Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences <p>The object of the Journal is the advancement of science in all its aspects of theory, principles, methodology and practice, with emphasize on areas of common interest to all scientists.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Copyright of published material belongs to the journal (Prof. Yusuf Saidu) (Dr Yusuf Saidu) Tue, 24 Oct 2023 07:24:11 +0000 OJS 60 Meat and carcass quality of weaner rabbits placed on three different plant protein-based diets <p>The study assessed the effect of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with palm kernel cake (PKC) or cotton seed cake (CSC) on the meat and carcass characteristics of rabbits. Sixty mixed breed weaner rabbits of both sexes with an age range of eight to nine weeks old were randomly divided into three treatments 1, 2, and 3 of 20 rabbits per group. Rabbits in the group one (T1) served as the positive control and were fed GNC-based diet, while those in treatments two (T2) and three (T3) were fed PKC-, and CSC-based diets respectively. The results differed non-significantly (p&gt;0.05) in the final body weight and carcass quality of the rabbits in each group. Carcass evaluation varied non-significantly (p&gt;0.05) in terms of visceral (liver, lungs, hearts, and kidneys) and weights of primal cuts (neck, forelimbs, hindlimbs, chest, and back). Also, some of the meat’s physicochemical properties showed no difference. The meat ratios bone of groups fed PKC- and CSC-based diets were insignificant (p&gt;0.05) above the control. CSC significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased the moisture, while PKC significantly decrease the nitrogen and crude protein contents of the meat of experimental rabbits. This study suggests that rabbits could be raised on a diet formulated using CSC as a replacement for GNC, while a PKC-based diet tends to decrease the protein content of rabbit meat.</p> E.B. Ibitoye, A.A. Jimoh, D.A. Okegbire, D.O. Ishola, P.B. Gwimi, A.M. Alayande Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modified robust regression-type estimators with multi-auxiliary variables using non-conventional measures of dispersion <p>Auxiliary variables correlated with the study variables have been identified to be useful in improving the efficiency of ratio, product and regression estimators both at planning and estimation stages. The existing regression-based estimators are functions of auxiliary variables which are sensitive to outliers. In this paper, a modified class of estimators is proposed using robust non-conventional measures of dispersion which are robust against outliers or extreme values. The properties (Biases and Mean Squared Errors (MSEs)) of the modified class of estimator were derived up to the first order of approximation using Taylor series approach. The empirical studies were conducted using stimulation to investigate the efficiency of the proposed estimators over the efficiency of the existing estimators. The results revealed that the proposed estimators have minimum MSEs and higher Percentage Relative Efficiencies (PREs) among all the competing estimators. These results implied that the proposed estimators are more efficient and can produce better estimate of the population mean compared to other existing estimators considered in the study. Therefore, it can be concluded that proposed estimators have better predictive power for estimating population mean when the study (interest) variables are characterized with outliers or extreme values.</p> A. Audu, A. Gidado, N. S. Dauran, S. A. Abdulazeez, M. A. Yunusa, I. Abubakar Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths species in cattle raised at Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria <p>Helminths are worm-like parasites that live in the gut of animals or humans that feed on the host to obtain nourishment and protection, sometimes causing morbidity and mortality if not treated. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminths Species in Cattle at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Faecal sedimentation methods were carried out to detect the presence of parasitic infections. Faecal egg and oocyst counts were carried out using the McMaster technique. A total of 72 (100%) fecal samples consisting of 52 (72.2%) females and 20 (27.80%) males were examined. McMaster has an overall prevalence of 40(55.5%), and 2 (2.8%) Strongyloides and Monienzia sp. while sedimentation techniques show the prevalence of 38(52.8%) and 1(1.4%) Paramphistomium sp. Trichuris and Haemonchus sp. No significant differences (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) in the occurrence of parasitic helminths in the samples with respect to locations and techniques used. Fecal samples were examined among the sexes, females had 2(10.0%) and age group &gt;18 years with 2(3.2%) co-infected with helminths. Across the breed, white Fulani had 2(3.2%) mixed infections compared to other breeds. The study revealed that GIT parasitic helminths infections prevalence is common among white Fulani cattle probably due to open grazing and scavenging. There is a need to sensitize nomads on deworming to mitigate the GIT infections and improve animal health status.