Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology <p><em>Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology</em> is a publisher of multidisciplinary peer-reviews original research works and critical reviews on interdisciplinary studies in Biotechnology, Agriculture, Food and Environment interface; and is published twice a year. It serves scientists in the field of Agriculture, Food science and Technology; Animal science, Agriculture Economy and Extension, Fisheries and Aquiculture, Biotechnology, Breeding and Veterinarians. </p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology 01891731 <p align="center">Copyright resides with the authors in terms of the Creative Commons License 4.0.</p><p align="center">See <a href=""></a></p><p align="center">Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognize the authors and the Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology</p> Value of Seed Protein Profile in the Taxonomy of cultivars of <i>Capsicum</i> in Nigeria <p>Over a decade, the taxonomy of the genus<em> Capsicum</em> in Nigeria&nbsp; has remained largely unrevised, unclassified and unidentified. As such, there is a dearth of information on the proper identification of <em>Capsicum spp</em> and relatives found in the country. The aim of this study was to re-examine the taxonomic status of the <em>Capsicum</em> in Nigeria in order to establish genetic diversity between them for proper identification and classification. Sodium dodecyl&nbsp; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total seed protein was performed on five varieties of Nigerian<em> Capsicum spp.</em>, following standard procedures. Six protein bands were observed across the five cultivars of <em>Capsicum</em>, of which 12-14 Kda was the only polymorphic band. Only <em>C. fructescens</em> var.<em> ijosi</em> and <em>C. fructescens</em> <em>var. sombo</em> were unique for manifesting 20-24 and 15-16 Kda bands respectively. Dendrogram of analysis obtained resolved the taxa into two distinct groups. In the first group were cultivars of <em>C. fructescens var. ijosi</em> and <em>sombo</em> while in the second group were <em>C. chinense</em>, which was distinctly separated from <em>C. fructescens var. bawa </em>and<em> C. annum</em>. Artificial dichotomous key was constructed for the identification of members of the genus <em>Capsicum</em> available in Nigeria based on the protein profiles of their seeds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Capsicum</em>, seed protein, electrophoresis, identification, diversity.</p> A.O. Adepoju A.T.J. Ogunkunle M.A. Azeez A.G. Femi-Adepoju Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 1 8 Screening of Cowpea (<i>Vigna unguiculata</i> ( L.)Walp) Varieties for Resistance to Leaf Spot in Southern Guinea Savannah Agro- Ecology of Nigeria <p>Five cowpea varieties (<em>Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp</em>) namely UAM 09 1055-6, UAM 09 1051-1, IT 99k-573-1-1, IT 90k-277-2 and IT 99k-573-2-1 were investigated for fungi associated with the seed, leaf spot disease incidence and severity in Makurdi (07o 45’- 7o 50’N and 08o 45’ - 08o 50’E ; 98 m)and Otobi (7°07’ - 7°11'N and 8° 05- 8°10'E) in Benue State, Nigeria under natural infection. The effect ofleaf spot incidence and severity on the growth and yield of cowpea varieties were also evaluated. Fungi associated with the seeds and leaf spot lesions were isolated and identified. Diseased leaf samples from the study locations were found to be infected with <em>Fusarium verticillioides, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus tamarii Kite, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus niger van Tiegh, Pythium spp, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Phoma sp.</em> Otobi field had significantly higher incidence and severity of leaf spot disease than the Makurdi field. Cowpea variety IT 99k-573-1-1, IT 99k-573-2-1 and IT 90k-277-2 were classified as moderately resistant in Makurdi with a mean incidence of 22.23%, 16.97% and 16.67% respectively while varieties UAM 09 1051-1 and UAM 09 1055-6 were classified as Moderately susceptible and Highly susceptible with mean leaf spot incidence of 41.67% and 99.17% respectively. In Otobi, all the cowpea varieties screened were classified as Susceptible to leaf spot incidence with the exception of variety IT 90k-277-2 which was classified as moderately susceptible to leaf spot disease.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Cowpea, leaf spot, screening, resistant, susceptible.