Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas <p>The object of the Journal is the advancement of science in all its aspects of theory, principles, methodology and practice, with emphasize on areas of common interest to all scientists.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://www.scopemed.org/?jid=97" href="http://www.scopemed.org/?jid=97" target="_blank">http://www.scopemed.org/?jid=97</a></p> en-US Copyright of published material belongs to the journal njbas@udusok.edu.ng (Prof. Yusuf Saidu) yusdab@yahoo.com (Dr Yusuf Saidu) Wed, 27 May 2020 11:43:56 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Assessment of Land Use and Vegetative Cover in Kano Metropolis (from 1975-2015) Employing GIS and Remote Sensing Technology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196251 <p>This study applied GIS and remote sensing technology to assess agricultural land use and vegetative cover in Kano Metropolis. It specifically examined the intensity of land use for agricultural and non agricultural purpose from 1975 – 2015. Images (1975, 1995 and 2015), landsat MSS/TM, landsat 8, scene of path 188 and 052 were downloaded for the study. Bonds for these imported scenes were processed using ENVI 5.0 version. The result indicated five classified features-settlement, farmland, water body, vegetation and bare land. The finding revealed an increase in settlement, vegetation and bare land between 1995 and 2015, however, farmland decreased in 2015. Indicatively, higher percentage of land use for non agricultural purposes was observed in recent time. Conclusively, there is need to accord surveying the rightful place and priority in agricultural planning and development if Nigeria is to be self food sufficient.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Geographic Information System, Agriculture, Remote sensing, Land use, Land cover</p> M. Haruna, M.K. Ibrahim, U.M. Shaibu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196251 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison Of Three Numerical Methods For Estimating Weibull Parameters Using Weibull Distribution Model In Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196252 <p>There is a crucial need in Nigeria to enhance the development of wind technology in order to boost our energy supply. Adequate knowledge about the wind speed distribution becomes very essential in the establishment of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). Weibull Probability Density Function (PDF) with two parameters is widely accepted and is commonly used for modelling, characterizing and predicting wind resource and wind power, as well as assessing optimum performance of WECS. Therefore, it is paramount to precisely estimate the scale and shape parameters for all regions or sites of interest. Here, wind data from year 2000 to 2010 for four different locations (Port Harcourt, Ikeja, Kano and Jos) were analysed and the Weibull parameters was determined. The three methods employed are Mean Standard Deviation Method (MSDM), Energy Pattern Factor Method (EPFM) and Method of Moments (MOM) for estimating Weibull parameters. The method that gave the most accurate estimation of the wind speed was MSDM method, while Energy Pattern Factor Method (EPFM) is the most reliable and consistent method for estimating probability density function of wind.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Weibull Distribution, Method of Moment, Mean Standard Deviation Method, Energy Pattern Method</p> J.A. Oyewole, F.O. Aweda, D. Oni Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196252 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Characterization of Starch-Graft-Acrylamide Hydrogel for Oral Drug Delivery https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196253 <p>In this research, starch was extracted from fresh sweet potato and was used to prepare starch-g-acrylamide hydrogel using free radical polymerization method with potassium per sulphate and N’N-Methylene bisacrylamide as initiator and cross-linker, respectively. The swelling capacity and pH sensitivity of the synthesized hydrogel were investigated in solutions of various pH (1-12). The drug loading and release experiment was also carried out using promethazine (PMZ) as the model drug at 25oC and 37oC, respectively while the release study was carried out in an enzyme-free simulated gastric intestinal fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The result showed a 905% swelling at pH 11, suggesting increased swelling capacity at higher pH values. Drug loading result indicated 99% of the drug was entrapped by the hydrogel as confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. SIF and SGF Simulation indicated a 24% and 9% drug release for the first ten hours. At the end of 48 hours the release was 96% and 89%, respectively indicating the hydrogel released more promethazine in SIF than in SGF. The results obtained in this work suggest that starch-graft-acrylamide hydrogel is a potential vehicle for oral drug delivery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Starch, Acrylamide, Hydrogel, Drug delivery.