Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences <p>The object of the Journal is the advancement of science in all its aspects of theory, principles, methodology and practice, with emphasize on areas of common interest to all scientists.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Usmanu Danfodiyo University en-US Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2756-4843 Copyright of published material belongs to the journal Detection of Newcastle Disease antibodies amongst local chicken slaughtered in live bird markets in Kaduna, Nigeria <p>Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) constitutes a major constraint to the poultry production system in Nigeria. This study was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of NDV antibodies in local chickens (Gallus domesticus) slaughtered in five different live bird markets (LBMs) in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. Three hundred blood samples were collected and screened for antibodies against NDV using Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI). An overall seroprevalence rate of 23% (95%:CI18.5-28.0) was recorded in this study. Seroprevalence based on different LBMs revealed a higher prevalence of 28.3% (95% : Cl 18.0-40.7) in Sabo market, followed by Sokoto road market 26.7% (Cl:16.7-38.9), Kawo market 18.3% (95% Cl: 10.0-29.6), Railway market 13.3% (Cl:6.4-23.5), and the lowest prevalence was recorded in central market 11.7% (Cl:5.2-21.7). The difference in seroprevalence among the LBMs was not statistically significant (p &gt; 0.05). Higher seroprevalence of NDV antibodies in female birds 30.5 % (Cl: 24.1-37.6) was recorded compared to male 13.9% (Cl: 8.3-21.4). The study indicated that NDV is endemic in the population. LBMs location had no significant influence on the seroprevalence of NDV in the study area. The difference in seroprevalence between sexes was statistically significant (p &lt; 0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrated the need for a regular strategic vaccination programme against NDV in local chickens in Kaduna metropolis.</p> Y. S. Wungak A. Alhassan D.B. Judith I. Bitrus I.B. Shallangwa H.G. Ularamu Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 30 1 01 04 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.1 Cadmium geochemistry and groundwater pollution status evaluation using indexing and spatial analysis for Keffe community and Environs Sokoto Basin, North Western Nigeria <p>Representative groundwater samples were collected from the Kaffe community and environs to evaluate the concentrations and geochemical constraints for mobilizing cadmium (Cd) and selected heavy metals. Field-based in-situ measurements of physicochemical parameters were combined with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer analysis of dissolved elemental concentrations. Pollution indices (i.e. heavy metal pollution index; HPI, heavy metal evaluation index; HEI, contamination degree; Cd, metal index; MI, synthetic pollution index; SPI, ecological risk index; ERI and Nemerow index; NI) evaluations highlighted the levels of heavy metals in the groundwater. Cadmium and iron (Fe) concentrations exceeded the recommended limits in 97% of the analysed samples, with an average pH of 6.3. Strong positive correlations were observed between cadmium and the computed pollution indices (p 0.774 to p 0.100), suggesting significant Cd pollution of the groundwater. Components analysis grouped Cd, Fe, and the pollution indices in the first PC. This was favourably compared to the correlation analysis result. Cluster analysis categorized Cd, Zn and pH in the first cluster consistent with the suggested dissolution and enrichment of Cd and Zn in the groundwater under similar geochemical conditions. The study area is medium and moderately polluted based on HPI, HEI, Cd, and NI.</p> H.M. Grema H. Hamidu A. Suleiman A. I. Kankara A.O. Umaru N. F. Abdulmalik Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 30 1 05 23 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.2 Performance evaluation of date-seed activated carbon as adsorbent in adsorption refrigeration system <p>Vapour compression refrigeration systems are characterised by relative high energy requirement in addition to environmental pollution tendencies. Adsorption refrigeration system could be a better option in terms of huge energy savings and carbon emission reduction. This study is aimed at evaluating the performance and characteristics of date-seed activated carbon (DSAC) for use as adsorbent in adsorption refrigeration. Using isoster-based adsorbent/adsorbate equilibrium test rig, pressure, temperature and concentration (P-T-X) data were obtained. The isosteric heat of adsorption for conventional activated (CAC) and DSAC are estimated to a first approximation to be 16.058 and 16.650 kJ/Kg respectively. The results showed that date-seed activated carbon has relatively good adsorptive characteristics.