100 g). Concentrations of trace elements ranged from 0.39 – 2.44 mg/100 g, 0.06 – 0.40 mg/100g, 0.20 – 8.22 mg/100 g, and 0.30 – 4.04 mg/100g for Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively while Pb was not detected. The 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power values ranged from 0.28 – 32.15% and 0.17 – 1.92 µmol/g, respectively. The ash content was positively correlated with P (r = 0.868, p&lt;0.05), Zn (r = 0.610, p&lt;0.05) and negatively correlated with energy (r = -0.704, p&lt;0.05). The locations of mushrooms were clustered into three main groups based on components by multivariate pattern recognition. Most variables had a strong association with <em>Volvariella volvacea</em>. The wide disparity in the constituents of species from different locations can make it possible for consumers to choose based on interest and nutrient content.</p> B.A. Akinwande M. Obodai O.M. Adedokun O.E. Olayiwola G.O. Babarinde Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 38 2 64 74 10.4314/nifoj.v38i2. Proximate, Anti-Nutrient, Chemical Score and Amino Acids of Asaja Beans Flours <p>Red kidney beans var asaja was processed into different flours by either boiling for 1 h, 2 h, 3 h or by soaking for 24 h. The untreated sample flour served as a control. The five different flours were analyzed for proximate, anti-nutrients and amino acids compositions using standard analytical methods. There were significant differences in the results obtained as the different samples showed variations in the parameters assayed. The flours had high mean crude proteins and carbohydrates compositions: 12.70% to 19.17% proteins and 63.95% to 71.93% carbohydrate respectively. Boiling reduced the mean protein values but enhanced the carbohydrate. On the other hand, soaking enhanced the protein and sustained carbohydrate losses. Relatively high concentrations of saponins, 4.99±0.03mg/100g in the control were reduced to 0.86±0.02mg/100g due to 3h boiling, 15.32±0.25mg/100g of tannins was reduced to 6.15±0.08mg/100g due to 3h boiling while 95.34±1.36mg/100g of hydrogen cyanide was reduced to 3.91±0.01mg/100g and 2.54±0.04mg/100g due to 3h boiling and 24h soaking respectively. Due to these treatments, the flours possessed good amino acid score and showed balanced amino acid contents when compared with the FAO/WHO (1991) pattern. Effort to optimize the processing method is recommended.</p> I.C. Nzelu O.C. Ijeomah Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 38 2 75 82 Nutrient Composition and Physicochemical Characteristics of Mead Produced from African Breadfruit, Barley and Wheat Worts <p>The nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of meads produced from malted African breadfruit, barley and wheat were investigated. One and half kilogram of each malt sample was milled separately to grits. The grits were defatted by solvent extraction. African breadfruit grits was defatted to final fat content of 0.79%. Original dark honey was filtered to remove particulate materials. The yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Lalvin K1-V1116) inoculum was prepared by rehydration to obtain 108 CFU/ml. The experiment was designed into four treatments: blends I, II, III and control. Exactly 2g of the yeast inoculum was pitched into the wort blends and stirred. The worts were fermented and the final gravity (FG) determined.&nbsp; Macronutrients and Vitamins (Vits) contents in the mead samples were evaluated using the methods described in the&nbsp; Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 2006). The protein content increased by 2.19%, 0.29% and 0.98% for African breadfruit, barley and wheat malts respectively. Mead produced from barley and wheat showed a significant increase in vitamin C content and compared with the traditional honey mead. The vitamins contents of mead from African breadfruit reduced significantly to 0.69 IU/ml (Vit. A), 0.83 mg/l (Vit. B1), 23.64 mg/l (Vit. B<sub>3</sub>) and 36.72 mg/l (Vit. C), compared with its unfermented wort, 0.79 IU/ml (Vit. A), 3.67 mg/l (B<sub>1</sub> ), 32.67 mg/l (Vit. B<sub>3</sub> ) and 69.61 mg/l (Vit. C). Ethanol contents were significantly (p&lt;0.05) different between mead samples. The meads produced were rated high in sensory quality and possessed potential health and nutritional benefits.</p> U.S. Udofia C. Ameh Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 38 2 83 93