</p> H. Musa, Y. Musa, M. Suleiman Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196253 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Bayesian Approach for Validation of Election Results https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196254 <p>Election process and results in many countries have resulted in both political and economic instability of that country. Fair and credible election process and results must be evidence-based and statistical proven. This study employed a Bayesian procedure for the validation of election results. Based on Nigerian 2011 and 2015 presidential election results, Bayesian credible intervals were obtained to assess the credibility of Nigeria presidential election results. The study explores Bayesian methods using a Bayesian model called beta-binomial conjugate model to compute posterior probability of electoral votes cast and confirm if these votes are within Bayesian credible intervals. The results obtained showed that election outcomes for the two major political parties in Nigeria 2011 presidential election are not within Bayesian credible bounds while 2015 presidential election results are within computed Bayesian credible bounds. Also, in contrast to frequentist approach, applied Bayesian methodology exhibited smaller variance which is an indication that Bayesian approach is more efficient. Thus, for election to be fair, credible and acceptable by the electorates, Bayesian approach can be used to validate electoral process and results.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bayesian Methods, Bayesian Credible Intervals, Beta-Binomial Model, Empirical Bayes, Nigeria Presidential Elections.</p> R.K. Ogundeji, J.N. Onyeka-Ubaka Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196254 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-nutritional Composition of Honey Samples from Four Northern States of Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196255 <p>Honey is sought globally for nutritional and therapeutic purposes because of the several chemical constituents that are abound in it. Some of these chemicals such as the anti-nutrients are defensive metabolic byproducts of plants from which bees obtained the nectars for honey production. This study was undertaken to determine the cyanide, oxalate, phytate, tannin and saponin compositions of honey samples from four North Central States of Nigeria. Anti-nutrients were analyzed following the Standards of Association of Official Analytical Chemists protocol for anti-nutrient compositions. Data obtained were compared using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the means were separated using Fischer’s Least Significance Difference (LSD). The results showed that cyanide, phytate and tannin were present in all the four honey samples while oxalate and saponin were only present in two of the honey samples, though at varying concentrations each of them. All anti-nutrient except cyanide are within tolerable limit for human consumption. There were significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in each of the anti-nutrient’s concentrations across the honey samples. The study showed that location and geographical region significantly influence honey’s anti-nutrient compositions as well as their concentrations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Honey, Anti-nutrients, Tannin, Saponin, Cyanide, Oxalate, Phytate.</p> O.B. Oriolowo, O.J. John, D.S. Abubakar, T.M. Jonah, D. Ismaila Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196255 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antinociceptive Effect of the Ethanol Leaf Extract of <i>Balanites aegyptiaca</i> Linn in Albino Rats https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196256 <p><em>Balanites aegyptiaca </em>is a medicinal plant that has been used in a variety of folk medicines in India and Africa for the treatment of different ailments such as syphilis, jaundice, liver and spleen problems, epilepsy, yellow fever. This research aimed at investigating the phyt ochemical constituents, acute toxicity, anti inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of <em>Balanites aegyptiaca</em> (EEBA) leaves. The plant material was extracted using ethanol as solvent. The dried ethanol extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals; Acute toxicity (LD50) was&nbsp; determined using Lorke’s method while anti inflammatory and antinociceptive activities were evaluated using hot plate and tail immersion methods in albino rats. Results of the study revealed that phyto chemical constituents such as flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponins and glycosides were found in the EEBA, intraperitoneal LD 50 of 2154 mg/kg shows the substance is non toxic. The EEBA produced significant (p &lt;0.05) and dose dependent anti inflammatory and a ntinociceptive activities at all test doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg). The presence of the phytochemicals detected might be responsible for the demonstrated anti inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in the plant extract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Phytochemical, Anti inflammatory, Antinociceptive , <em>Balanites aegyptiaca</em> </p> O.A. Sodipo, J. Yakubu, A.M. Dungus, B. Wampana Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196256 