</p> C. Ekhuemelo H.U. Igbor S.J. Ocheje Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 9 20 Mycoflora and Aflatoxin Levels in Stale Retailed Pepper Sold in Abeokuta Nigeria <p>Fungi constitute a major problem in the production, storage and processing of agricultural products, recent concern about the consumption of stale retail pepper in Abeokuta necessitated the need to determine the fungal population and also to quantify Aflatoxin produced by the fungi. Fungi species were isolated from 20 pepper samples (<em>Capsicum annum</em>) bought from different markets in Abeokuta using standard microbiological procedures and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify the aflatoxin present. Isolated fungi were Aspergillus flavus (55%), Mucor sp (10%), <em>Sacharomyces cerevisiae (20%), Aspergillus fumigatus , Rhizopus sp </em>and<em> Penicillium sp (5%)</em> respectively. Results shows that fourteen of the pepper samples had no detectable aflatoxin and the aflatoxin content in the remaining six samples was 23ng/kg, 18 ng/kg, 15 ng/kg, 9 ng/kg, 6 ng/kg and 2 ng/kg,. five of these samples had aflatoxin content above the European Union maximum tolerance level of 5ng/kg. The presence of toxin producing Aspergillus flavus capable of causing food poisoning raises concern over public health risks that may be associated with the consumption of stale pepper.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aflatoxin, Fungal contamination, Capsicum annum, stale foods, High Performance Liquid chromatography, public health</p> E.O. Oni L.O. Adebajo A.O. Badmos T.M. Adeleye F.M. Oyeyipo G.E. Adebiyi Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 21 26 Molecular characterization of fungi associated with stored soybean (<I>Glycine max L</I>) seeds <p>Soybean is an important legume that has high quality protein and oil for food and feed. Despite the importance of this legume, the crop is affected by several post-harvest diseases caused by fungi. A study was carried out to identify the fungal species associated with the seeds of soybean using molecular techniques. The DNA of the isolate, was molecularly characterized using Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) molecular marker. The isolate DNA sequence, was aligned using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool for nucleotide (BLASTN) 2.8.0 version of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. The results showed that the isolate sequence was 98% identical to Diaporthe spp. Voucher VP51, 98% identical to Diaporthe schini isolate L5N71 and 98% identical to Diaporthe schini strain B125. These findings showed that Diaporthe spp. is one of the causal fungal pathogens of post-harvest diseases of soybean seeds. It is anticipated that these results will provide information on culturing Diaporthe species also provide the basis for further study to show their antibiotic and anti-cancerous, enzymes and secondary metabolites producing ability.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Soybean, Diaporthe schini and RBCL marker</p> C.G. Ikechi-Nwogu F.C. Okene Copyright (c) 2020 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 27 32 Assessment of genetic diversity of selected cowpea landraces from Nigeria based on simple sequence repeat markers <p>Understanding the genetic diversity of cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata L. Walp</em>.) landraces is useful for effective characterization and ex-situ conservation of germplasm. The analysis of genetic diversity of eighteen cowpea landraces collected from five agro-ecological zones in Nigeria was reported in this study. Five individuals per landrace were genotyped with six polymorphic microsatellite markers. Three to 5 alleles with a mean of 3.833 were detected. Mean Polymorphic information content (PIC) and observed heterozygosity of the markers were 0.5721 and 0.2433, respectively. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) showed that variation due to agroecological zone constituted 24%, while variations among and within landraces as well as within individuals constituted 25%, 17% and 33%, respectively. Landraces collected from the humid rainforest zone showed high within landrace diversity and were not significantly different (P ≥ 0.001) from other landraces collected from the same zone. Landraces from the savannah zones showed low within landrace diversity and homozygous across all loci. Consequently, among landrace diversity was higher in the savannah zone with landraces collected from guinea savannah been the most diverse, followed by landraces from the derived savannah and Sudan