</p> M.S. Abdulkadir, D.M. Kulla G.Y. Pam Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 30 1 24 27 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.3 Technical efficiency of onion production in Kebbi State: A Stochastic frontier production function approach <p>This study investigates onion producers’ technical efficiency level in Kebbi State. Purposive and simple random sampling procedures were adopted in selecting 210 onion producers using structured questionnaire from seven local government areas in the state. Descriptive statistics, gross margin and stochastic frontier production models were employed in describing and analyzing the data. The results showed that producers generated an average gross revenue and gross margin of ₦1,085,692.51 and ₦700,388.33 at farm-gate price, respectively. The coefficients of farm size (0.6779), labour (0.1700) and seed (0.01011) were significantly positive in influencing the onion output, while level of education and household size significantly increased technical efficiency of producers. The technical efficiency of the pooled sample ranges from 0.13 to 0.95 and the mean technical efficiency was 0.78. Production constraints recorded were; high cost of input, pest and disease attack, poor pricing and inadequate government support. In conclusion, onion is a viable agribusiness enterprise for wealth generation and reliable means of small producers’ livelihood and lucrative business for large scale producers. The study recommends the need to identify sustainable interventions through government/nongovernmental support policies to improve input supply system, encourage adult education vide extension service and strengthening linkages among onion producers.</p> Y. Kaka U. Magaji A.A. Gindi Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 30 1 28 35 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.4 Determination of design-related properties of selected Irish potatoes varieties <p>The aim of this study was to determine some design-related properties of Irish potatoes commonly grown in Nigeria that may be useful in designing, handling and processing equipment of the product. Two varieties were selected: <em>Nicola</em> and <em>Diamant</em>. The measured properties were length, width, thickness, bulk density, solid density and angle of repose. Other parameters were arithmetic mean, geometric mean, surface area, volume, porosity and kernel weight. The mean length, width and thickness obtained for Nicola variety were 66.5, 37.3 and 32.4 mm respectively; while 57.4, 35.2, and 31.7 mm were obtained for <em>Diamant</em>, respectively. The mean angle of repose of <em>Nicola</em> and <em>Diamant</em> varieties were 27.20 and 26.40°, respectively. Mean roundness of <em>Nicola</em> and <em>Diamant</em> varieties were also obtained as 0.6 and 0.7 respectively. The mean surface area and volume of <em>Nicola</em> variety was determined to be 58.55 cm2 and 42.61 cm³ while that of <em>Diamant</em> variety was 50.31 cm² and 34.08 cm³, respectively. Moisture contents of <em>Nicola</em> and <em>Diamant</em> varieties used were obtained as 76.3 and 85.9%, respectively. Mean hardness of <em>Nicola</em> and <em>Diamant</em> varieties was 1.52 and 1.7 HV, respectively; indicating that <em>Diamant</em> is a harder variety than <em>Nicola.</em> These properties may be useful and serve as a guide on major engineering design of handling and processing equipment.</p> A. Saleh J. O. Awolola Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 30 1 36 40 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.5 Probabilistic Cellular Automata modelling and simulation of land-use changes in Okomu National Park <p>Land use, land cover (LULC) change technique is essential for measuring ecological quality, environmental sustainability, and uncontrolled development at various spatiotemporal scales. To construct effective land use management plans, the probable future scenario of LULC changes can be easily detected utilizing a simulation technique.This study monitors and models spatiotemporal land-use changes in Okomu National Park over two decades (2000 – 2020) to project forest cover changes for the near future. A probabilistic cellular automata (CA) model was created and used to simulate land-use changes with the aim of predicting future land-use scenarios. Landsat7 ETM+ satellite images for years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 were classified into Forest and Non–Forest using a maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm. A probabilistic cellular automata model using Moore’s neighborhood with a Von Neumann extension was used to simulate land-use changes for years 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 with the year 2000 as the base year.The overall classification accuracy for the years under study was 98.18%, 97.52%, 96.33%, 91.67%, and 94.61%with overall kappa coefficients of 0.97, 0.96, 0.95, 0.86, and 0.91 respectively. State transition probabilities for 2000–2005, 2005–2010, 2010–2015, and 2015–2020 were calculated from the classified images. Simulation accuracywas 77.46%, 74.1%, 70.98%, and 78.27% for the year 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 respectively. Projections were made for years 2025 and 2030 and it shows a 27.41% decline from the base year by 2025 anda 29.90% decline by 2030.The amount of forest cover in the actual and simulated land-use changes shows a gradual drop from 185.15 km2 in the base year 2000 to 136.07 and 135.30 km2 in the year 2020, respectively.Spatial simulation models, which provide a scientific basis for supporting sustainable forest management based on different simulation scenarios alsocontribute significantly to the implementation framework for the United Nations' Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD/REDD+) program, as well as reference scenarios for REDD/REDD+ incentive payments.