Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology 2021-03-24T06:16:31+00:00 Dr. Abdulrazak Ibrahim Open Journal Systems <p><em>Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology</em> is a publisher of multidisciplinary peer-reviews original research works and critical reviews on interdisciplinary studies in Biotechnology, Agriculture, Food and Environment interface; and is published twice a year. It serves scientists in the field of Agriculture, Food science and Technology; Animal science, Agriculture Economy and Extension, Fisheries and Aquiculture, Biotechnology, Breeding and Veterinarians.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Application of microsatellite markers for hybrid verification and genetic analysis of oil palm (<i>Elaeis guineensis</i> Jacq.) 2021-03-12T07:26:36+00:00 M.N Okoye R Singh M.I Uguru C Bakoumé <p>The legitimacy of parents and progenies used in crop improvement programmes is vital for any meaningful progress in selection. While acknowledging the shortcomings of controlled pollination in oil palm breeding and commercial seed production, the legitimacy of 20 oil palm progenies from the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) breeding programme was determined using 16 fluorescently-labeled microsatellite markers. The genotyping of parents and progenies was conducted by capillary electrophoresis using the ABI 3730 DNA Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, USA). Results revealed a complementary expression of the parents’ alleles in 18 out of the 20 individual progenies screened, confirming their hybridity and genetic identity. The two illegitimate progenies detected could be attributed to pollination and planting errors, respectively. A subset of three sufficiently informative loci (sMg00016, sMg00179 and sMo00102) was identified for routine quality control genotyping. The detection of illegitimate progenies provided ample evidence to substantiate the importance of assessing hybrid fidelity in breeding programmes. Furthermore, the usefulness of microsatellite markers as a reliable technique for routine assessment and unambiguous identification of oil palm crosses was established. The implications of microsatellite- based hybrid identification in oil palm varietal improvement programmes have been adequately discussed.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Contamination, Genetic identity, Illegitimacy, NIFOR, Parent-Progeny relationships, seed production</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Optimisation of alkaline pretreatment conditions of orange and plantain peels for polygalacturonase production by <i>Aspergillus awamori</i> CICC 2040 2021-03-12T07:30:25+00:00 O.E. Adedeji O.O. Ezekiel <p>This study investigated the optimisation of alkaline pretreatment of orange and plantain peels for polygalacturonase (PG) production by <em>Aspergillus awamori</em> CICC 2040 using response surface methodology. The factors evaluated were particle size, PS (&lt; 0.4250, 0.4250 &lt; PS &lt; 0.8025 and 0.8025 &lt; PS &lt; 1.1800 mm), NaOH molarity (0.010, 0.055, and 0.100 M), and time (1.0, 6.5, and 12.0 h). These factors were interacted to determine the most suitable combinations for maximum polygalacturonase activity (MPA). The pretreated orange and plantain peel powders were inoculated with 106 spores/mL <em>Aspergillus awamori</em> CICC 2040 was incubated at 28 <sup>o</sup>C for 5 days, and crude PG was extracted and its activity determined. The alkaline pretreatment combinations that gave MPA were &lt;0.4250 mm, 0.100 M, and 1.0 h, and 0.8025 &lt; PS &lt; 1.1800 mm, 0.010 M, and 1.0 h for orange and plantain peel powders, respectively. The MPA obtained from the pretreated orange and plantain peel powders were 38.46 and 38.82 U/mL, respectively. Optimised alkaline pretreatment conditions of the orange and plantain peels for MPA, produced by Aspergillus awamori CICC 2040, were established.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Aspergillus awamori</em> CICC 2040, Peel, Optimisation, Polygalacturonase, Pretreatment</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of Solid State Fermentation on some Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Post-Harvest Cowpea (<i>Virgna unguiculata</i> (L)Walp) Leavesv 2021-03-12T07:38:26+00:00 M.S Chomini M.K Peter B.E Akpan J.J. Mbah F. Victor <p>The effects of solid state fermentation on some physical characteristics, proximate and amino acid profile of post-harvest cowpea (<em>Virgna unguiculata</em> (L) Walp) leaves were investigated. Pulverized samples of the post-harvest materials were incubated at 260C for 96 hours, followed by urea and trichloroacetic acid treatments. Triplicate samples of fermented and unfermented materials were subjected to standard procedures to determine variations in weight, pH, proximate and amino acids profile. There was a reduction in weight, which was significant (p&lt;0.05) with increase in fermentation time. pH stabilized at 6.62 and 6.65 at 96 hours of fermentation (HOF), before and after urea treatment, respectively. Fermented