savannah. Mantel test showed positive and significant correlation (r= 0.377, p= 0.01) between genetic and geographical distance of landrace collections. The findings are important for up-to-date characterizations of cowpea germplasm in Nigeria for improved breeding programs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Genetic diversity, cowpea, Alleles, Polymorphic information content, AMOVA,</p> I.O. Iseghohi A.I. Adesoye D.A. Oludare F.V. Agunbiade N. Unachukwu Copyright (c) 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 36 2 33 44 SDS-Page characterization of some elite cowpea (<i>Vigna unguiculata L. Walp</i>) varieties <p>The shortcomings of genotype x environment interaction&nbsp; necessitated the use of molecular methods in characterizing many plant species and in determining their phylogenetic relationships. In this study, some selected cowpea lines (27 varieties) from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile – Ife, the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru, Kaduna and Genetic Resource Centre, IITA, Ibadan were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiling. The protein banding profiles of the 27 cowpea varieties were scored and subjected to cluster analysis using Ward's minimum-variance method (WMVM) for dendrogram grouping. The dendrogram generated from the SDS-PAGE profiles grouped the varieties into seven clusters at 52% similarity coefficient. Hence, the biochemical characterization revealed more precise discrimination among the 27 cowpea varieties studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cowpea, electrophoretic banding profiles, dendrogram grouping, total proteins</p> A.S. Oladejo A.O. Bolaji I.O. Obisesan O.G. Omitogun Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 45 51 Antibacterial activities of sawdust and stem bark of Sasswood tree (<I>Erythrophleum suaveolens</I>, Guill. & Perr. Brenan, 1917) extracts against selected wood bacteria <p>This study assessed the antibacterial properties of sawdust and stem bark of <em>Erythrophleum suaveolens</em> extracts on selected wood bacteria. Erythrophleum suaveolens samples were collected, dried and macerated by dissolving 1 Kg and 0.60 Kg of stem bark and sawdust respectively into 1 L of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. <em>Sporfloxacin ciprofloxacin</em> and <em>cefuroxine</em> antibiotics were used as control. The mixture was left for 24 hours then filtered and the filtrates evaporated to dryness. Qualitative phytochemical screening, zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations (MIC/MBC) were determined according to standard methods. Tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, carbohydrates anthraquinones and alkaloids phytochemicals were present in <em>E. suaveolens</em> extracts. Zone of inhibition (32 – 37 mm) of antibiotics on test bacteria compared favourably with 17 – 24 mm of <em>E. suaveolens</em> extracts. <em>Erythrophleum suaveolens</em> ethyl acetate and methanol <em>E. suaveolens</em> extracts inhibited <em>Staphylolococus aureus, Ralstonia solanacearum, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecium </em>and <em>Acidobacterium capsulatum</em> growth at MIC of 10 mg/mL and n-hexane extracts at 20 mg/mL. At MBC of 20 mg/mL methanol stem bark extract completely killed most test bacteria. Methanol extracts were the most active extracts. The study has shown that <em>E. suaveolens</em> extracts can be explored in the control of plant diseases caused by test bacteria in the study.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Antibacterial, <em>E. suaveolens</em>, extract, phytochemicals, zone of inhibition<br><br></p> D.O. Ekhuemelo C. Ekhuemelo E.T. Tembe Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 52 61 Phylogenetic analysis of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria associated with crude oil polluted soil from Mesogar community, Delta State, Nigeria <p>This study was carried out to isolate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria associated with oil polluted soil samples collected from Mesogar community of Delta State, Nigeria. The samples were aseptically collected and the bacteria isolated according to standard microbiological techniques. The isolates with hydrocarbon biodegradative ability were screened on MSM supplemented with 2% crude oil using spectrophotometric method. The amount of crude oil degraded by the highest hydrocarbon degrader was determined using gas chromatographic (GC) assay. A total of seven bacterial isolates were molecularly identified using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. The sequences were compared to those deposited in NCBI using the basic local alignment tool (BLAST) algorithm. