Nigerian Food Journal <p>The Nigerian Food Journal (NIFOJ) is a peer-reviewed journal designed to contribute towards the development of new and improved food sources and products based on sound research. NIFOJ is also designed for effective communication of special attributes and advantages of food products as well as focus on the activities of the food industry in Nigeria. The journal publishes pure and applied food science and technological research to promote knowledge sharing and nutrition development in all aspects of the food processing and consumption value chain. Aspects covered in NIFOJ include food chemistry, food engineering, food microbiology, food packaging, food preservation, food safety, new product development, and sensory analysis.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US <div class="WordSection1"><p>© Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology 2018</p></div><p>All Rights Reserved</p> (Taofik A. Shittu (PhD)) (Prof. Gabriel I. Okafor (Deputy Editor-in-Chief)) Wed, 17 Jan 2024 09:32:37 +0000 OJS 60 Production and Storage Stability of Mulled <i>Zobo</i> Drink Stored in Different Packaging Materials <p>This study investigated the efficacy of different spices – ginger, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, and black pepper on the flavour qualities,&nbsp; enhancement of the taste, pungent aroma and extended shelf life effects of these spices in the production of mulled <em>zobo</em> drink. <em>Zobo&nbsp;</em> drink was prepared using hot water extraction method and the juice obtained was blended separately with the different spices in their&nbsp; different proportions. The physiochemical properties, microbial and sensory properties of the various blends of the <em>zobo</em> drink were&nbsp; investigated. The results of the quality evaluation analysis revealed that the total titratable acidity ranged from 0.307 - 0.666% citric acid&nbsp; while pH values of the samples ranged from 2.06-2.79, total soluble solids (Brix level) ranged between 3º-6º Brix, and the total dissolved&nbsp; solid ranged from 84.02 ppm-93.12 ppm. Sensory evaluation of the samples revealed that there were no significant differences at (p&lt;0.05)&nbsp; among the samples with respect to colour, aroma, taste and appearance but there was a significant difference at 5% level of&nbsp; significance among the samples with respect to flavour and overall acceptability. Sample ZED was the most acceptable of all the samples.&nbsp; The microbial assessment shows that the samples stored in bottles, plastic and nylon contain 4.9×10<sup>5</sup> , 6.3×10<sup>5</sup> , 7.2×10<sup>5</sup> colony forming&nbsp; unit (cfu), respectively. The work confirmed that the glass bottle is the best container that can be used to preserve the <em>zobo</em> drink&nbsp; because it has the lowest mean colony forming unit (CFU) after being kept on the shelf for 6 weeks.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> N.P. Okolie, O.L. Anyiam, O.H. Idowu , Y.V. Ilesanmi, V. Olawole Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Marination Conditions on Some Quality Attributes of Chevon Cooked Using Different Methods <p>Marination is a process known to enhance the quality of meat. The effects of marination conditions on some quality attributes of chevon&nbsp; cooked differently (frying, roasting and grilling) were investigated in this study. The marinade used was extracted using aqueous&nbsp; extraction from Monodora myristica seeds. A numerical optimization technique was used to optimize the marination conditions (6%&nbsp; marinade concentration and 24 h marination time). They were optimized concerning the responses. The chevon was marinated at the&nbsp; optimum marination condition and cooked differently (fried, roasted, and grilled). Their physicochemical (proximate composition,&nbsp; hardness) and sensory properties (appearance, tenderness, aroma and flavour) were compared with that of their unmarinated cooked&nbsp; pairs (control). Significant (p&lt;0.05) differences were observed in the characteristics of the optimized marinated samples and the control.&nbsp; The physicochemical properties, mean values obtained for marinade uptake, pH, water holding capacity, hardness, L*, a* and b* ranged&nbsp; from 4.78-11.16%, 6.22-6.74, 20.96-41.96% and 124.3-362.8 N, 39.13-45.01, 2.03-6.08 and 8.13-12.61, respectively.