samples showed significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in crude protein (37.30%), crude fat (95.69%), total ash (75.73%) and nitrogen- free extract (NFE) (5.00%) over the unfermented ones. However there were percentage reductions in crude fibre (46.60%) and moisture content (61.95%) after fermentation. The Total Amino Acids (TAA) increased from 49.64 ± 0.87 to 98.90 ± 1.70 with a general increase in all amino acids except proline and cysteine having 12.72% and 10.06% as percentage reductions, respectively. Some essential amino acids (methionine, phenylalanine and tyrosine) and non-essential amino acids (serine and proline) were limiting. The findings unveiled the feed supplement potentials of the fermented materials for use in livestock and pharmaceutical industries in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Fermentation, Nutritional Value, Post-Harvest, Cowpea</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Nutritional properties of indigenous fermented condiment (ogiri) produced from partial substitution of castor oil bean (<i>Ricinus communis</i>) with soybean (<i>Glycine max</i>) seeds 2021-03-12T07:48:49+00:00 I.N. Okwunodulu E. F Agha <p>Recently, in Nigeria, there has been a series of controversial publications and debates over the use of seasoning cubes and monosodium glutamate as cancer inducing agents. With this, the use of local condiments like<em> Ogiri</em> has become an option. <em>Ogir</em>i is traditionally produced from castor oil beans which is scarce in some communities. This study therefore explored the possibility of substituting castor oil bean with soybean to obtain an acceptable <em>Ogiri.</em> Proximate, mineral and vitamin composition and sensory characteristics of the substituted<em> Ogiri</em> samples produced were evaluated using standard methods. With increase in soybean substitution levels, proximate analysis showed an increase in crude protein (17.33%-31.68%), crude fibre (0.47-1.71%) and fat (13.76-20.23%) contents while ash (3.63-3.21%) and carbohydrate (48.13%-23.55%) contents decreased. Mineral contents increased from 46.11 - 80.21, 60.25 - 73.83, 80.33 - 99.42, 118.10 - 794.38, 1.63 - 6.32 and 0.49 - 1.48 mg/100g for calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, iron and zinc, respectively. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in the samples. Also, retinol (11.63-16.26 mg/100g), vitamin B1 (0.10-0.21 mg/100g), vitamin B2 (10.37-14.79 mg/100g), vitamin B3 (9.21-9.91 mg/100g), vitamin C (2.43-5.85 mg/100g) and vitamin E (6.43-11.25 mg/100g) increased significantly. Sensory analysis revealed that the <em>Ogiri</em> sample with 50% soybean inclusion and the control had the best organoleptic properties. Therefore, soybean substitution of up to 50% gave a better acceptable <em>Ogiri</em> with improved nutrient contents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: “ogiri”, castor oil bean, soybean</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Comparative Fatty Acid Profiling of <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> and <i>Rhodococcus rhodochrous</i> Isolated from Spoilt Paints by Gas Chromatography 2021-03-24T06:16:31+00:00 O. F. Obidi <p>The use of fatty acids to study the differences in un-related microbes is limited. This study analyzes the fatty acids produced by two unrelated microorganisms: <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (Gram-negative, aerobic, non-endospore forming, usually encapsulated rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae) and <em>Rhodococcus rhodochrous</em> (metabolically versatile, non-spore-forming, non-motile actinomycete) isolated from spoilt paints. Fatty acids produced by the organisms were analyzed using an efficient MIDI-Sherlock gas chromatography method .<em> K. pneumoniae</em> was characterized by a high content of straight chain, branched chain, hydroxyl and cyclo-fatty acids made up of C12: 0, C13:0, C14:0 iso, C14:0, C15:0 iso, C15:0 anteiso, C15:1 ω 8c, C15:0, C16:0 iso, C16:1w5c, C16:0, C15:03OH, C17:1 ω 8c, C17:0 cyclo, C17:0, C18:1 ω5c and C18:0. <em>R. rhodochrous</em> was dominated by straight chain, monounsaturated and 10-methyl fatty acids. The inability to synthesize branched, cyclo- and hydroxyl- fatty acids, was observed in <em>R. rhodochrous</em> which composed mainly of C14: 0, C15: 1 ω 5c, C15:0, C16:1 ω 9c, C16:0, C17:1 ω 8c, C17:0, C17:0 10-methyl, C18: 1 ω 9c, C18.0, 10 methyl-C<sub>18:0</sub> TBSA, C20:1 ω 9c, and C20:0. Descriptive statistics reveal a mean of 2.53, 15.10 and 15.15 for retention time (RT), equivalent chain length (ECL) and Peak name, respectively. Possible implications of the variations in fatty acid distribution may include differences in their abilities to produce various secondary metabolites and potentials to degrade a variety of xenobiotics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fatty acids, paints,<em> Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Klebsiella pneumoniae</em></p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Prevalence Of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs)-Producing <i>Escherichia Coli</i> Isolated From UTI Patients Attending some Selected Hospitals In Minna, Nigeria 2021-03-12T08:06:17+00:00 F Iseghohi J.C Igwe M Galadima A.F Kuta A.M Abdullahi C.R Chukwunwejim <p>Globally, urinary tract infections are one of the most common infections in need of urgent clinical attention. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)- producing <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolated from urine samples of some UTI patients and s of apparently healthy individuals in Minna, Nigeria, is investigated. Standard microbiological techniques were used to conduct this study. A total of 170 catch midstream urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratories of 4 different hospitals (and samples from healthy individuals) were randomly collected for 5 months and examined for microbial growths. Female patients (65.9%) submitted more urine samples for UTI test than their male counterpart (34.1%). The age ranges of 21 -30 (26.5%) and 31 - 40 (25.3%) had the highest percentages of infection rate while those within the ages 1- 10 (3.5%) and ≥ 71 (2.3%) were the least infected. This study observed a prevalence of 23.5% of <em>E. coli </em>in Minna metropolis and a significant number (30%) of healthy individuals (HI) was observed to harbor the <em>E. coli </em>in their urine. The isolates were highly susceptible to Gentamicin (65%), Ofloxacin (65%), Tetracycline (62.5%), Cotrimoxazole (62.5%), and Streptomycin (57.5%). Mildly susceptible to Pefloxacin (37.5%), Chloramphenicol (37.5%), and Ciprofloxacin (35%). There were significant resistance to most of the beta-lactames tested [Cefuroxime (80%), Amoxicillin (42.5%), Augmentin (40), Cefotaxime (20%) and Ceftaxidime (7.5%)]. Two of the isolates were resistant to all the 13 antibiotics tested; 70% (28) of the isolates had multiple antibiotics resistance index (MARI) ≥0.3. Multidrug resistance was expressed in 37.5% of the isolates tested. The study showed a vast resistant pool in the environment. Only 25% of the<em> E. coli</em> isolated from the urine samples produced beta-lactamases phenotypically, most of which expressed resistance to more than 5 of the antibiotics tested and had MARI of ≥ 0.5. Further evaluation showed that 25% (10/40) of the <em>E. coli</em> isolated from the UTI patients in Minna, Nigeria, were ESBL- producers and could harbor one or two of the genes. TEM gene was expressed in 70% (7) of the isolates that produced ESBL phenotypically, 60% 6) harbored CTXM gene, 20% (2) had the OXA gene while none of the bacteria harbored the SHV gene. The study established a 5.9% ESBL prevalence among the<em> E. coli</em> isolated from UTI in the environment studied. This study established that <em>E. coli</em> is one of the prevalent bacteri urea majorly isolated from UTI patients in Minna. The prevalent <em>E. coli</em> are multidrug resistant and could harbor more than one ESBL gene .</p> <p><strong>keywords:</strong> Escherichia coli, Minna, UTI, ESBL, Multidrug resistance</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Optimization of Phytosynthesis of Magnesium Oxide and Magnesium Chloride Nanoparticles 2021-03-12T08:39:21+00:00 H.O Shittu E Igiehon A.O Eremwanarue R.E Oijagbe M.O Momoh M.A Agbontian <p>In the present study, magnesium oxide (MgO) and magnesium chloride (MgCl) nanoparticles were phytosynthesized. Selected parameters like leaf extracts from <em>Moringa oleifera, Vernonia amygadalina</em> and<em> Occimum gratissimum</em>, time of reaction, precursor salts of magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride at varying concentrations, plant extracts to precursor salts volume ratio, pH of the medium and light sources were optimized for a better production of the nanoparticles. The phytosynthesized MgO and MgCl nanoparticles were characterized using UV- Vis spectroscopy technique. The study revealed that the leaf extracts of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> and <em>Vernonia amyg</em> dalina yielded more nanoparticles; the period of 24 hours incubation was enough time for nanoparticles formation and the 0.1 and 0.01 molar concentrations of the precursor salts gave optimal yields of the nanoparticles. The plant extracts at ratio two (2) to precursor salt solution at ratio three (3) resulted in better yield of the nanoparticles; the alkaline pH of 9 and 11 gave better nanoparticles synthesis and the visible light source and dark room environments were better exposure conditions for the nanoparticles formation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Leaf extracts, Magnesium chloride nanoparticles, Magnesium oxide nanoparticles, Phytosynthesis, UV- Vis spectroscopy.