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was carried out to determine the evolutionary relationships of the isolated bacterial species. The isolates were identified to have remote similarities with Alcaligenes faecalis SH179a, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. <em>Phenolicus, Bacillus thuringiensis serovar konkukian, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Alcaligenes faecalis</em> SH179b, Uncultured soil bacterium clone and Alcaligenes faecalis IVN45. Strain OFBR 4 had the highest degrading ability. The use of molecular methods for rapid and accurate detection of diverse strains of hydrocarbon-degraders is of utmost necessity in bioremediation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Phylogenetic analysis, oil polluted soil, biodegradative, hydrocarbon degrader, 16S rRNA gene and crude oil.</p> O.F. Olukunle Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 62 76 Vector backbone integration in transgenic cassava is significantly correlated to T-DNA copy number <p>Multiple T-DNA integrations often occur with transgenic technology, resulting in complex integration patterns and transgene silencing. This study, investigates the correlation coefficient of T-DNA copy number on vector backbone (VBB) integration in transgenic cassava using Dot blot and PCR analysis. Thirty-nine, fifty-one and thirty-eight transgenic cassava plant lines recovered from transformations of cassava friable embryogenic callus with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 independently carrying p8016, p8052, and p900 were randomly selected and evaluated for VBB integration and T-DNA copy number. The occurrences of events with low (1-2) and high (≥ 3) T-DNA copy numbers were correlated with the presence and absence of VBB integration. Seventy-two to ninety-eight percent of VBB-free events were low copy number events while 2 to 28% of same where high copy number events. Correlation coefficient of the data revealed that the number of VBB-free events showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.821, n = 9, p = 0.01) for events with low T-DNA copy number and a significant negative correlation (r = -0.739, n =9, p = 0.02) for high copy number events. This shows that the recovery of events with low T-DNA copy number increases the chances of recovering VBB-free events thereby enhancing the production of quality transgenic events.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Copy number, DsRed, T-DNA, transformation, transgenic cassava, vector backbone integration.</p> I.C. Okwuonu C.N. Egesi Nigel James Taylor Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 77 86 Biodegradation potential of bacterial isolates from dye wastewater at Marina, Sokoto metropolis <p>This study was carried out to determine the biodegradation potential of bacterial isolates from dye wastewater at Marina Area, Sokoto. Three (3) of the bacteria were identified; <em>Bacillus subtilis, Luteimonasaestuarrii</em> and <em>Bacillus cereus</em> and were used for further studies based on their degradation ability of green, red, yellow and blue dyes. <em>Bacillus subtilis, Luteimonas aestuarii</em> and<em> Bacillus cereus</em> have the potential to degrade all the four dyes used during the present investigation. However, efficacy of the various bacterial strains was found to vary at different concentration levels in degradation of a particular dye. Thus, by this study it can be concluded that<em> Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis </em>and<em> Luteimonas aestuarii</em> can be used as a good microbial source for dye waste water treatment. The selected bacterial species represent a promising tool for application in biodegradation of dye waste water and the potential observed would allow for the application of the bacterial isolates for treatment of dye effluents before disposal.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> effluents, isolates, biodegradation, dye and bacterial.