</p> O.F. Oyeleye, O.P. Sobukola , T.A. Shittu, K.A. Sanwo Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Consumers’ Knowledge and Nutrient Contents of <i>Cuku</i> Produced from Camel, Cow and Goat Milk <p>The study investigated consumers’ knowledge and evaluated the nutrient contents of <em>cuku</em> (Fulani cheese). Samples of <em>cuku</em> produced&nbsp; from camel, cow and goat milk were purchased from producers/sellers and used for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to&nbsp; investigate consumers’ knowledge and standard methods were used for nutrient contents analysis. The results showed that majority of&nbsp; the respondents were male (90.00%) and single (69.34%). Also, the majority of the respondents (80.00%) consumed cuku as a snack one&nbsp; to three times daily. They consumed <em>cuku</em> because of its nutrient contents (69.34%) and pleasant taste (30.66%). There were significant&nbsp; (p&lt;0.05) differences in proximate composition and mineral contents of <em>cuku</em>. The proximate composition ranged from 2.56- 3.44%,&nbsp; 5.53-6.49%, 26.37-29.09%, 17.56-23.04%, 1.33-1.71% and 37.97-45.02% for moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and&nbsp; carbohydrate contents, respectively, while the mineral contents ranged from 538.32-674.12 mg/100g, 755.29-763.04 mg/100g,&nbsp; 166.49-175.58 mg/100g, 2.38-3.96 mg/100g, 130.68-145.86 mg/100g and 14.51- 21.12 mg/100g for sodium, potassium, calcium, iron,&nbsp; phosphorus and magnesium, respectively. The vitamin contents ranged from 52.26-53.15 µg/100g, 2.51-2.65 mg/100g, 0.53-1.58 mg/100g&nbsp; and 0.70-0.73 mg/100g for vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C and thiamine, respectively. The study showed that <em>cuku</em> contained&nbsp; high protein, vitamin A and mineral contents, which makes it a rich and cheap source of nutrients.&nbsp;</p> S.A. Omoniyi, Y. Mamman, A.A. Folorunso Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Potentials of Extruded Complementary Meal from Blends of Quality Protein Maize-Soybean Protein Concentrate Meal for the Treatment of Protein Energy Malnutrition <p>The development of a complementary diet with high nutrient quality necessitated this study. Quality protein maize meal, soybean protein&nbsp; concentrate, and cassava starch were prepared and mixed in the proportions of 72%, 18.94% and 9.06% respectively. The mixture&nbsp; was extruded, milled and packaged. The proximate composition and mineral contents of the formulated meals were determined&nbsp; using standard methods. The extruded meal and a commercial control were fed to 10 children in the child welfare clinic of&nbsp; the Oyo State Hospital, Oyo for 8 weeks for nutritional rehabilitation. Anthropometric data on the subjects were taken every week. The&nbsp; blood samples were taken before and after the rehabilitation periods and assessed. The crude protein content was 21.00% (dry weight&nbsp; basis) in the extruded meal sample, while the gross food energy (GFE) content was 1741.26 kJ. The formulated meal met the minimum&nbsp; iron and zinc requirements. The children fed with the extruded meal gained an average weight of 2.50 kg over 8 weeks. The&nbsp; anthropometric variables of the children improved over the rehabilitation period. The packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin&nbsp; concentration (Hb), serum albumin (SA), and total protein (TP) of the blood samples of all the malnourished children rose above the&nbsp; minimum normal level after the treatment. The Hb ranged from 10.5-12.8 mg/100g with a similar trend for TP and SA. The extruded meal&nbsp; has the potential for use as an effective complementary diet capable of meeting the daily dietary requirements for children with protein&nbsp; energy malnutrition (PEM).&nbsp;</p> M.O. Omolola, F.O. Oluwatooyin Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Production and Quality Evaluation of Acha-Orange Fleshed Sweet PotatoBased Biscuit Enriched with Grasshopper (Zonocerus Variegatus) Flour <p>The quality attributes of biscuits produced from acha-orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) flour substituted with edible insect flour was&nbsp; investigated. Acha-orange fleshed sweet potato flour blend was produced at a ratio of 50:50(acha:sweet potato). The produced&nbsp; composite flour was substituted with grasshopper flour at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 % and mixed with other ingredients (salt, baking fat, baking&nbsp; powder). The mixture was baked at 160<sup>o</sup>C for 12 mins to produce biscuits of uniform shapes. Proximate composition,&nbsp; phytochemical components, physical properties and sensory qualities of the biscuits were analyzed. The moisture, fat, protein, ash, crude&nbsp; fibre and carbohydrates contents ranged from 4.05-4.49, 4.90-6.47, 10.72-13.22, 1.71-2.29, 0.50-1.97, 74.55-77.31 %, respectfully. The total&nbsp; flavonoid, total phenolic and saponin contents ranged from 18.17-77.35, 349.97-542.36 and 0.58-3.23 ppm, respectively. Vitamin A and B&nbsp; contents varied from 0.03-0.17 and 0.12-0.18. Phosphorus and magnesium contents ranged from 150.19-202.28 and 15. 