</p> S.J. Okonkwo A.E. Adeniji O.A. Adekugbe P.A. Ukoha A.R. Adewoye Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 30 1 :41 48 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.6 Estimation and variation of saturation mixing ratio and mixing ratio over Potiskum, Nigeria <p>In this study, the monthly average mean temperature, relative humidity and surface pressure data obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for a period of thirty-eight (1979 – 2016) years was employed to estimate the saturation mixing ratio and mixing ratio for Potiskum located in the Sahelian climatic zone of Nigeria. The monthly variation of saturation mixing ratio and mixing ratio with the meteorological parameters during the period under focused was investigated. The results revealed that the maximum and minimum values of saturation mixing ratio were found in the months of May and December with 31.7067 g kg<sup>-1</sup> and 17.5980 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The maximum and minimum values of saturation mixing ratio were found in the months of September and February with 20.6797 g kg<sup>-1</sup> and 4.1153 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The results showed that high values of mixing ratio were observed during the rainy season and low values during the dry season. The monthly variation of saturation mixing ratio with mean temperature and the monthly variation of mixing ratio with relative humidity depicts direct relationship. The monthly variation of saturation mixing ratio with atmospheric pressure and relative humidity and the monthly variation of mixing ratio with mean temperature and atmospheric pressure varies differently.</p> D.O. Akpootu M.I. Iliyasu I. Nouhou, A.O. Aina M. Idris W. Mustapha D.E. Ohaji A.D. Muhammad Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 30 1 49 54 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.7 Haematological and hepatho-renal effect of cashew nut oil on male Wistar rats <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the biosafety of <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> (cashew) nut oil using male Wistar rats as model. Cashew nut oil was extracted from cashew nuts with the aid of a Soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane as solvent. Twelve male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups labeled I, II, III and IV (3 rats per group). Group I served as the control group and were administered distilled water. Group II received 1.53 mL/kg of the nut oil; group III received 4 mL/kg of the nut oil while group IV received 8.13 mL/kg of the nut oil. The administrations were via the oral route. Blood samples were collected weekly for haematological examination. At the end of four weeks study period, the rats were anaesthetized and the liver and kidneys were removed for histological examination. The haematological result showed slight deviation from the normal in packed cell volume (52%), total white blood cell count (9.38 x 10<sup><em>3</em></sup>/mm<sup>3</sup>) and lymphocyte count (58.17%) in Wistar rats administered 4 to 8.13 mL/kg of the cashew nut oil, respectively yet no visible compromise of the immune system was observed. Histological analysis; however, revealed some hepatocyte morphological lesions including mild microvesicular steatosis, kupffer cell hyperplasia, shrinkage of glomeruli, glomerular distortion, necrotic renal tubules, severe congestion and atrophy of renal tubules in rats fed 8.13mL/kg of the nut oil. In conclusion, the cashew nut oil was responsible for hepatic parenchymal and matrix alteration in wistar rats administered 8.13 mL/kg of cashew nut oil.</p> J.O. Akpotu S. J. Oniye S.A. Abdullahi B.T. Magaji Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 30 1 55 61 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.8 Awareness and factors influencing farmers’ decision in establishing private forest plantation in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State <p>Private investments in forestry in Nigeria have not been as attractive as private investments in cash and food crops such as cocoa, rubber, rice, and maize. It is thought that these agricultural crops yield financial returns earlier than forestry crops. This study therefore, assessed factors influencing private forest plantations establishment among farmers in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 120 farmers from six wards in the study area. Data were collected from the respondents using interview guide. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency Tables and Charts. Results showed that 44.2% of the respondents were aware of private forest plantation establishments while 55.8% were not aware. The major sources of awareness were through community leaders (25.8%), radio (20.8%), and friends (15%). Major factors influencing farmers’ decision to establish private forest plantation are seasonal bush burning (93.3%), long gestation period (85.8%), inadequate extension services (90.8%), Government policies (87.5%), climatic conditions (80.0%), transportation (79.2%), land availability (79.2%), planting stocks (76.7%). It was recommended that farmers’ decision to establish private forest could be influenced by making land available to interested farmers, granting credit facilities and free planting stock.