</p> M.A. Adegbite K. Ibrahim S.A. Yusif Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 87 94 Utilization of Airlift Fermenters in the Mass Propagation of<I> Pseudomonas and Aureobasidium</I>Species for the Bioremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Aquatic Environments <p>This study involved the design and fabrication of airlift fermenters for the mass propagation of a consortium of three microorganisms&nbsp; (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescence </em>and<em> Aureobasidium pullulans</em>). The efficacy of the blend in the bioremediation of simulated crude oil polluted water systems environments was also tested with a view to generating more data on crude oil degrading microorganisms for bioremediation purposes. The organisms were separately grown on a gyratory shaker at 120 rpm and at 30 °C until notable growths were observed. Equal volume of the grown organisms (500 ml) of mixed culture was used as inoculum for the 4.5 L of medium in the 7 L airlift fermenter. Thereafter, this was transferred into the 45 litres medium in the 70 L fermenter until significant growth was observed at room temperature. Culture broths were withdrawn at intervals for the determination of biomass and residual hydrocarbon concentrations. The product from the 70 L fermenter was introduced into simulated polluted water systems from which samples were withdrawn weekly. Analyses for residual hydrocarbon contents were carried out using appropriate analytical techniques. The results showed that 78.5% hydrocarbon removal was observed in the 7 L fermenter after 72 h, while that of the 70 L fermenter was 97.8% after 180 h of fermentation. Polluted water sample treated with the microbes experienced 96.4% removal after 10 weeks of treatment. It was observed further that the application of NPK fertilizer biostimulant aided microbial activities in the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons than urea, cow dung and poultry droppings. The study has demonstrated that effective bioremediation of crude oil polluted water systems could be achieved through the application of biostimulants with mass propagated crude oil degrading organisms using airlift fermenter systems.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pseudomonas fluorescence; Aureobasidium pullulans; Airlift fermenter; Bioremediation; Biostimulation; Bioaugmentation.</p> E.L. Ejianreh E.F. Aransiola A.I. Adebimpe B.O. Solomon Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 95 113 Production, purification, and characterization of α-amylase from <i>Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus</i> and <i>Penicillium expansum</i> using cassava peels as substrate <p>Cassava peels are waste generated from cassava processing and are mostly disposed of in Nigeria by dumping indiscriminately in landfills/waste dumps where they remain as huge mounds and constitute nuisance to the environment. This study was carried out using cassava peels as substrate for the production of α – amylase from three fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum) selected from twelve microbial isolates obtained from biodegrading cassava peels. The fungi were isolated using cassava peel agar medium and the α – amylase was produced by the solid state fermentation process. The α – amylase was assayed by measuring the decrease in staining power of starch with iodine reagent at 620nm and purified by using Sephadex G-100 and Sephadex C-50. The α – amylase was characterized by examining the effect of temperature, stability at 70<sup>o</sup>C, pH, substrate concentration, metal ions and EDTA. The results show that the purification fold and specific activity were 95.727, 1.053 Units/mg protein; 81.830, 0.982 Units/mg protein and 85.784, 0.686 Units/mg protein for<em> A. flavus, A. niger and P. expansum</em> respectively. The optimum temperature and pH were 45<sup>o</sup>C and 4.5 respectively. It was observed that the α – amylase still retained some activity after heating at 70<sup>o</sup>C for 35 min. The α – amylase activity increased with increase in substrate concentration and metal ion concentration (Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup>) but decreased with increase in heavy metal ion concentration (Hg<sup>2+</sup> and Pb<sup>2+</sup>) and EDTA.</p> <p><strong>Key word</strong>s: Cassava peels, α – amylase, fungi, starch and Sephadex C – 50.