97-25.75 ppm,&nbsp; respectively, increasing as the grasshopper content was increased. Sensory studies revealed that the biscuit containing 12% insect flour&nbsp; substitution was the most preferred by the consumers. Conclusively, this study showed that the use of orange-fleshed sweet potato&nbsp; blend combined with grasshopper flour improved the protein, Vitamin A, phosphorus and magnesium contents of acha-OFSP biscuits.&nbsp; This research work recommends that acha-orange fleshed sweet potato flour blend supplemented with grasshopper flour should be&nbsp;&nbsp; adopted, for the production of biscuits.</p> J.A. Ayo, A.N. Ibrahim , N.A. Duku Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Quality Evaluation of the Proteins and Micronutrient Contents of Some Non-Conventional Grain Legumes <p>The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional values of some leguminous seed flours. Flours were prepared from winged&nbsp; bean (MB), MKP5 long bean (LB), dwarf long bean (DLB) and MKB1 French bean (FB), and then assessed for their protein quality, vitamin&nbsp; and mineral compositions, in comparison with flours of soybean (SB) and mung bean (MB) seeds. All the leguminous seed flours were&nbsp; rich in essential amino acids of lysine, leucine, arginine, methionine, and phenylalanine. Only three (thiamine, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid)&nbsp; of the four B vitamins studied were detected in the legumes at varying levels with pyridoxine detected in all samples except LB, whereas&nbsp; SB had the highest level (74.46 µg/g). The SB and MKP5 had high levels (1944.03 µg/g and 869.48 µg/g, respectively) of pyridoxine compared to the other legumes. The Ƴ-tocopherol, in the range of 13.7-57.25 µg/g, was the only and most abundant vitamin detected in&nbsp; all legume seed flours, whereas δ-Tocopherol was in the range of 0.89-55.63 µg/g in all the flours except WB seed flour. The most&nbsp; abundant mineral elements in all samples were phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium. The study suggest that the underutilized&nbsp; legumes can be used as alternatives to conventional legumes in providing the necessary amino acids and the required micro-nutrients&nbsp; for optimum human growth and development.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> N.A. Mohd, M.U. Makeri, Z.B Nouruddeen, R.O. Onu, A.B. Shehu, A. Muhammad, F. Sadik, K. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Proximate Composition, Amino Acids Profile and Acceptability of Castor - Moringa Seeds Based <i>Ogiri</i> <p>Castor and moringa seeds were dehulled, sorted, washed, boiled, and blended in 100:0, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 0:100 w/w&nbsp; castor:moringa ratio designated as CO, CMO<sub>20</sub>, CMO<sub>30</sub>, CMO<sub>40</sub>, CMO<sub>50</sub> and MO respectively. The sample blends were fermented and&nbsp; evaluated for proximate composition and amino acids profile. Acceptability of the products were evaluated using African salad (Abacha)&nbsp; seasoned with the ogiri samples. Fermentation significantly (p &lt; 0.05) increased the protein content from 6.26-29.13% in castor oil seed,&nbsp; 15.05-26.47% in moringa seed and 23.95-24.95% in 50:50 castor oil: moringa seed. Increasing the ratio of moringa seed in the castor oil:&nbsp; moringa seed ogiri increased protein content from 19.11-24.28%, fibre from 6.12-7.15% and ash content from 2.31-4.75%. The sulphur- containing amino acids (cystine + methionine) increased from 1.46-1.91 g/100g protein in castor seed, 3.08- 4.11 g/100g protein in&nbsp; moringa seed and 2.67-4.14 g/100g protein in 50:50 castor oil: moringa seed ogiri. Addition of moringa seed to the castor oil:moringa&nbsp; seed ogiri increased the sulphur-containing amino acids from 2.72-4.14 g/100g protein. The CMO<sub>20</sub> (20:80 castor oil:moringa seed ogiri)&nbsp; seasoned abacha was the most preferred in terms of appearance (7.80), taste (6.40), flavor (6.10), and overall acceptability (6.50) while CO&nbsp; (castor oil seed ogiri) was the least preferred in all the sensory attributes.