Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

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Urinary tract infection in febrile under five children in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

CA Ibeneme, T Oguonu, HU Okafor, AN Ikefuna, UC Ozumba


Background: Fever is a common symptom of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children less than 5 years of age. Little attention is however paid to UTI as a cause of fever in this age group.
Objective: The objective of the following study is to determine the  prevalence of UTI in febrile children less than 5 years of age and relate it to demographic and clinical characteristics.
Materials and Methods: Urine specimen of febrile children aged 1.59 months obtained by suprapubic or midstream methods were analyzed using standard laboratory methods of microscopy, culture and sensitivity.
Results: A total of 200 children were enrolled; nearly 56% (112/200) were males. The mean age of the subjects was 31.14 } 17.96 months. The prevalence of UTI was 11% and was significantly higher in females than in males (P = 0.049). Children below 12 months of age had a higher rate of UTI than those 12 months and above (P = 0.028). The common clinical features were vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, urinary frequency and urgency but none had a significant association with UTI.
Conclusion: UTI is common in febrile under.fives especially among females and infants. No association was apparent between the occurrence of UTI and clinical parameters.

Key words: Fever, under.five children, urinary tract infection
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