</p> E.T. Aisien I.H. Igbinosa Copyright (c) 2020-03-12 2020-03-12 36 2 114 126 Isolation and identification of phytase-producing <i>Bacillus</i> and <i>Enterobacter</i> species from Nigerian soils <p>The bioavailability of phosphorus and other nutrients in feed for monogastrics is restricted by the presence of phytate. Exogenous supply of phytase produced by bacteria and other microbes can enhance the bioavailability of these nutrients and reduce phosphorus pollution. The objective of the study was to isolate bacteria with phytase-producing potentials from soil; which may be employed for the bioavailability of phosphorus and other nutrients in feed for monogastrics in Nigeria. Top soil samples were collected from two dumpsites in Lagos, Nigeria and bacteria were isolated and screened for potentials to produce phytase. The isolates with phytase potential were primarily identified by their cultural and biochemical&nbsp; characteristics and then confirmed using the 16S rRNA sequencing, after which their expressed phytases were quantified. A total of six isolates&nbsp; belonging to three species were identified as phytase producers. Sequence data analyses revealed these to be <em>Bacillus subtilis (2), Bacillus&nbsp; amyloliquefaciens (3) and Enterobacter cloacae</em> (1) with accession numbers MH879827 and MH879832; MH879828, MH879830 and MH879831; and MH879829 respectively. Phenotypic phytase activity was highest in <em>E. cloacae</em> ODS 29 (9.69 ± 0.04 U/ml) and least in B. subtilis ODS 10 (8.83 ± 0.02 U/ml). In conclusion, phytase-producing <em>Bacillus</em> and <em>Enterobacter</em> species were isolated and characterized from Nigerian soils. These bacteria species could be used in biotechnological applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bacillus, Enterobacter, Monogastrics, Phylogenetic analysis, Phytase</p> O.O. Onawola I.S. Akande W.O. Okunowo A.A. Osuntoki Copyright (c) 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 36 2 127 138 Phytoremediation of diesel and spent engine oil contaminated soil using Kariya (<i>Hildergardia barteri Mast.</i>) seedlings <p>Using a completely randomized design experiment, the effect of different levels of diesel and spent engine oil contamination (0 mL/kg, 25 mL/kg, 50 mL/kg and 75 mL/kg of soil) on growth performance (seedling height, collar diameter, number of leaves and biomass accumulation) of <em>Hildergardia barteri</em> seedlings were assessed for twelve weeks. The concentration of Lead, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in the plant parts were also determined. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics at P&lt;0.05 level of significance. There were significant differences in the effects of diesel and spent engine oil on growth performance of seedlings based on contamination levels. Control treatment had the highest height (92.43±5.13 cm), collar diameter (16.23±0.98 mm), number of leaves (11.21±0.47) and total biomass (33.01±12.79 g). Seedlings exposed to 50 mL/kg treatments had the least height (diesel oil: 78.21±7.22 cm; spent engine oil: 79±6.24 cm); those exposed to 75 mL/kg contamination had the least collar diameter (diesel oil: 8.85±1.05 mm, spent engine oil: 12.02±1.01 mm), while seedlings treated with 50 mL/kg diesel oil (2.21±0.37) and 75 mL/kg spent engine oil (4.79±0.55) had the lowest number of leaves. Heavy metal bio-accumulation ranges were: Lead: 0.17-0.39 mg/kg, Nickel: 0.09–0.45 mg/kg, Copper: 0.54–1.08 mg/kg, Zinc: 0.88–1.58 mg/kg. The ability of the seedlings to survive and bio-accumulate heavy metals indicate the potential phytoremediation capabilities of <em>Hildergardia barteri</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: phytoextraction, hydrocarbon derivatives, growth inhibition, <em>Hildergardia barteri</em></p> S.O. Olajuyigbe O.O. Fayinminnu A.O. Ayoade Copyright (c) 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 36 2 139 149 Evidence of purifying selection in exon 3 of interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF-5) gene in Nigerian indigenous chickens <p>Immune genes are under acute selective pressure in order to resist pathogenic attacks. It is not really clear the type of selective force that acts on immune genes because of diverse pathogen load and host population density, so this experiment studied the selective force acting on exon 3 of IRF-5 gene in Nigerian indigenous chickens. DNA was extracted from 90 Nigerian indigenous chickens and exon 3 of IRF-5 gene was sequenced. The region was tested for deviation from neutrality using DnaSP. The Mean non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) and mean synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS) were calculated to predict likely selective force/event acting on the region using HyPhy software implemented inside MEGA6 software. All the test of neutrality indices obtained for exon 3 of IRF-5 gene in Nigerian indigenous chickens were greater than 1 except Tajima’s D value of normal feather chickens (0.93) and Fu’s Fs value of naked neck chickens (0.71). The dN of 0.00 and negative dS were estimated for exon 3 of IRF-5 gene in all the three genotypes. This study therefore concluded that purifying selective forces are acting on exon 3 of IRF-5 gene in Nigerian indigenous chickens.