&nbsp;</p> C.N. Onyekwelu, E.O. Uzodinma Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Production and Quality Evaluation of Gari Enriched with Rice Bran Flour <p>The study was carried out to determine the potential of enriching gari with rice bran flour (RB). Rice bran was obtained from milled rice&nbsp; and instantly stabilized. The stabilized rice bran was added to the grated cassava mash at 10, 20, 30, and 40% level. The samples were&nbsp; analyzed for the proximate composition, functional, pasting and sensory properties. Proximate composition revealed that fortification of&nbsp; gari with rice bran significantly (P&lt; 0.05) increased the protein content from 2.33% in the control to a range of 24.78-32.59%. The&nbsp; fortification also increased the fibre, ash, and fat but decreased the carbohydrate content with an increase in rice bran addition. The pH&nbsp; increased with an increase in rice bran. The enriched gari adequately absorbed water which increased with an increase in rice bran level. The rice bran addition significantly (P &lt;0.05) increased the bulk density and swelling capacity. The gari containing 10% RB had the lowest&nbsp; pasting properties while 100% CM had the highest values except for peak viscosity. The sample enriched with 40% rice bran had the&nbsp; lowest score of 5.15 for appearance which was rejected by the panelist as being too dark. The enriched samples were less sour than the&nbsp; control sample. Based on overall acceptability, the control sample was the best. However, enrichment with rice bran flour produced gari&nbsp; that scored high in terms of the physicochemicals.&nbsp;</p> C.N. Egbedike, P.A. Okorie, N.E. Odo, O.J. Ikegwu Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study on Fertilizer Application on Gari Quality from ProVitamin A (TMS 01/1368) and Improved Cassava (TMS 98/0581) Varieties for Sustainable Food Security <p>The effects of fertilizer application levels (FAL) on the yield and characteristics of gari from pro-vitamin A cassava (TMS 01/1368) variety&nbsp; (PVACV) and an improved cassava (TMS 98/0581) variety (ICV) were studied. Cassava roots planted with varying FAL, 0% (no fertilizer),&nbsp; 50% (45, 20 and 35 kg/hectare of NPK-12-12-17, muriate of potash and urea, respectively) and 100% (90, 40 and 70 kg/hectare of&nbsp; NPK-12-12-17, muriate of potash and urea, respectively) were used. Gari yield and its characteristics were determined using standard&nbsp; methods. Data generated were subjected to analysis of variance and means separated using the least significance difference at p&lt;0.05.&nbsp; Gari yield increased as FAL increased for both cassava varieties. For gari from PVACV, ash, crude fibre and crude fat increased while carbohydrate decreased with an increase in FAL. Whereas, for gari from IVC, increase in FAL resulted in decrease in moisture, crude fat&nbsp; and carbohydrate but an increase in crude protein and fibre. The functional properties except swelling index, of gari from PVACV&nbsp; increased with an increase in FAL. For gari from ICV, only bulk density increased as FAL increased. Gari from ICV was low in total&nbsp; carotenoids compared to that of PVACV. Pasting characteristics for gari from fertilized cassava were higher than the ones from&nbsp; unfertilized cassava. The sensory properties of gari from PVACV were improved upon with an increase in FAL. Although, gari from both&nbsp; cassava varieties were improved upon by fertilizer, gari from fertilized PVACV showed superiority over gari from fertilized ICV in terms of&nbsp; sensory properties and total carotenoids.&nbsp;</p> L.O. Alatise, J. Oyedokun, G.O. Kolawole, B.I.O. Ade-Omowaye Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Malting Conditions on Proximate and Functional Properties of Malted Sorghum Flour at Optimized Condition Using Response Surface Methodology <p>The demand for indigenous flour has increased over the years as a result of its industrial application. The study observed the effect of&nbsp; malting on the proximate and functional properties of malted sorghum flour. Sorghum grains (white and red varieties) were germinated,&nbsp; kilned and milled into flour. Response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the effect of&nbsp; germination period (GP), kilning temperature (KT), and kilning time (Kt). The proximate and functional properties of the flour were&nbsp; determined using standard laboratory procedures. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) while response surface&nbsp; plots and regression analysis were done using design expert version 7. Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, bulk density and&nbsp; swelling capacity ranged from 5.92 to 7.31%, 9.01-10.39%, 3.59-6.75%, 1.11-1.39%, 0.52-0.68g/ml, 1.15- 1.38g/g for white sorghum and&nbsp; 6.00-8.88%, 8.25-10.02%, 3.61-6.48%, 2.26-2.83%, 0.64-0.68 g/ml and 1.26-1.42 g/g red sorghum, respectively. Moisture and oil absorption&nbsp; capacity were minimized while crude protein, crude fibre was maximized, the optimum malting condition for malted sorghum flour have&nbsp; a germination period of 2.64 days, kilning temperature of 46°C and kilning time of 28 hours with desirability of 0.86 and germination&nbsp; period of 2.92 days, kilning temperature of 52°C and kilning time of 32 hours with desirability of 0.82 for white and red varieties,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; respectively</p> O.A. Ojo, A.O. Obadina, O.P. Sobukola, H.A. Bakare, E.K. Oke Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Variety and Drying Methods on the Nutrient Retention in Tomato (<i>Solanum lycopersicum L.</i>) Slices <p>This study investigated the effects of variety and drying methods on nutrient retention in dried tomato slices. Four tomato varieties&nbsp; (UC82B, Roma, Eva-F1 and Kerewa) were subjected to three drying methods (sun, oven and cabinet). The proximate, carotenoids,&nbsp; vitamins (A, C and E), flavonoids, phenolic acid and total dietary fibre contents of the fresh and dried tomatoes were determined using&nbsp; standard laboratory procedures. Percentage retention was calculated using the true retention formula. Data obtained were subjected to&nbsp; multivariate analysis of variance and means separated using Duncan’s multiple range test. For fresh tomato samples; moisture, total&nbsp; dietary fibre, lycopene, betacarotene, vitamins C, E, retinol equivalent vitamin A, flavonoid and phenolic acid contents ranged from&nbsp; 89.62-95.41%, 2.65-38.52%, 26.5-44.67 mg/kg, 1.82-3.54 mg/kg, 5.52-8.62 mg/100g, 0.16-0.23 mg/100g, 30.3-59.1 µg/100g, 5.13- 19.24&nbsp; mg/100g and 22.43-31.89 mg/100g, respectively. For dried tomato slices; moisture, ash and total dietary fibre contents ranged from&nbsp; 5.74-9.83%, 6.70-10.94% and 18.63-38.52%, respectively. Lycopene, beta-carotene, flavonoid, phenolic, vitamins C, E and retinol equivalent&nbsp; vitamin A contents ranged from 36.50-54.70 mg/kg, 2.78-4.5 mg/ kg, 13.07-70.98 mg/100g, 51.50-352.00 mg/100g, 34.35-94.46 mg/100g,&nbsp; 0.54-2.04 mg/100g and 46.4-75.1 µg/100g, respectively. Percentage retention of lycopene, beta carotene, flavonoids, phenolic acid and&nbsp; total dietary fibre ranged from 4.23-13.48%, 4.45-16.21%, 9.76-73.11%, 8.49-57.19% and 31.40-61.64%, respectively. While it ranged from 20.59-73.81%, 9.00-72.10%, and 4.45-16.21% for vitamins C, E and A, respectively. In conclusion, the oven-dried tomato slices retained&nbsp; more nutrients than the sun and cabinet-dried samples irrespective of tomato variety.&nbsp;</p> O.E. Babatunde, O.O. Onabanjo, A.A. Adebowale, M.O. Adegunwa, O.P. Sobukola, O.E. Kajihausa, C.I. Omohimi, O.U. Dairo, P. Abdulsalam-Saghir, L.O. Sanni, B. Siwoku, A.E. Okoruwa Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Atherogenic and Thrombogenic Indexes of Zero-Trans Fatty Acids Margarine Blends Produced from an Underutilized Oil <p>Margarine contains trans fats that are generated during the hydrogenation process to yield semi-solid fats necessary for the texture and&nbsp; consistency of margarine. The objective of the study was to produce zero-trans fats margarine using naturally occurring solid fats from&nbsp; winged bean seeds as a base. Fat blends of palm stearin (PS), palm olein (PO) and winged bean oil (WO) were formulated to obtain two&nbsp; water-in-oil emulsion blends. These were B300 (48.5%PS:1.5%PO:50%WO) and B400 (1.5%PS:48.5%PO:50%WO) comprising of fat phase&nbsp; 82.75% (wt./wt.) and the water phase [2-oleoylglycerol (0.3%), salt (1.2%), flavour (0.02%), beta-carotene (0.003%) and water (16%)] to obtain the final margarine