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of <i>Terminalia catappa</i> Leaves Extract on Corrosion of Mild Steel using Response Surface Methodology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196257 <p>Effect of <em>Terminalia catappa</em> leaves (TCL) extract in inhibiting corrosion of mild steel was investigated. In order to obtain the maximum inhibition efficiency, optimization of the process variables affecting corrosion of mild steel was carried out using the Box – Behnken Design plan and desirability function of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The three parameters - varied include; TCL concentration (inhibitor), immersion time, and temperature and there effects in corrosion inhibition were established. The optimum conditions predicted from the quadratic model were inhibitor’s concentratrion (0.39 g/l), exposure time (8.68 hours), and temperature (36.06 <sup>o</sup>C) with the inhibition efficiency of 91.95 %. The data fitted well to the quadratic model which was validated. Adsorption of the extract’s component on the mild steel was responsible for the inhibitory effect of the TCL extract.The results showed that 97.92% of the total variation in the inhibition efficiency of TCL can be connected to the variables studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Mild steel, acid, <em>Terminalia catappa</em>, Corrosion, Response surface methodology (RSM).</p> A.O. Okewale, O.A. Adesina, B.H. Akpeji Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196257 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Screening and Selection of <i>Cryptococcus Neoformans</i> Using Urease Activity and Temperature Range https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196258 <p>Pigeon dropping has been known to be a reservoir for <em>Cryptococcus neoformans</em>. In this research, attempt has been made to screen and select for this life threatening organism using temperature (thermotolerance) and urease test sequentially. Fourteen (14) samples from pigeon droppings were collected from three markets in Benin City. Isolates obtained from these samples were subjected to urease and temperature test. The results showed that 10 isolates that were positive for temperature were equally positive for the urease tests, with highest growth rate 37°C recorded for samples obtained from New Benin (NB3). This experiment demonstrates the possibility of isolating <em>C. neoformans</em> at minimum temperature of 37°C thermotolerance and urease activity tests. Pathogenicity studies are recommended to further understand host – pathogen relationships.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Cryptococcus neoformans</em>, Pathogenic, Urease, Thermotolerance, Isolates</p> E.A. Oghomwenakhin, L. Eboigbe Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196258 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Structure and Efficiency of Cassava Marketing in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196259 <p>The study examined the structure and marketing efficiency of cassava in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Primary data were obtained using structured questionnaires and multistage sampling method was employed to select 183 respondents comprising 93 farmers and 90 marketers. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and Gini Coefficient were used to measure the degree of market concentration and the nature of competition in the market. The Herfindahl-Hirschman indices were 0.323, 0.346, and 0.316 for farmers, wholesalers, and retailers, respectively, suggesting that the market was uncompetitive at all levels. The computed values of Gini coefficient for cassava farmers, wholesalers, and retailers were 0.532, 0.465, and 0.569, respectively, indicating uneven distribution of income and uncompetitive market conditions. Two channels of cassava marketing were identified and the study demonstrates that the farmer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer channel had higher marketing efficiency and thus provides marketers with better opportunities for making more profits. Based on the findings, it is recommended that micro credit facilities should be made accessible to market actors to encourage investment and improve efficiency in cassava marketing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cassava, marketing efficiency, Ekiti, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Gini Coefficient</p> H. Egwuma, A.E. Muhammed, O.A. Ojeleye, Y.U. Oladimeji, A.A. Hassan Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196259 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Modified Boost-Boost High Gain DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Based Off- Grid Applications https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196260 <p>This study presents a single switch non-isolated DC-DC converter good for photovoltaic (PV) applications. The proposed topology was constructed using two classical DC-DC boost converters by arranging them in cascade for providing high voltage gain, low duty-cycle, less stress across the semiconductor devices, less size, and low cost. The operating principle and steady-state analysis of an individual component of the proposed topology in continuous conduction mode (CCM) are discussed and the results obtained improved the ones in literatures. The prototype of 120 V DC output voltage with 9 V DC input voltage is implemented and the result obtained validate the simulated result of the proposed converter.