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Chickens, co-evolution, immunity, pathogens, selection.</p> S.O. Durosaro M.O. Ozoje A.O. Adebambo O.M. Onagbesan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 36 2 150–157 150–157 16S rDNA Sequencing analysis in identification of some multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates from clinical specimens <p>Accurate identification of bacterial pathogens from clinical specimens and Multidrug Resistant (MDR) characterization is a key to empirical therapy.&nbsp; Twelve (12) bacteria isolates from blood, urine and faecal samples were selected based on the ability to grow on <em>Luria Bertani</em> (LB) agar medium containing 100μg/ml ampicillin, identified by 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. Identified isolates tagged; U01, U02, U03, U04, S08, U10 and U11 were&nbsp; from urine specimens, S05, S06, S07 and S12 from stool, while B09 was from blood. The isolates were screened for MDR pattern according to Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Conventional biochemical tests revealed that all the isolates are <em>Escherichia coli.</em> The 16S gene sequencing results confirmed that, ten (10) isolates had high similar sequence alignment with identified E. coli strains, while two are <em>Enterobacter cloacae </em>and<em> P. aeruginosa.</em> The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern shows that, most of the isolates (83.3%) were MDR. All the 12 isolates (100%) are resistant to <em>Ampicillin, Cephalothin, Erythromycin, Fusidic acid, Novobiocin</em> and<em> Oxacillin,</em> but sensitive to Colistin sulphate and Imipenem. Eleven isolates (91.7%) are resistant to <em>Chloramphenicol, Cotrimoxazole, Streptomycin, Sulphatriad </em>and<em> Tetracycline</em>. Eight of the 12 isolates (66.7%) are resistant to <em>Ciprofloxacin </em>and<em> Ceftriaxone.</em> Seven (58.3%) are resistant to <em>Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime </em>and<em> Gentamycin</em>. Nine (75%) are sensitive and three isolates (25%) are resistant to Augmentin. The high resistance to these antibacterial agents in this study was due to the indiscriminate use of first-line&nbsp; common antibiotics like ampicillin in the study area, which is now substituted with Augmentin. Routine biochemical identification tests should always be confirmed with genotypic methods such as 16S gene sequencing, to avoid misdiagnosis, as variations do exist among some bacterial strains.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Multidrug resistance, sequencing, 16S rDNA, <em>E. coli,</em> Enterobacter cloacae, P. aeruginosa.</p> M.Y. Iliyasu R.A. Bamanga A.F. Umar E.B. Agbo A. Uba Copyright (c) 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 36 2 158 166 Analysis of differentially expressed genes induced by drought stress in tef (<i>Eragrostistef</i>) root <p>Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses which induces root growth in tef. Molecular mechanisms underlying the elongation of roots under drought stress are not known. Therefore, we aimed to study the tef root system to uncover the expression profiles for drought stress using Agilent gene chip of rice. One hundred seventy-five expressed genes were found to be differentially expressed after eight days of drought stress with Eragrostis tef- resistant genotype, Kaye Murri. The drought-responsive genes were isolated and classified into nine categories according to the functional roles in plant metabolic pathways, such as defense, signal transduction, cell wall fortification, oxidative stress, photosynthesis,&nbsp; development, cell maintenance, RNA binding, and unknown functions. The profiles of tef root genes, responsive to drought stress shared common identities with other expression profiles known to be elicited by diverse stresses, including pathogenesis, abiotic stress, and wounding. Well-known drought-related transcription factor-like, WRKY and bHLH were up-regulated. Cell transport-related regulators such as potassium transporter 22-like, auxin transporter-like protein 1, and wall-associated receptor kinase were also involved in the expression profile of tef root under drought stress. Their expression had enhanced the drought-responsive genes, which, have a direct role to maintain root growth under drought stress.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Drought, Genome, Microarray, Root, Tef</p> Hewan Demissie Degu Copyright (c) 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 36 2 167 187