blends. The blends were evaluated for their fatty acids profiles, solid fat contents and their propensity to clot in&nbsp; blood vessels. Results showed that the B300 blend had a hard consistency and remained semi-solid at body temperature compared to&nbsp; blend B400 which was smooth and melted completely at 37°C. The SFC curves of both blends were smooth, however, B300 exhibited high&nbsp; SFCs than B400. Both blends showed low atherogenic and low thrombogenic values compared to the raw materials indicating low risks of&nbsp; atherogenicity and thrombogenicity reference to standard products. It is therefore concluded that both blends are safe with no risk of coronary heart disease. The blend B300 could be better used as a multipurpose for margarine and shortening in bakeries, while blend&nbsp; B400 will be good as tub margarine for home use and in chocolate mix because of its medium solid fat content and its complete&nbsp; meltdown at body temperature.&nbsp;</p> M.U. Makeri, A.B. Shehu, H. Adamu, Y.G. Tasi'u, S.Y. Bagirei Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Drying Kinetics, Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of SolarTent and Open Sun-Dried Sweet Potato (<i>Ipomoea batatas</i>) Chips <p>The drying characteristics, physiochemical and microbiological properties of sweet potato chips dried by sun and solartent drying&nbsp; methods were determined. The potato slices of 2 mm thickness were dried for 40 and 52 hours, respectively in the solar tent, which was&nbsp; constructed and open to sun drying methods. The drying kinetics, physicochemical and microbiological properties of the dried potato&nbsp; chips were determined. A total drying time of 52 hours was required to reduce the moisture content from 69.56 to 0.94% wb for the open&nbsp; sun-dried chips. However, a lesser time (40 hours) was required to reduce the moisture content of the solar tent-dried chips(70.29-0.58%&nbsp; wb). The effective moisture diffusivity of the open sun and solar tent-dried samples were 1.0421×10<sup>-7</sup> and 2.1069×10<sup>-7</sup> m<sup>2 </sup>/s, respectively. The results of the physicochemical properties of dried potato samples for the two drying methods were 0.45-0.57g/ cm<sup>3 </sup>, 0.53-0.63 g/cm<sup>3&nbsp;&nbsp; </sup>, 35.44-37.09%, 79.09-92.46%, 53.54-57.31% and 18.40-18.99%, respectively for tapped density, loose bulk density, water absorption&nbsp; capacity, oil absorption capacity, swelling index and water solubility index. The total viable counts of the dried chips ranged&nbsp; from 3.53×10<sup>6 </sup>to 2.95×10<sup>7</sup> cfu/while the total mould counts varied from 6.83×105 to 1.05×10<sup>6</sup> cfu/cm<sup>3 </sup>. There was no coliform growth in&nbsp; the dried chips for the two drying methods. It is concluded that solar-tent drying produced sweet potato chips of better quality than open&nbsp; sun drying.</p> B.A. Akinwande, G.O. Ogunlakin, J.O. Adisa, J. Oyedokun Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of the Sensory, Anti-Nutrient and Microbial Properties of Commercial <i>Achicha-Ede</i> and 3 Hours Boiled <i>Akiri Ede</i>, Intended for Use as <i>Achicha-Ede</i> <p>The sensory, anti-nutrients and microbial properties of unboiled, respective 1 hours and 3 hours boiled akiri ede variety of <em>Colocasia&nbsp; esculenta,</em> and commercial achicha-ede were studied using standard methods. Unboiled, 1hour, 3 hours boiled and commercial achicha- ede samples were codded O, A, B and C, respectively. The samples were subjected to sensory, anti-nutrient and microbial properties&nbsp; analyses. In terms of colour, texture, smell, taste, scratchiness and overall acceptability of the boiled cocoyam samples, the sensory&nbsp; results showed that sample A, had dirty white colour, soft but firm texture, cooked cocoyam smell and taste and negligible scratchiness in&nbsp; the throat. Sample B had fairly brown colour, softer and slimy pulp, achicha-ede smell and taste and, nil scratchiness. Sample C had&nbsp; fairly brown colour, softer than sample A but very slightly harder than sample B, had an achicha-ede smell and taste, and nil scratchiness.