</p> A O. Ibrahim O. A. Adeniji K. M. Adelakun U. I. Fingesi, A. A. Sa’adu A. Sulyman E. A. Irunokhai Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 30 1 62 67 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.9 Integrated geophysical methods and techniques for studying the perennial springs in Ikanje- Share, Kwara State, Nigeria <p>An integrated magnetic, self-potential (S.P.) and electrical resistivity survey involving magnetic profiling and 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) electrical imaging techniques were carried out in the transition environment between the Nupe Basin and Southwestern Nigeria Basement Complex at Ikanje-Share in Kwara State, Nigeria. The Ikanje-Share perennial springs started gaining a lot of attention after many travelers and tertiary institutions in Nigeria made it a good choice for their fieldwork exercise. The surveys were done in order to delineate the subsurface layers, determine the geoelectrical characteristics and identify geological structures (e.g., faults and fractures) that are responsible for the perennial spring formation. The magnetic profiling was used as reconnaissance technique to identify lineament features that are favourable to groundwater accumulation and transmission. Some magnetic lineaments were qualitatively inferred from some profiles in the study area. The fault locations coincide with inflection points in S.P. curves and occur as horizontal and consistent planes of discontinuities at depths of approximately 1.25, 4.25, 8.75, 13.15 and 21.25 m, respectively. The VES interpretation results indicated four to five major geologic units, which include: the topsoil/clay/lateritic layer, the lateritic layer, the weathered basement, the weathered/fractured basement and the fresh bedrock. The weathered and fractured basements constitute the main aquifer units and the overburden thickness varies from 5.0 to 16.8 m. The study has shown the usefulness of integrated geophysical methods and techniques in subsurface structural and groundwater development study over the perennial springs in the transition environment between the Nupe Basin and the Southwestern Nigeria Basement complex.</p> A. K. Olawuyi M. A. Bawallah Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 30 1 68 76 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.10 In-vitro cytotoxicity effects and bioactive constituents of chloroform extract of <i>Vernonia glaberrima</i> Welw. ex O. Hoffm (Asteraceae) <p><em>Vernonia glaberrim</em>a plant is used traditionally in the treatment of cancer, diabetes and malaria in North central Nigeria. This study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of chloroform extract of <em>Vernonia glaberrima</em> and isolate some bioactive constituents. Neutral red cytotoxicity assay was performed using breast cancer (MCF7), cervical cancer (HeLa) and Liver cancer (HepG2) cells upon exposure to predetermined concentrations of the chloroform extract. The cell viability was determined colorimetrically after 72 hours of incubation. The extract was fractionated using silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC. Isolated compounds were characterized using FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The extract inhibited 50% cell proliferation of MCF7, HeLa and HepG2 cells at an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 14.02 ± 0.03, 15.78. ± 0.04, and 16.77± 0.1 μg/mL, respectively. Two compounds namely, lupeol (1) and betulinic acid (2) were isolated from the extract. The two isolated compounds have been previously reported in literature to possess anticancer activities. Hence, the findings from this study demonstrate the potential anticancer properties of chloroform extract of <em>Vernonia glaberrima</em>.</p> A. M. Alhassan A. Uba C. Muhammad H. L. Bako I. Malami Q. U. Ahmed Y. I. Alkali Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 30 1 77 80 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.11 Proximate composition and glycaemic index of destarched rice <p>There is strong evidence linking low glycaemic diets and reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to develop low glycaemic index (GI) food using rice. Rice was subjected to enzymatic treatment at 40 °C for 8 mins for destarching. After the incubation, the proximate composition and GI of the processed rice were determined. Proximate analysis was carried out using the standard methods of AOAC, whereas GI was assessed using a postprandial oral glucose test. The results showed a significant reduction (p &lt; 0.05) in percentage carbohydrates in the processed rice compared with the unprocessed control. Other parameters such as % moisture and lipids were also reduced in the processed rice when compared with the unprocessed control. Furthermore, the percentage of proteins and fibres were significantly increased in the processed rice compared to the unprocessed control. The GI of the processed rice was 69.86% as against the 86.43% of unprocessed rice, representing a 16.57% reduction. Overall, the results suggest that the enzymatic treatment of the rice have the potential of reducing both the starch content and GI of the rice. This can be explored in the development of a diabetic diet.</p> S. A. Muhammad A. B. Babatunde A. Onu A. Y. Abbas Y. Saidu L. S. Bilbis Copyright (c) 0 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 30 1 81 85 10.4314/njbas.v30i1.12