</p> J. Jonathan, O. E. Opeyemi, W. B. Emmanuel Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fatty acid, amino acid composition and effects of soaking temperatures on physicochemical qualities of <i>Hibiscus cannabinus</i> seed extract <p>Kenaf is a multipurpose herbaceous plant of economic significance. This study analysed the effects of different soaking temperatures of kenaf seed on the physicochemical qualities of the extracts. Kenaf seed extracts were extracted separately from kenaf seed soaked at temperatures of 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 ˚C at their respective optimum soaking time of 10.27, 7.00, 5.00, 3.50 and 2.67 h. The extraction yield, proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors, colour profile and thermal stability of the extracts obtained at the different soaking temperatures and time were analysed and compared. Also, the fatty acids and amino acids compositions of kenaf seed meal and the extract were determined and compared. The extraction yield of the extracts significantly increased as the soaking temperatures of the seed increase from 25-65 ˚C. The different soaking temperatures had no significant effects on the proximate composition of the extracts except for the ash content which decreased as the soaking temperature of the seed increases. However, the soaking temperatures significantly affected the colour profile of the extracts. Soaking of kenaf seed significantly reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity, tannic and phytic acid of the extracts. This study also found that both the kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed extract oil were rich source of hexadecenoic acid (26.71 and 26.11 %), 9-octadecenoic acid (33.80 and 40.41 %) and 9,12-octadecadienic acid (30.59 and 28.62 %), respectively. Additionally, the total essential amino acids of the kenaf seed (462.80 mg/g) and freeze-dried kenaf seed extract (487.44 mg/g) were not significantly different. Soaking of kenaf seed at 25, 45 and 65 ˚C and their respective optimum soaking time of 10.27, 5.00 and 2.67 h are recommended for the extraction of kenaf seed extract.</p> S. G. Ibrahim, W. Z. W. Ibadullah, N. Saari, R. Karim Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Heavy metal concentration in blood and selected tissues of cat fish from Kwalkwalawa River, Sokoto <p>Fish is a cheap source of omega- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans. However, the presence of toxic heavy metals in water can be detrimental to both fish and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in the liver, kidney and gills of cat fish obtained from Kwalkwalawa River, Sokoto. Water, sediments, blood and tissue samples of (10) cat fish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>) species caught from Kwalkwalawa river were analysed quantitatively for the presence of zinc, copper, lead, chromium and cadmium using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals was estimated in these organs. Results showed that lead concentrations in the water was significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) compared to the sediment sample. Also, copper and lead accumulated most in the liver and kidney when compared with that observed for the gills. In conclusion, lead and cadmium levels in the samples were above WHO certified limits hence the concentration of metals in this water should be monitored periodically.</p> S. B. Idris, M. K. Shitnan, F. Bello, A. A. Sani, A. A. Ebbo, A. A. Raji Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Field and petrographic studies of Basement Complex rocks in Saigbe and Environs, North-Central, Nigeria <p>Geological mapping and petrographic studies of rocks provide useful information on texture and mineralogical composition of rocks which can be used in the exploration and exploitation of any associated mineralization. However, few regional studies have been conducted in Minna and environs. Here, preliminary field mapping and petrography of out crops in Saigbe environ were conducted to determine their identification, structural and mineralogical composition. Twenty-one rock samples were collected, eight of which were used for thin section analysis. Joint directions were measured and plotted on rose diagram. Results show that Saigbe is underlain by schist, amphibolite and granite with minor pegmatite intrusions. Joints, faults, fold and foliations constitute main structures. Joints in the schists trend NE-SW, while those in the granites trend NW-SE, suggesting different episodes of emplacement for both rocks. Petrography revealed that the schists comprised quartz, biotite, muscovite, plagioclase and opaque mineral, while the amphibolites are composed largely of quartz, hornblende, plagioclase feldspar and opaque minerals. The granites are composed of quartz, microcline, plagioclase feldspar, muscovite and opaque minerals. The pegmatite dykes in the granites comprised quartz, plagioclase feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, muscovite and gemstones, hence interpreted as product of residual melt. The pegmatites make interesting target for mineral exploration.</p> Y.A. Omanayin, M. Lawal, I.B. Bolaji, A. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Technical efficiency of small-scale production of date palm in Jigawa State <p>This study was conducted to analyse the technical efficiency of small-scale date palm farmers in Jigawa state, Nigeria. A sample size of 113 small scale date palm farmers was selected for the study using random sampling technique. The technical efficiency for small- scale date palm production was determined using stochastic frontier production function. While age was identified as the major contributor to the technical inefficiency, the study however revealed the mean technical efficiency is 78% in small scale date palm production which implies a 22% potential for the least technically efficient small-scale date palm farmer to increase date palm production with the current level of resources and technology. It was concluded that small scale date palm production is technically efficient in the study area, although age is the major contributing factor of the technical inefficiency in date palm production.</p> M. U. Muhammad, E.S. Esheya, S. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological characterization of selected cowpea [<i>Vigna unguiculata</i> (L.) Walp.] accessions from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria <p>Characterization of available germplasm is a necessary step to facilitate breeding programs worldwide. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize twenty accessions of Cowpea from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria. The accessions were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The morphological characters of seedlings were assessed following the International Board for Plant Genetic Resource cowpea descriptor list (IBPGR) and twenty-nine descriptors were used. Eighteen accessions showed semi-erect habits while two showed erect plant growth habits. The number of Days to first flowering among the selected accessions was 35-45 while the number of days to first pod was 37-47. Peduncle length was observed to be 12-35 cm, Pod length was 10.61-22.81 cm while seed length was 6.10-9.93 cm among sampled accessions. Morphological assessment of the accessions showed a dendogram of three clusters with six (A), nine (B) and four (C) accessions respectively. One accession TVu-12501 formed an outgroup owing to the uniqueness of its terminal petiole length. The cluster analysis substantiated the existence of diversity among the twenty accessions for the morphological traits studied and posits TVu-12501 accession as a morphologically superior accession to be studied further for selection in breeding programmes in the West African region.</p> T.O. Onuminya, M.A. Ogunkanmi, L.A. Ogunkanmi Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of <i>Syzygium guineense</i> and <i>Borassus aethiopum</i> leaves on protein glycation and oxidative stress suppression <p>The quest for discovery of a new antiglycation and antioxidant drug still remains a major priority in medicine and related clinical sectors. Against this backdrop, the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of ethylacetate, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of <em>Syzygium guineense </em>(SG) and <em>Borassus aethiopum </em>(BA) leaves including their phytochemical compositions were evaluated in an <em>in vitro </em>trial. DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, antiglycation activity and qualitative phytochemical screening <em>in vitro </em>assay were employed respectively. Our result revealed that triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids were detected in the plants leaves extracts. The extracts demonstrated a significantly (<em>p &lt; </em>0.05) low antioxidant and antiglycation activities except the aqueous extract of BA leaves, which displayed a significantly (<em>p &lt; </em>0.05) high antiglycation ability. Overall, data from the current study showed that ethylacetate, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plants leaves have potential effect towards lowering oxidative stress and protein glycation and thus should be exploited for further research in the area of drug discovery.</p> H.S. Usman, R. Musa, M.A. Usman, S.M. Hassan, F.E. Audu, A.B. Sallau Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of radiation safety levels in the monitor rooms of selected diagnostic centres in Lagos State using thermoluminescent dosimeter <p>The hazard of exposure to ionizing radiation at low doses has been scientifically proven to be possible for cancer and non-cancer diseases. International and national regulatory bodies have recommended dose limits for occupationally exposed workers to ionizing radiation and the general public. The objective of this study was to assess the radiation safety levels in monitor rooms of x-ray diagnostic radiology facilities. Sixty monitored rooms in twenty radio diagnostic centers were visited. Three tissue-equivalent thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-100 (LiF: Mg. Ti)) chips were placed in strategic places a few centimeters from the viewing glass in the monitored rooms for two weeks. The TLDs were analyzed using the RADOS RE 2000 TLD reader. Questionnaires were also distributed to ascertain compliance with the basic principles of radiation protection. The average personnel dose equivalents in the monitored rooms of conventional x-rays, mammography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopy were 0.33, 0.32, 0.28, and 0.34 mSv/year, respectively. The status of the radiation safety levels in the selected monitored rooms is satisfactory because the values obtained were below the international recommended dose limit of 50 mSv in a single year for occupationally exposed radiation workers.