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: DC-DC converter, Photovoltaic (PV), Single switch, High gain, Duty-cycle.</p> H. Isah, Y.M. Sagagi, A. Bako Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196260 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Malaria in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196261 <p>Malaria has been the focus of multiple declarations, and a range of targets has been set since the beginning of the millennium. Poor people are at increased risk of both becoming infected with malaria as well as becoming infected more frequently. Malaria is also a major contributor to deaths among hospital inpatients in Africa. The purpose of this research is to employ geospatial techniques to map out areas that are vulnerable to malaria breeding vectors using weighted multi-criteria decision analysis to determine the risk levels within the study area and to determine the factors influencing the population at risk of malaria with a view to providing an effective malaria management. Malaria incidence records were used to determine the incidence rate of the disease from 2014 – 2016 and the rate of severity and total confirmed cases of the disease occurrence during the study period. Malaria risk map, which was produced through the integration of malaria hazard map, vulnerability map and elements at risk map, was used to determine the most susceptible areas to malaria attacks in the study area. The results showed about 87% of the entire study area being at high risk of malaria attack. It is observed that there is an increasing trend of malaria cases in the study area despite its variability over the years. It can be concluded that the study area as a whole is prone to malaria infestation and this requires immense attention in order to mitigate the scourge of the disease and its vector. It will be cost effective if GIS and remote sensing could be integrated in monitoring and early warning system in the ongoing malaria control and prevention activities especially in Nassarawa and Kumbotso local government areas that have a very high risk of malaria attacks. There is also the need to research more on the relationship between malaria prevalence and some key socio-anthropogenic factors such as literacy level, income level, HIV status, pregnancy status and meteorological factors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Malaria Risk, Vulnerability, Hazard, Weighted multi-criteria decision analysis.</p> Z.H. Madobi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196261 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Expression of Wild-Type p53 by Curcumin, Alpinetin and Flavokawain B in Colorectal Cancer cells Expressing R273H Mutant p53 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196262 <p>A mutation in p53 is frequently reported in nearly 50% of all of human cancers arising from DNA-binding core domain of p53. DNA-contact mutant R273H rendered p53 at dysfunctional state due to the substitution of single residue Arg273 for His273. Here, natural bioactive compounds curcumin, alpinetin and flavokawain B were investigated for possible stabilisation of wild-type p53 expression in vitro using HT-29 cells harbouring R273H rendered p53. Accordingly, all the bioactive compounds were able to induce the expression of wild-type p53 both at the levels of gene and protein expression. A dose-dependent induction of p53 was evident at 12.5, 25 and 50 μM concentration. The present study has shown that the bioactive compounds may have restored the wild-type p53 functional activity in tumour cells expressing R273H mutant p53.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Curcumin, Alpinetin, Flavokawain B, p53, R273H</p> I. Malami, A. Muhammad, I.B. Abubakar, A.M. Alhassan Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196262 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Growth and Fruit Quality of Cucumber (<i>Cucumis sativus L.</i>) Irrigated with African Catfish Cultured Wastewater https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196263 <p>This paper reports findings of an experiment carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the growth and fruits quality of cucumber grown in plots irrigated with African catfish cultured wastewater compared with those irrigated with ordinary well water. Six circular African catfish culture tanks and six cucumber planter boxes were used for this experiment, three each for the fish cum cucumber integrated system and the control system of cucumber irrigated with ordinary well water. The results of the research indicated that fish cultured wastewater had a better influence on the plant height, the number, length, and diameterof leaves, as well as the diameter and length of the fruits. Six experts, each independently assessed fruits from the two treatments for juiciness, sweetness, taste and crispiness. The fruits were assessed by experts who though were aware of the purpose of the evaluation, did not know the identity of fruits they were assessing. The fish effluent fertigated cucumber fruits had a higher mean score in juiciness, sweetness, taste and crispiness. Wastewater from the African catfish production system thus exhibits the potential for reuse in the production of cucumber plants as it had no negative effect on the organoleptic quality of cucumber fruit produced.