</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Isolation and Identification of Hydrocarbons- Degrading Bacteria from Panteka Stream, Kaduna, Nigeria, and Assessment of their Potential for Bioremediation 2021-03-12T08:48:20+00:00 E.C Nwagwu V.M Yilwa N.E Egbe G.B Onwumere <p>Water bodies become hydrocarbon-polluted when petroleum and other toxic organic matters are discharged into them. Panteka, located in northern Kaduna, Nigeria, is home to Panteka market, which is an industrial hub where different kinds of automobile spare parts are sold and mechanic workshops are situated. The Panteka stream flows through an entry point at Rafin guza, through Panteka market and towards the National Eye Centre. The indiscriminate disposal of spent engine oils and the discharge of other untreated effluents from car servicing workshops into the Panteka stream can lead to hydrocarbon contamination. Consequently, there is a need to identify these hydrocarbons and determine the capability of bacteria isolated from the stream to degrade the hydrocarbon pollutants. Using the pour plate method, and Bushnell Haas agar supplemented with 1% used engine oil, five bacterial isolates with the potential to degrade hydrocarbons were identified as <em>Streptococcus pnuemoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Streptococcus pyogenes</em> and <em>Salmonella enterica</em>. <em>Salmonella enterica</em> was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Basic Local Alignment search tool (BLAST) with a similarity index of 99%. The ability of the bacterial isolates to tolerate the spent engine oil was determined by turbidi metry. The results show that all the five bacterial isolates were able to tolerate the 1% (v/v) concentration of the spent engine oil. The highest growth rates (O.D 0.565 and O.D 0.695) were obtained from the pure cultures of <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em> and the mixed bacterial consortium, respectively. The potentials of the bacteria to degrade hydrocarbons in the stream was analysed using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID), and the results showed reduction of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content from 6,056 mg/ml to 100.17 mg/ml (98.3% degradation) after 28 days of treatment with the mixed bacterial culture. The hydrocarbon fractions degraded were n-Nonane, n-Decane, n-Undecane, n- Dodecane, n-Tridecane, n-Tetradecane, n-Heptadecane, Pristane, n-octadecane, Phytane, n-Eicosane, n-Tricosane, n-Tetracosane, n-Octacosane, n-Triacontane, n-Dotriacontane, n-Tritriacontane, n-Heptriacontane; while n-Pentadecane, n-Hexadecane, n-Nonadecane, n-Heneicosane, n-Docosane, n-Pentacosane, n-Hexacosane, n-Heptacosane, n-Nonacosane, n-Hentriacontane, n-Tetratriacontane, n-Pentatriacontane, and n-Hexatriacontane were not degraded. This study shows that these bacterial strains isolated from the Panteka stream have great potential for bioremediation of the hydrocarbons found in the stream.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bioremediation, Panteka stream, Automobile workshop, Hydrocarbon pollution, Bacteria isolates</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Detection of integron genes in the plasmid DNA of multidrug resistant <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> isolated from surgical wounds of some patients in Benin City, Nigeria 2021-03-12T08:53:15+00:00 A.O Eremwanarue H.O Shittu E Igiehon E.R Oijagbe <p><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> is an opportunistic pathogen with the capability to cause serious surgical wound infections and remains a major healthcare problem. Plasmid is an extra chromosomal material in bacterial cells and confers resistance to the cell against many antibiotics. Genetic elements such as integron are implicated in conferring multidrug resistance (MDR) to<em> P. aeruginosa</em> . This study aims at investigating the occurrence of integron genes (int1, int2, int3) in the plasmid DNA and their ability to cause MDR in <em>P. aeruginosa</em> . In total, 284 different wound swabs were collected,<em> P. aeruginosa</em> isolated and screened using standard laboratory methods. Antibiotics susceptibility tests were carried out using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also carried out using<em> P. aeruginosa</em> plasmid DNA as a template to detect the presence/absence of the integron genes using different pairs of specific primers. The results reveal that 34 (54.8%) of the microbes isolated were <em>P. aeruginosa .</em> Most of the isolates showed notable resistance to antibiotics, most notably against Ceftazidime, Augmentin, Cefixime and Gentamicin . Eleven isolates harbors the plasmid DNA . PCR amplification showed that 6 (54.5%) of the<em> P. aeruginos</em>a isolates harbor integron class 1 genes, non harbors the integron class 2 genes while 3 (27.3%) possess the integron class 3 genes. The isolates with these genes were highly resistant to most of the antibiotics used. int1 gene was prevalent then int3.