Comparison of carcass yield and meat composition of three classes of chicken
This study was designed to compare the carcass yield and meat composition of three classes of chicken. Twenty one (21) birds in total consisting of 7 birds each of broilers, cockerel and spent hens were purchased from a reputable farm in Aiyepe, Ogun State. Birds were acclimatized for two weeks under similar management before the commencement of the experiment with feed and water being provided ad-libitum. Subsequently, three birds from each chicken class were randomly selected and slaughtered for carcass yield and meat proximate composition analysis. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in a Completely Randomized Design. Significant (p<0.05) differences were observed for values recorded for live weight, head, shank, thigh, drumstick, liver, lungs and large intestine. Cockerel significantly (p<0.05) recorded the highest (4.70%, 4.15%, 11.68%, 11.82%, and 0.65%, respectively) for head, shank, thighs, drumsticks and lungs, respectively compared to broiler and spent hen. However, liver and large intestine values were significantly (p<0.05) highest in broiler chicken. Dry matter content of breast meat was significantly (p<0.05) influenced with the highest value (27.35 %) recorded in spent hen and lowest (25.62 %) in broiler breast meat. Similarly, comparable ether extract content of thigh meat were obtained in cockerel and spent hen (2.89% and 2.83%, respectively) which are significantly (p<0.05) higher than 2.72% recorded in broilers. Ash content of thigh meat was statistically similar in broiler and cockerel (1.12% and 1.17%) which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than 1.03% in spent hen. In addition, statistically similar values for thigh fibre diameter were obtained in broiler and spent hen (2.60 mm and 2.56 mm, respectively) which were statistically (p<0.05) lower than 2.68 mm recorded in cockerel thigh meat. Hence, cockerel chicken evidently had the highest carcass cut-up parts (head, shank, thigh and drumstick), thigh meat fibre diameter, fat and mineral contents than broilers and spent hen.
Keywords: broiler chickens, spent hen, cockerel, carcass yield, muscle fibre