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Cucumis sativus</em>, Fish, Growth, Yield, Wastewater.</p> A.O. Akinwole, A.B. Dauda, E.B. Oyewole Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196263 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation of Epicatechin from the Stem Bark of <i>Neocarya macrophylla</i> (Sabine) Prance (Chrysobalanaceae) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196264 <p><em>Neocarya macrophylla</em> has a wide range of medicinal uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize compound from the stem bark of the plant. (-)-Epicatechin (a flavan-3-ol) was isolated from the ethylacetate soluble fraction of the methanol stem bark extract of the plant using a combination of silica gel and sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The structure of the compound as (-)-epicatechin was confirmed on the basis of chemical test, 1D- &amp; 2D-NMR spectroscopy and comparison with existing data in literature. This is the first report of isolation of epicatechin from the stem bark of the plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Neocarya macrophylla</em>, stem bark, (-)-Epicatechin, NMR analysis</p> A.J. Yusuf, M.I. Abdullahi, A.M. Musa, A.K. Haruna, V. Mzozoyana, A. Sanusi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196264 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ex-Vivo Uterine Activity of Theobroma Cacao (Malvaceae) Aqueous Seed Extract and <i>Cymbopogon Citratus</i> (Poaceae) Aqueous Leaf Extract - A Preliminary Investigation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196265 <p>There is a need to develop new drugs from natural products for the safe and effective management of female reproductive disorders. This research was therefore aimed at the investigation of two commonly consumed natural products on uterine function. The ex vivo uterine activity of <em>Theobroma cacao</em> aqueous seed extract and <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em> aqueous leaf extract was investigated on non pregnant mouse uteri. The effect of <em>T. cacao</em> (0.1 mg/mL) and <em>C. citratus</em> (0.1 mg/mL) on spontaneous uterine contractility and in the presence of oxytocin (11.54 nM) was examined. This study showed that <em>T. cacao</em> elicited a significant increase (p &lt; 0.05) in the amplitude of spontaneous uterine contractions with no significant ch ange in the frequency, which was similarly observed with<em> C. citratus</em> leaf extract. An increase in amplitude and frequency of oxytocin induced uterine&nbsp; contractions was observed in the presence of <em>T. cacao</em> while with <em>C. citratus</em> there was a significant (p&lt; 0.05) reduction in amplitude and non significant reduction in frequency of oxytocin induced uterine contractions. The uterotonic effect of both extracts in the absence of agonists observed maybe as a result of constituents with agonistic activity on intra cellular calcium. This study has shown that <em>T. cacao</em> and <em>C. citratus</em> could stimulate uterine activity and may therefore be useful in the management of uterine contractility disorders.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong> : <em>Theobromacacao Cymbopogoncitratus</em> , uterus, spontaneous contractions </p> E.E. Bafor, G.U. Omogiade Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196265 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Shell Growth Pattern and Percentage Flesh Yield of the West African Clam, <i>Galatea paradoxa</i> (Born, 1778) from Itu Creek, Niger Delta Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196266 <p>Shell Morphometry is a fundamental tool for the evaluation of phenotypic stocks. The shell growth pattern and percentage flesh yield of <em>Galatea paradoxa</em> from Itu Creek in Niger Delta were investigated using standard morphometric methods. The mean in centimeter (cm) of 9.71±0.09, 35.02±0.22, 23.21±0.12, 37.11±0.25, 29.31±0.16 and 7.32±0.04 were recorded for shell length, maximum width, maximum height, nacre length, nacre width and hinge length respectively. Mean live weight of 115.70±1.09 g, mean flesh weight of 37.91 ± 0.23g and mean shell weight of 66.82±0.97 g were recorded for this species. <em>Galatea paradoxa</em> showed negative allometric growth (b &lt; 3) while the correlation coefficients (r) in all the shell variables were far below „1‟, indicating a week correlation between the parameters. About 19% of the live weight of the clam is made up of flesh by weight.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bivalve, Clam, Shell dimension, Niger Delta.