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antimicrobial, Wound infection, Integron, Polymerase chain reaction, Plasmid DNA</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Isolation and Molecular Identification of some Fungi Associated with <i>Jatropha curcas</i> (L.) 2021-03-12T08:57:43+00:00 N.G Iyany A.E Ataga <p><em>Jatropha curcas</em> is a plant of great economic importance that experiences high incidence of fungal attack. Misidentification of the fungal species is bound to occur with the use of traditional cultural methods where organisms are identified morphologically and/or microscopically. This study was carried out to isolate and identify the fungi associated with <em>Jatropha curcas</em> (L.) using both traditional/ cultural techniques and molecular methods. The fungi were isolated from diseased leaves and stems of<em> J. curcas</em> using both Standard Blotter and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) methods. DNA was extracted from the fungal isolates using Zymo Fungal/Bacteria DNA MiniPrep Kit. Amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the fungal isolates was carried out using fungi universal primer pairs for ITS4 and ITS5. The amplicons were sequenced and the isolates were identified as<em> Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus sp., Botryosphaeria rhodina, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus tamarii, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicillium citrinum</em> and <em>Fusarium solani</em>. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to know the relationship between the isolates and other closely-related species in GenBank.<em> Jatropha curcas</em> is colonized by many fungal species some of which may be pathogenic to the plant, and molecular techniques pose the best alternative for accurate identification of these organisms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Jatropha curcas,</em> fungi, polymerase chain reaction, phylogeny, sequencing</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Methods for the Phenotypic Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Bacteria 2021-03-22T06:37:07+00:00 M.K Salihu A Yarima H.I Atta <p>1983. These enzymes possess the ability to inactivate susceptible β-lactam antibiotics i.e. penicillins, first, second and third generation cephalosporins and aztreonam, but not cephamycins and carbapenems . Their mode of action is by hydrolyzing the β-lactam ring. Even before the first β-lactam antibiotic (penicillin) was developed, resistance to β-lactam antibiotics was observed . ESBL genes are plasmids- and transposons- mediated, as such, can be spread easily to other species of bacteria. Resistance of ESBL- producing bacteria to the β-lactam antibiotics is a continuing cause of public health problems , it is increasingly being observed in community and nosocomial acquired infections. Detection and identification of these ESBLs in the laboratory is of prime importance for the selection of appropriate antibiotics to be used in the treatment of infections caused by ESBL- producing bacteria. The aim of this review is to explain in detail , several phenotypic methods used in the detection and confirmation of extended spectrum β lactamases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antibiotic resistance, ESBL, bacteria, phenotypic method</p> 2021-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of <i>Momordica Charantia</i> Silver Nanoparticles on the expressions of Genes Associated With Lipid Metabolism and Nephrotoxicity in Streptozotocin-Induced Rats 2021-03-22T06:52:14+00:00 O.O Elekofehinti M.O Akinjiyan <p>Hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia have been implicated in diabetes mellitus (DM) leading to complications such as nephropathy. Medicinal plants like <em>Mormodica charantia</em> (MC) have been used in the treatment of DM over the years but little is known about their mechanisms of action. This study used biotechnology tools to investigate and compare the effects of <em>M. charantia</em> silver nanoparticles (MCSNPs) with<em> M. charantia</em> extract on expressions of genes linked with nephrotoxicity, lipid and glucose metabolisms using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The genes investigated include kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), 3-hydroxyl, 3-methyl glutaryl_coA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma (PPARα and PPARγ). Synthesis of MCSNPs was done using 1 mM concentration of aqueous silver nitrate solution at ratio 1:9 (v/v). Experimental rats were induced intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and divided into six groups viz: diabetic control; normal control; silver nitrate (10 mg/kg); MCSNPs (50 mg/kg); Metformin (100 mg/kg) and <em>M. charantia</em> fraction (100 mg/kg). Sacrifice was done after 12 days of treatment and RT-PCR was then used to investigate gene expressions in liver and kidney tissues of the rats. The expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene was significantly upregulated (p&lt;0.05) upon treatment with 50 mg/kg MCSNPs relative to the diabetic untreated group. <em>M. charantia</em> extracts and MCSNPs significantly upregulate (p&lt;0.05) the expressions of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ compared to the diabetic control. Also, a significant (p&lt;0.05) down-regulation of KIM-1 mRNA expression was observed in MCSNPs- treated group, relative to the diabetes untreated group.