Physical and biochemical studies on excess weight-induced rats maintained on mixed spices-supplemented diet
The research was conducted to assess some growth and biochemical changes in excess weightinduced male Wistar rats maintained on mixed spices-supplemented salty diet. The spices (onions, garlic, ginger and cloves) were separately pulverized and thereafter mixed in ratio of 1:2:2:2 respectively. Eight (8) Wistar rats (151.01±1.12 g) were randomly divided into two groups (A and B) of four (4) rats each with nearly equal average weight. Three experimental diets, A, B and B* were formulated. Diet A was 100% starter’s mash (control diet) while Diet B was 6% salt of starter’s mash and B* was 2% mixed spices of diet B. The rats in groups A and B were maintained on their experimental diets (Diet A and Diet B respectively) ad libitum for four weeks. Diet B was then removed and replaced with diet B* and maintained on this diet ad libitum and the feeding trial continued for another three weeks. Growth, hematological and lipid profiles, and transaminase enzyme activities in the rats were determined. There was no significant variation (p>0.05) in the feed intake between the group maintained on 6% salty diet (76.40±3.20 g) and the control (82.93±4.24 g). Feed conversion ratio (5.69±1.13) was significantly lower while the average weekly weight gain (15.92±2.39 g) was significantly higher in the group maintained on 6% salty diet when compared with the group on control diet. Supplementation of diet B with 2% mixed spices (Diet B*) caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight gain (6.19±2.01g) and increase in feed conversion ratio (15.99±4.23) in excess-weight induced rats. Excess-weight induced rats (Group B) maintained on 2% mixed spices of diet B had significantly (P<0.05) higher PCV (41.33) and Hb (13.77), but there was no significant (P>0.05) change in RBC (3.10), WBC (3.43) and Platelet (468.67) when compared with the control. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were not significantly affected. The concentration of ALT was significantly (p< 0.05) higher in serum (36.67 ±1.45 U/L) and liver (45.00 ±2.65 U/L), but lower in heart (24.67 ±1.76 U/L) and kidney (8.67 ±0.33 U/L) of excess-weight induced rats (Group B) maintained on 2% mixed spices of diet B. AST however, increased (p< 0.05) in kidney (24.67±1.764 U/L). Therefore, 2% supplementation of metabolic disease-causing diets with mixed spices (onions, garlic, ginger and cloves) may have positive effects on reversal of excess weight gain, lipid metabolism, blood formation and organ protection in subjects fed on the diets.
Keywords: Mixed-spices; Excess weight-induced; Biochemical; Hematology; Transaminase; Lipid