&nbsp; Their mean overall acceptability scores were 4.05c , 8.51a and 7.86b for A, B and C, respectively. Thus, 3 hours straight&nbsp; boiled cocoyam sample yielded acceptable achicha-ede colour, smell and taste and, nil scratchiness. The values for oxalate in mg/100g&nbsp; ranged from 47.27d -110.35a . The other anti-nutrients had the highest values in sample O and least values in sample <em>C. Fungi</em>, notably&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp, </em>and<em> Bacillus subtilis</em> bacterial growths were indicted in samples. This study has revealed that 3 hours boiling of&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>C. esculenta</em> destroyed the oxalate, which caused discomforting itching when raw or improperly cooked cocoyam is consumed, produced&nbsp; acceptable achicha-ede, and significantly reduced both antinutrient and microbial load of the cocoyam samples.&nbsp;</p> I.C. Nzelu Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Depuration, Soaking Duration and Seasons on the Microbial Counts of Periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) Harvested from Two Locations in Rivers State, Nigeria <p>The present study investigated the effects of the time interval of depuration and soaking at different seasons on the elimination or&nbsp; reduction of total microbial count in Periwinkle from Slaughter and Abuloma, a polluted creek in Rivers State, Nigeria. Periwinkles (<em>T.&nbsp; fuscatus</em>) were handpicked from the sediment in the creeks at low tide. There were decreases in some of the microbial populations from&nbsp; 0-96 hours depuration. At Slaughter, there was no significant (p≥0.05) difference in the total heterotrophic bacteria of the samples at&nbsp; different time intervals of depuration at both seasons. There was a significant (p&lt;0.05) difference in the different time intervals of&nbsp; soaking&nbsp; in the THBC count at different seasons. A similar trend was observed for hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria at different time intervals&nbsp; of soaking and depuration at both seasons and locations. At Abuloma, the total fungi count (TFC) was highest at 0 hour depuration (72.33 ± 2.51) and reduced drastically from 72 hours (17.00± 2.00) to 96 hours (13.66 ± 3.51) during the dry season. During the&nbsp; wet season, there was no significant (p≥0.05) difference between 24-96 hours of depuration. A similar trend was detected for faecal&nbsp; coliform count for Abuloma and Okujagu at different time intervals of soaking and depuration The hydrocarbon utilizing fungi count&nbsp; decreased as the depuration process progressed at both seasons. This trend was also observed for soaking and depuration time in both&nbsp; seasons. Depuration of periwinkle at different time intervals was faster in reducing the microbial count than soaking at different locations&nbsp; in both seasons.&nbsp;</p> A.N. Okereke , K.S. Abasiekong, V.C. Ezeocha Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Physiochemical Properties of Oils and Flours from Selected Soybean Varieties <p>The physiochemical properties of oils and flours from three soybean varieties (TGX 1951-3F, TGX 1448-2E, and TGX 1955-4F) were&nbsp; evaluated. Oils from the varieties did not vary significantly (p&gt;0.05) in terms of specific gravity (0.90-0.91) and saponification value&nbsp; (186.50-188.50 mg KOH/g). There were however significant (p&lt;0.05) differences in their free fatty acid (0.34-1.12 %), iodine (110-140&nbsp; gI2/100g), refractive index (1.47-1.65), smoke point (150.00- 160.00°C), flash point (162.50 to 260.00°C), fire point (167.50-272.50°C),&nbsp; peroxide (11.68-12.12 mEqv/kg) and TBA (0.83-1.82 mgMDA/kg) values. There was no significant (p&gt;0.05) difference in the proximate&nbsp; composition of the flours. Values ranged from 28.41-28.98%, 5.58-6.32%, 1.03-1.14%, 6.02-6.08%, 2.95-3.37% and 54.36-55.87% for crude&nbsp; protein, ash, crude fat, moisture, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents respectively. The concentration of minerals such as calcium,&nbsp; magnesium, sodium and potassium of the flours from the varieties varied significantly (p&lt;0.05). Values ranged from 72.27-74.87 mg/100&nbsp; g, 83.45-88.73 mg/100 g, 18.73-19.11 mg/100 g and 601.30- 606.30 mg/100 g respectively. The foaming capacity (12.00-13.75%), bulk&nbsp; density (1.43-1.61 g/ml), oil absorption (1.26-2.23 g/g) and water absorption (1.72-2.57 g/g) were significantly (p&lt;0.05) different among&nbsp; the varieties. The quality attributes of oils and flours from the varieties were within acceptable standards.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> S. Sule, A.O. Amonyeze, O.M. Okoh, D. Tyovenda Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000