<em> M. charantia</em> silver nanoparticles could be a potent antidiabetic agent due to its potential to modulate genes associated with lipid metabolism and nephrotoxicity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Medicinal plant; Diabetes Mellitus; Silver Nanoparticles; nephrotoxicity; gene expression</p> 2021-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Assessment of Physicochemical and Fatty Acids Composition of Crude Seed Oil Extract of <i>Azadirachta indica</i> Adr. Juss. for its potential in Biodiesel Production 2021-03-23T06:30:27+00:00 M.S Chomini V.I Joshua A.R John M.P Ishaya <p>This study investigates the physico-chemical and fatty acids composition of crude seed oil extracts of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> . The main objective was to evaluate some biodiesel characteristics of the crude seed oil extract of<em> Azadirachta indica</em>. The procedures of the Association of Official and Analytical Chemist (AOAC) were used for assessment of some physical, biochemical, and fatty acids constituents of the test seed oil extract. The physical properties assayed for indicate that the oil is liquid at room temperature, non-drying, with specific gravity, with flash and melting points of 0.910±0.08 g/cm3, 80±2.10°C and 76±1.60°C respectively. The chemical properties included 66.77±2.55 g/100g (iodine value), 1.465±0.07 (refractive index@ 30°C), 212.96±1.16 mgKOH/g (saponification value), 0.39±0.16 meq/Kg (peroxide value), 4.24±0.12 mgKOH/g (acid value), 2.20±0.12 mm<sup>2</sup>/s (viscosity value), 56.91±2.19 (cetane number), 39.21±1.11 MJ/kg (calorific value) and 2.13±0.05% w/w (free fatty acids). Fatty acids composition of the crude seed oil of<em> A. indica</em> obtained were linoleic, hexadecanoic, octadecanoic and alpha linolenic acids, with retention time and % composition of 18.2 min and 10.8±0.50%, 22.2 min and 30.01±1.79%, 18.2 min and 59.10±2.22%, and 20.2 min and 0.09±0.02% respectively. The crude seed oil extract clearly presents a potential as a biodiesel substrate for incorporation as a proximate blend in auto-engines. This therefore would necessitate intensive afforestation efforts of the plant species for sustainable utilization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Azadirachta indica, Biodiesel, physico-chemical, fatty acids, crude seed oil, extracts</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Ethanol Production from <i>Gmelina arborea</i> Wood Wastes by <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> using Submerged Fermentation 2021-03-23T06:45:13+00:00 M.R Adedayo A.E Ajiboye O.A Yahaya <p>Lignocellulose wastes are the most abundant residues on the surface of the earth. This project studies the possibility of ethanol production from a forestry waste. Wood wastes from <em>Gmelina arborea</em> were treated with dillute sulfuric acid to break down the lignin component. Fermentation for ethanol production was done using baker’s yeast (<em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> ATCC 204508/S288c) for 120 hours using submerged fermentation, and the pH, reducing sugar, specific gravity and lignin content were determined using standard techniques. Ethanol concentration and yield were measured via vinometer and ethanol standard curve techniques. From the results, the highest pH was obtained at 72 hours of the fermentation period. The reducing sugar content and specific gravity decreased over the fermentation time . The acid-pretreated wood wastes gave a maximum ethanol concentration of 3.84 % and a yield of 7.60 ml/g as measured from the vinometer and ethanol standard curve methods at 72 and 96 hours of fermentation, respectively. About 13.6% v/v of ethanol was recovered from the distillation process employed to separate the components of the product generated after fermentation. The observations in this research reveal the possibility of producing ethanol from<em> G. arborea</em> wood wastes and under optimized culture conditions. This could serve as an alternate means of biofuel generation and hence value addition to the wastes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Gmelina arborea, Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, Ethanol, Submerged fermentation</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Intraspecific Hybridization Of Normal Pigmented And Albino <i>Clarias Gariepinus</i> From Yola And Katsina under Hatchery Condition 2021-03-23T11:21:48+00:00 L.U Onyia I.J Ochokwu V Robinson <p>The study examined the reproductive indices of albino and normal pigmented <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> fish from Katsina (KT) and Yola (YY), carried out under hatchery condition. The experiment compared the fecundity, testes, milt volume, percentage fertilization and hatchability of albino (AA) and normal pigmented (NN) <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> from Katsina (KT) and Yola (YY). Normal pigmented <em>C. gariepinus</em> from Katsina (KT) had the highest number of eggs (229,240), followed by YY (127,250) and the least was recorded in the Albino (AA) (124,750). The weights and lengths of the left and right lobes as well as the volumes of the milt were quantified . However, KT had the highest weight and length of the right testis (18g and 5.7cm respectively) while AA had the highest weight, length of the left testis and milt volume (30g, 11cm and 8.4ml respectively). The least length and weight of the testes was observed in YY. Meanwhile, KT and YY had milt volumes of 4.0ml and 4.7ml, respectively. The highest percentage fertilization and hatchability were recorded in KT × KT (98.7% and 98.5% respectively) among the purebred, while KT × AA had the highest percentage fertilization and hatchability (98.4% and 97.3% respectively) in the reciprocal hybrids. The percentage fertilization and hatchability among the genetic crosses showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05). The results deduced the essentiality of fish hybridization. Furthermore, crossing of broodstocks from different regions have showcased the contingency of acquiring fish seed of improved reproductive potentials in the reciprocal hybrids in the aspects of fecundity, fertilization, hatchability rate, testis quality and faster growth.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Albino, Fecundity, Intra-specific Hybridization, Normal pigmented, Testis</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of processing on amino acids composition of <i>Leucaena leucocephala <i> (Lam De Wit) leaf meal 2021-03-23T12:50:39+00:00 A.N Agbo <p>The high cost of animal protein sources has made it necessary to evaluate the use of alternative plant protein sources especially unconventional plant proteins. <em>Leucaena leucocephala</em> (white lead tree) is a leguminous plant, the leaves of which have the potential of being used as a plant protein source. Leucaena leaf has been analysed to have a crude protein value of 15.2-34.3%. The plant leaves were collected from the forage section of the College of Agriculture and Animal Sciences (CAAS) Mando, Kaduna. The first group of the leaves was divided into three and sun-dried for 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours respectively. The second group was further divided into three subgroups which were soaked in water for 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours then sun-dried. The two groups of the leaves were ground into leaf powder. The effects of sun-drying and soaking on amino acid composition of<em> L. leucocephala</em> leaves was investigated. The amino acid analysis was done by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) using the Technicon Sequential Multisample Amino Acid Analyser (TSM) Technicon Instruments Corporation, New York. The essential amino acids detected in <em>L. leucocephala</em> leaf were arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine. Alanine, cysteine, tyrosine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine and proline were the non-essential amino acids detected. Sun-drying and soaking led to significant (P≤0.05) losses in the concentration of all the amino acids in the leaf samples (Sundried for 24 hours - SD1, Sundried for 48 hours - SD2, Sundried for 72 hours - SD3, soaked in water for 24 hours – SW1, soaked in water for 48 hours - SW2, soaked in water for 72 hours - SW3) when compared with the raw leaf samples (SU). Soaking caused higher reduction in the amino acid levels when compared to sun-drying in the test leaf meals which was significant at P≤0.05. The amino acid scores revealed that lysine and methionine were the limiting amino acids in<em> L. leucocephala</em> leaves relative to WHO/FAO/UNU standard for preschool aged children. Therefore, processed <em>L. leucocephala</em> leaves should be supplemented with other feed ingredients rich in these amino acids for animal feed production.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Leucaena leucocephala</em> leaf, sun-drying, soaking, amino acid composition.</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Screening and Characterization of Biosurfactant-Producing <i>Bacillus</i> Species Isolated from Contaminated Soils in Makurdi Metropolis 2021-03-23T13:19:17+00:00 W.C John I.O Ogbonna G.M Gberikon C.C Iheukwumere <p>Biosurfactants synthesized by microorganisms are chemically diverse and have gained interest industrially due to their surface and interfacial tensions-reducing activities. In this study Bacillus species from contaminated soils were screened and characterized for biosurfactant production. The study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria. The Bacillus species were isolated from kerosene shops, palm oil shops, nearby restaurants, mechanic workshops and abattoir effluents- contaminated soil samples collected from Makurdi metropolis. The Bacillus spp. were screened for biosurfactants production potentials using various screening methods (oil spreading, beta haemolysis, drop collapse and emulsification index). Specific primers were used to amplify the srfAA (surfactin gene) gene in the Bacillus isolates and the nucleotide sequences were determined at Inqaba