</p> V.F. Akinjogunla, R.O. Moruf Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196266 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Modelling Subsidy as a Cooperative Advertising Channel Coordination Mechanism https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196268 <p>This work considers the use of subsidy as channel coordination strategy in vertical cooperative advertising in which the manufacturer is the Stackelberg game leader and the retailer is the follower. While the retailer is directly involved in advertising, the manufacturer is indirectly involved through the provision of subsidy to aid the retailer in advertising the product. The work models the demand function using a multiplicative advertising-price-demand function, and obtains the players’ prices, the retail advertising effort, the manufacturer’s subsidy rate and the payoffs. The work observes that with increasing subsidy, the manufacturer’s price margin increases while that of the retailer reduces and eventual becomes zero with total subsidy. However, the manufacturer should not totally subsidise retail advertising since it would be counterproductive for him, while at the same time would lead to very large retail payoff. Thus with appropriate subsidy strategy, the prices and the payoffs, and eventually the entire channel can be coordinated.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Channel coordination, Vertical cooperative advertising, Stackelberg game, Advertising price-demand function, Subsidy rate.</p> P.E. Ezimadu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196268 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Brine Shrimp Cytotoxic and <i>Lemna minor</i> Phytotoxic Evaluations of the Methanol Extracts of the Leaves, Stem and Root Barks of <i>Sacrocephalus latifolius</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196269 <p>This work was aimed at evaluating the probable toxicity of the methanol extract of the leaf, stem bark and root of Sacrocephalus latifolius on Artemia nauplii and fronds of Lemna minor. The powder samples of the three morphological parts were independently extracted with soxhlet extractor apparatus using 95% methanol and were dried with aid of ritory evaporator at 40ºC. The extracts were subjected to biological activities involving brine shrimp cytotoxicity and Lemna minor test for phytotoxicity at 10-100 μg /mL respectively. The experiment was done in replicates of three. Concentration-dependent cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities were recorded for the extracts. The results revealed that extract of the leaves demonstrated significant cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities over the other parts of the plant. At 10μg/mL, the three extracts recorded little or no cytotoxic activity. However, at the maximum concentration of 1000 μg /mL, cytotoxicities of 66.67 and 3.33% were recorded for extracts of the leaf and root bark respectively, while the extract of the stem bark showed no activity. However, the LC<sub>50</sub> of the leaf was 467.74μg /mL, and that of the other extracts were observed to be ˃1000μg /mL. The results for phytotoxicity followed a similar trend with the extracts of the leaf and root bark recording 52.96 and 23.33 % phytotoxicities respectively at 1000 μg /mL. Having shown a higher activity over the other extracts, the leaf extract of S. latifolius could serves as a natural alternative pesticide and weedicide.</p> <p><strong> Keywords</strong>: <em>Sacrocephalus latifolius,</em> phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, fronds, Artemia nauplii, Lemna minor</p> E. O. Ikpefan Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196269 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Sickle Cell Disease among Blacks; the Possible Pivotal Role of Precision Medicine: A Focused Review on Management of Pain https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196270 <p>Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) occurs commonly in sub- Saharan African region. For instance, out of the estimated 305,800 babies born annually with SCD worldwide about 75% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Vasoocclusive painful crisis is the prototype clinical event among SCD patients with nearly all SCD persons experiencing the episode during their lifetime. Additionally, acute vasooculusive pain crises may eventually progressed to chronic pain, resulting in poor quality of life associated with other morbidities, including anxiety, depression and dependence on pain medications. Transformation and technological development that brought about new clinical approaches and treatments have increased rates of survival in patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). However, the overall life expectancy of such patients remains shorter than other normal populations. Therefore, management of pain should be guided by an individualized précised prescribing and monitoring protocol. To this end, the concept of precision medicine that is predicated on using practical application of human genomics provide an evolving set of translational research goals in the management of pain in sickle cell disease. This review tend to shed light on this new concept, hoping that the review will facilitate improved and more accessible care for all patients leaving with sickle cell disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Sickle cell disease, Precision medicine, Pain management, Sickle cell crisis, Hydroxyurea.