Prevalence of significant bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic homozygous sickle cell disease patients in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria
Background: Patients with sickle cell disease have an amplified vulnerability to urinary tract infection, because of abnormally dilute and alkaline urine, which favors bacterial proliferation. This is due to altered blood flow in the renal vasculature, which causes papillary necrosis and loss of urinary concentrating and acidifying ability of the nephrons. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, but the prevalence in populations varies widely with age, gender, sexual activity and the presence of genitourinary abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria in symptomatic and asymptomatic sickle cell patients in Lagos.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross‑sectional study of patients attending the sickle cell clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. Single voided aseptically collected mid‑stream urine was obtained from each patient and all samples processed immediately, were sent for urinalysis and culture. Isolates were considered significant if there were ≥105 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) with two or less isolates, doubtful significance if ≤105 CFU/ml. Significant isolates were selected for identification. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill).
Results: A total of 100 consenting participants were recruited into the study. The mean age was: 23.42 ± 8.31 years and a range of 14‑50 years. Only 9% (9/100) had significant bacteriuria while 44.4% (4/9) participants who had significant bacteriuria were asymptomatic. Escherichia coli was isolated in 66.6% (6/9) participants who had significant bacteriuria while Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus (11.11%) was isolated in each of the remaining three participants.
Conclusions: Significant bacteriuria is found in only one‑tenth of sickle cell patients, nearly half of the participants who had significant growth had asymptomatic bacteriuria.
Key words: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, screening, sickle cell disease patients, significant bacteriuria