Biotec, South Africa. The screening results were statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95 % confidence level. Isolate RT7(4)B exhibited the ability to produce biosurfactant, as well as the highest emulsification index (E24) of 73.25 % while isolate PO7(3)C gave the highest oil displacement of 6.77 mm. The supernatant obtained from isolate RT7(4)B showed reduction in surface tension of up to 30.26 mN/m. The isolates gave positive results for biosurfactant production when subjected to drop collapse and Beta haemolytic tests. The Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results revealed amplifications of srfAA gene from 7 isolates. Based on these findings, the isolates used in this study can be utilized for biosurfactant production, and can also be useful for bioremediation and industrial biotechnology applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Biosurfactants; emulsification index; Bacillus; surface tension; Drop collapse</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) In-Vitro Antagonistic Effect of <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> on <i>Ralstonia solanacearum</i>, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato (<i>Lycopersicon esculentum</i> Mill). 2021-03-23T13:43:03+00:00 C.O Ojesola A.K Akintokun P.O Akintokun A.R Oloyede <p>Tomato (<em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em>, Mill) is a rich source of vitamins, minerals and lycopene, which has many health benefits. However, its production is hampered by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum resulting in significant yield losses. Use of chemicals in the control of plant pathogens has detrimental effects on humans and the environment in terms of leaving residues in soil which later find their way into underground waters. Therefore, it is desirable to find an alternative to chemical control of this bacterial pathogen. This study investigates the potential of native <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> (Bt) for biological control of <em>Ralstonia solanacearum</em> (Rs) under laboratory conditions.<em> B. thuringiensis</em> was isolated from cultivated soil, non- cultivated soil, stagnant water, sawdust, horse dung, grain dust, dead leaves and poultry manure. <em>R. solanacearum</em> was isolated from stem exudates of bacterial wilt infected plants and its pathogenicity assay was carried out using 2-week-old seedlings of Beske tomato variety. The Bt and <em>R. solanacearum</em> isolates were then characterized phenotypically. Bt isolates were further identified using endospore and parasporal staining techniques. All the Bt isolates were tested for in-vitro antagonistic activity on <em>R. solanacearum</em> using agar well diffusion method. Isolates Bt2, Bt16, Bt17, Bt32 and Bt34 were confirmed as <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> while isolate Rs was confirmed as<em> R. solanacearum.</em> Beske showed wilting symptoms from the fourth day of inoculation and eventual death of seedlings. The zone of inhibition exhibited ranged from 0.0 mm to 20.0 mm.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<em> Bacillus thuringiensis,</em> In-vitro, Bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, Tomato</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of <i>Gmelina arborea</i> Powdered Parts on Mortality of <i>Dinoderus porcellus</i> in Yam Chips 2021-03-24T06:00:04+00:00 W.C John M Ishaya A.O Oladejo O Olori-Oke T.A Ihum C.J Ukanyirioha <p>The study aims at evaluating the efficacy of different doses of powdered stem and leaf parts of <em>Gmelina arborea</em> on<em> Dinoderus porcellus</em> infesting yam chips in Jos metropolis. The experiment was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory of the Federal College of Forestry, Jos. Samples of infested yam chips and<em> Gmelina arborea</em> were collected in Jos metropolis. Newly emerged adult<em> Dinoderus porcellus</em> were exposed to the yam chips which were mixed with different levels of<em> Gmelina arborea</em> parts powder (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g). The setup was monitored for 120 hours and mortality recorded. The study was carried out in a randomized complete design with treatments replicated thrice. Data was analysed using analysis of variance at 1 and 5 percent confidence level and Duncan test was used to separate the means. The results obtained reveal significant differences at p value=0.05 and 0.01. The results reveal that in all the doses, an increase in the amount of the powder resulted in increased incidence of <em>D. porcellus</em> mortality. After 120 hours of exposure, 100 % mortality was recorded from either 15 or 20 g stem bark + leaf powder treatment. From the results obtained, the use of 15 g stem bark+leaf powder of<em> Gmelina arborea</em> could be effective in yam chips preservation which could in turn strengthen food security.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Yam chips; Dioscorea spp; Stem bark; Botanical; Leaf powder</p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)