</p> M.A. Ndakotsu, S.A. Balarabe Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196270 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Methanol Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Seed in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196271 <p>This study investigated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of the oral administration of methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) of the methanol extract of <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> seed were administered daily to two groups of diabetic rats for a period of two weeks. Metformin (250 mg/kg) was given as the reference standard drug. Phytochemical, acute toxicity, fasting blood glucose, body weight, cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins levels were determined using standard methods. Acute toxicity of methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. There was an initial decrease in the body weight of the experimental animals after induction of diabetes which increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) by the second week of treatment. The fasting blood glucose levels of the treated diabetic rats were significantly decreased at the second week of treatment with the group that received 400 mg/kg of extract recording the lowest fasting blood glucose level. The cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoproteins levels of the diabetic treated rats were significantly reduced while the high density lipoproteins level significantly increased. It can therefore be concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa seed has the ability to lower blood sugar and maintain a stable lipid level.</p> <p><strong> Keywords</strong>: Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, Alloxan, Phytochemical,<em> Hibiscus sabdariffa</em></p> F.S. Adefolalu, J.S. Salawa, T.Y. Gara, A.N. Abubakar Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196271 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation of Quarcetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from the ethanol leaf extract of <i>Ficus sycomorous L.</i> (Moracaea) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196272 <p>Ficus sycomorous (Sycamore fig.) Family Moraceae is a plant used in African traditional medicine to treat mental illness, dysentery, cough, diarrhea, tuberculosis and Cancer. In this research work the leaf of the plant was subjected to cold maceration using 75% ethanol. The extract was fractionated using n- hexane, chloroform ethylacetate and n-butanol. The ethylacetate fraction was subjected to column chromatographic separation and purification. Quarcetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was isolated and the structure of the compound was elucidated by various spectral techniques such as1 and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: <em>Ficus sycomorous</em>, Moraceae, NMR, Quarcetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside</p> I. Atiku, U.U. Pateh, I. Iliya, A.M. Musa, M.I. Sule, Y.M. Sani, U.A. Hanwa, S.M. Abdullahi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196272 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Physiochemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metals from Tannery Effluents of Sharada and Challawa Industrial Areas of Kano State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196273 <p>The evaluation of physicochemical parameters and some heavy metals was carried out from six different tannery companies at the industrial areas of Challawa and Sharada, using standard procedures. Temperature, pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids(TDS) were determined using portable digital hand logging meter. The sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, arsenic contents were determined using UV Spectrophotometer, while chloride, dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) contents were determined using titrimetric method, and the heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean temperature of the water ranged from 36.00 – 39.670C, pH: 2.63 – 9.33, conductivity: 336.33 – 12351.67μS/cm, TDS: 166.73 – 6017.67mg/L, sulphate: 114.00 – 466.67mg/L, phosphate: 0.29 – 12.80mg/L, chloride: 58.66 – 1577.87mg/L, nitrate: 6.03 - 33.43mg/L, DO: 2.60 – 21.27mg/L and BOD: 0.77 – 12.33mg//L. Water samples from the tannery effluents contained higher levels for both physicochemical parameters and heavy metals in untreated than treated. Cadmium and nickel were within the WHO limit for both treated and untreated while arsenic was within the limit for only treated effluent. Chromium and lead were above the WHO limit for both treated and untreated effluent. The parameters studied showed variations within the tannery companies and this may affect the Challawariver where this effluent is discharged which can have long term health effect on the aquatic animals and humans that depend on the river water for their daily activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Dissolve Oxygen, Heavy Metals and Effluents</p> A.N. Shaibu, A.A. Audu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/article/view/196273 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000