</p> A. Z. Ibitoye, E. M. Onah, M. B. Adedokun, I. K. Ogungbemi Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of geophysical parameters for groundwater productivity in the Commune of Jesse, Delta State Nigeria <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Aquifer geohydraulic properties in Jesse were studied by the application of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and pumping test. The VES data was collected using ABEM SAS 1000 Terrameter and results processed using manual matching of curves and computer iteration, and interpreted in the forms of geologic models and geoelectric layers. The aquiferous unit was found at a depth of 5.30 m to 30.30 m with a range of resistivity from 87.30 Ω-m to 1945.40 Ω-m. Dar-Zarrouk parameters estimation and results of borehole pumping test produced the aquifer hydraulic parameters. The hydraulic conductivity values range from8.171 - 8.279 m/day, transmissivity from 43.8770 - 517.7480 m<sup>2</sup>/day, and formation factor from 0.369 - 8.501. These results are indications of a prolific and high yielding aquifer capable of withstanding long duration of pumping. Results of groundwater electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids ranged from 11.65 - 198.80 μs/cm, and 29.40 - 35.40 mg/dm<sup>3</sup> respectively, signifying very moderate mineralization of the groundwater. The average electrical conductivity of 68.04 μS /cm and total dissolved solids of 32.58 mg/L were lesser than the acceptable limits of the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) of 1000 μS/cm and 500 mg/L respectively. This study affirmed that the aquifer in Jesse is suitable for groundwater exploitation for local and regional purposes.</p> M. O. Ofomola, E. O. Abriku, O. Anomohanran, P. O. Otheremu, B. S. Utieyin Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Activity-based investigation of the possible anti-diabetic potentials of some Nigerian medicinal plants <p>A major therapeutic approach presently used in managing Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is the use of a-glucosidase and a -amylase inhibitors. Hence the growing attention in the quest for medicinal plants of natural sources with inhibitory potentials on these enzymes. This study was done, therefore, to determine the inhibitory potentials of the different parts of three medicinal plants; <em>Nigella sativum </em>(seeds), <em>Spondias mombin </em>(leaves and stem bark), and <em>Picralima nitida </em>(seeds and mesocarp) on a-amylase and a- glucosidase as well as to determine inhibition kinetics. The <em>in vitro </em>a-amylase and a-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the plant extract were assessed using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) and p-nitro-phenyl-a-D glucopyranoside (p-NPG) respectively. The results indicated that all plant extracts assayed exhibited better a- glucosidase inhibitory effects than the reference drug(acarbose), as indicated by the higher IC<sub>50</sub> (76.10 μg/mL) value of the reference drug, whereas the n-hexane extract of <em>N</em>. <em>sativum </em>seeds gave the best a-amylase effect (IC<sub>50</sub> = 35.83 μg/mL). All the extracts exhibited an “uncompetitive” type of inhibition pattern. Our findings hence support the use of these plants in the management of diabetic conditions.</p> N. Eluehike, K. C. Agu, O. Ikponmwosa-Eweka, A.I. Eromosele, J. Olufakunye Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Screening for antibacterial properties of some traditional medicinal plants in Kebbi State, Nigeria <p>Infections caused by bacteria continue to be a major threat to public health. The impact of this is especially alarming in developing countries due to the relative shortages of medicines and the emergence of widespread drug resistance. This has led to the search for new antimicrobial agents mainly among plant extracts. As part of an ongoing research to isolate and purify antibacterial compounds from the extract of traditionally used medicinal plants from Kebbi State, Nigeria, some selected plants were screened for their antibacterial potentials. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out using standard methods. The bioactivity (antibacterial) test was done using agar well diffusion method, while MIC and MBC were tested using broth dilution method. The results for the phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and terpenoids in the selected plants extracts. The results for the antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of the selected plants showed varying degree of antibacterial activities against selected bacterial isolates. However, the stem bark extract of <em>Acacia nilotica </em>showed relatively high zone of inhibition (mm), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The extract was found to inhibit the growth of most of the tested bacterial isolates comprising of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. These findings support previous reports on the antimicrobial activity of this plant. The result of the present study signifies the potential of <em>Acacia nilotica </em>stem bark as a source of therapeutic agents, which may provide leads in the ongoing search for antibacterial agents from plants.</p> A. Abdulhamid, I.M. Fakai, I. Sani, A.I. Bagudo, A. Hamisu Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000